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8 Ita geniti itaque educati, cum primum adolevit aetas, nec in stabulis nec ad pecora segnes venando peragrare 9 saltus. Hinc robore corporibus animisque sumpto iam non feras tantum subsistere, sed in latrones praeda onustos impetus facere pastoribusque rapta dividere et cum his crescente in dies grege iuvenum seria ac iocos celebrare.

5 Iam tum in Palatio monte Lupercal hoc fuisse ludicrum ferunt et a Pallanteo, urbe Arcadica, Pallantium, dein

cal figure in most cases, but it is usually called hendiadys.

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8. ita geniti, etc.: such instances of noble birth and pastoral education were familiar to the minds of the ancients; see Cic. de Am. 19. 70.- stabulis, at home in the huts; ad pecora, in the pasture, when the flocks were driven out. - segnes: i.e. they were energetic and ambitious, as suited their birth.. venando: a still stronger indication that they were not mere shepherds, and at the same time a preparation for their higher destiny. - peragrare: notice that the historical infinitive is a tense of description, not of mere narration, to, began to, used to, etc.

proceeded

saltus, woods; properly the high mountain passes, gaps, generally lightly wooded, and used by the ancients for pasture land.

9. feras: i.e. especially savage and dangerous ones. — subsistere, face; i.e. fight with them and not run away. Cf. Romanum subsistere (withstand), IX. 31. 6.

latrones: i.e. gradually working up to the generous pursuits of war. -dividere: the royal genius of the youths comes out still more in the leadership which is here implied.— crescente: the increase of their numbers is correlative with the more organized character of their expedi

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5. Palatio: probably connected with palatum and meaning 'the round hill.' Still Pales, a god (or goddess) of shepherds, Palatua, perhaps the same divinity, and palea, chaff, are suspiciously near. It may be that the words all belong together through some more remote association. Lupercal: a very ancient festival was celebrated at the Palatine to the god Lupercus, identified with Faunus, originally, however, the defender of the flock against wolves (Lup-ercus, arceo). The regular name is, as usual, in the plural, for which Lupercal ludicrum is here substituted with a reference to iocos above. This god had a grotto called Lupercal (also the neuter adjective) near the Ficus Ruminalis; see 4. 5. The whole cult probably belongs to the early nomadic life of the Italians.

hoc, the present. - Pallanteo: of course, a later invention, but made to accord with the Evander story. The association was no doubt assisted by some likeness to the Greek Λύκαια, so called from Mount

Palatium montem appellatum. Ibi Euandrum, qui ex eo 2 genere Arcadum multis ante tempestatibus tenuerit loca, sollemne adlatum ex Arcadia instituisse, ut nudi iuvenes Lycaeum Pana venerantes per lusum atque lasciviam currerent, quem Romani deinde vocaverunt Inuum.

Huic deditis ludicro, cum sollemne notum esset, insi- 3 diatos ob iram praedae amissae latrones, cum Romulus vi se defendisset, Remum cepisse, captum regi Amulio tradidisse ultro accusantes. Crimini maxime dabant in 4 Numitoris agros ab iis impetum fieri, inde eos collecta iuvenum manu hostilem in modum praedas agere. Sic ad supplicium Numitori Remus deditur.

Iam inde ab initio Faustulo spes fuerat, regiam stir- 5 pem apud se educari; nam et expositos iussu regis infantes sciebat et tempus, quo ipse eos sustulisset, ad id

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Lycæus ('Wolf Mountain') in Arca-
dia, the birthplace of Pan. He again
is identified with Lupercus and with
Faunus as well; but he is properly a
god of fruitfulness of the flock; and
it is with this function that the Lu-
percalia had a special connection.
2. eo genere: i.e. from Pallan-
teum. - tempestatibus: properly,
seasons; here, simply time. - sol-
lemne, rite; considered as regularly
recurring. -nudi: i.e. without even
a tunic; imitating the dress of the
god himself, who is represented as
clad only with a goatskin, the early
shepherd's dress.
per: cf. per spe-
ciem, 3. 11 n. - lasciviam, wanton-
ness. currerent: i.e. through the
city. Such proceedings had a lustral
significance. The superstition con-
nected with the festival, in regard to
the Roman women, is well known.
There were two colleges of Luperci,
the Fabiani and the Quinctiliani, a
division connected with the two
brothers.

3. deditis (dative after insidia

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4. crimini, etc., the charge that they laid most stress on was, etc.· fieri: the present seems to be used to represent the historical present used in their charge. — inde: i.e. ex agris.- agere: the chief booty in ancient times was cattle and slaves. sic: i.e. on this account, or so it happened that, etc.; cf. itaque. - ad supplicium: the emphasis expresses the idea, was found guilty and,' etc. Numitori: as the injured party; a trace of a very ancient custom.

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5. iam inde, etc., already from the very first. · -se: representing Faustulus in the indirect discourse. -et... et: the fact and the time are opposed with emphasis. — id

ipsum congruere; sed rem immaturam nisi aut per occa6 sionem aut per necessitatem aperiri noluerat. Necessitas prior venit. Ita metu subactus Romulo rem aperit. Forte et Numitori, cum in custodia Remum haberet audissetque geminos esse fratres, comparando et aetatem eorum et ipsam minime servilem indolem tetigerat animum memoria nepotum, sciscitandoque eodem pervenit, ut haud procul esset quin Remum agnosceret.

7 Ita undique regi dolus nectitur. Romulus non cum globo iuvenum - nec enim erat ad apertam vim par-, sed aliis alio itinere iussis certo tempore ad regiam venire pastoribus, ad regem impetum facit, et a domo Numitoris alia comparata manu adiuvat Remus. Ita regem obtruncant.

6 Numitor inter primum tumultum hostis invasisse urbem atque adortos regiam dictitans, cum pubem Alba

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tulus, explained by the ut clause.

esset impersonal in Latin, though best rendered by a personal construction in English.

7. undique: exaggerated, for two sides only. —regi: not against him, but for him; the toils were closing in on him.-globo: i.e. not an open attack of a body, but a concealed gathering and insidious attack.

erat: for the emphasis, see Gr. 344. d. (2).—a domo: not the regular use of domus as the place from which, but like ab Corintho, 47. 4, as the standpoint from which. The whole indicates that Numitor assents to the plot, though he takes no active part in it until the events described in 6. I.

ESTABLISHMENT OF NUMITOR.

6. dictitans: the frequentative denotes that this was a pretence to summon the forces (pubem) to the citadel, and so have them under his

nam in arcem praesidio armisque obtinendam avocasset, postquam iuvenes perpetrata caede pergere ad se gratulantes vidit, extemplo advocato concilio scelus in se fratris, originem nepotum, ut geniti, ut educati, ut cogniti essent, caedem deinceps tyranni seque eius auctorem ostendit. Iuvenes per mediam contionem agmine ingressi cum avum regem salutassent, secuta ex omni multitudine consentiens vox ratum nomen imperiumque regi efficit.

a king; cf. the customs of the Gauls, etc.-ratum... efficit, confirms, ratifies.

2

Ita Numitori Albana re permissa Romulum Remum- 3 que cupido cepit in iis locis, ubi expositi ubique educati erant, urbis condendae. Et supererat multitudo Albanorum Latinorumque; ad id pastores quoque accesserant, qui omnes facile spem facerent, parvam Albam, parvum Lavinium prae ea urbe quae conderetur fore. Inter- 4 venit deinde his cogitationibus avitum malum, regni command, ready for the concilium below. in arcem, etc.: a short form for in arcem ad eam obtinendam, etc. avocasset, called off; i.e. from the palace, (under the pretence of defending the most important point,) so as to leave the king to his fate. -se: referring to the subject of vidit. — gratulantes, to congratulate him; the pres. part., as often, with the force of a future to denote purpose. concilio: i.e. an assembly of the people. - cogniti, recognized, as belonging to him.auctorem (sc. esse), responsible.· ostendit, made known.

2. contionem: so called, as resembling the meetings called by a Roman magistrate for the purpose of publishing anything to the people. agmine, in a solid body; not a disorderly mob. secuta, etc., they were followed by an assenting voice from all the multitude which, etc.; probably an echo of the earlier method of choice of

3. re: i.e. the power; cf. 3. I, res Latina. cupido, etc.: see Introd. 9. d (1).

et, and in fact; a favorite use of et with Livy. Here the force is, 'And it was a very natural and practicable plan for,' etc.-supererat, etc., there was an excessive number, etc. ad id, and besides these.-pastores: i.e. those among whom Romulus and Remus had passed their youth. accesserant: a sudden change of the point of view to the moment of the founding. qui, etc., so that they, etc.— facile, without question; cf. facile princeps. facerent: characteristic subjunctive; a population which, etc., but better translated by a result clause. - conderetur: representing quae conditur in direct discourse.

4. cogitationibus: i.e. the spes above mentioned. -avitum: cf. 3.

7

cupido, atque inde foedum certamen coortum a satis miti principio. Quoniam gemini essent nec aetatis verecundia discrimen facere posset, ut dii, quorum tutelae ea loca essent, auguriis legerent qui nomen novae urbi daret, qui conditam imperio regeret, Palatium Romulus, Remus Aventinum ad inaugurandum templa capiunt.

Priori Remo augurium venisse fertur sex vultures, iamque nuntiato augurio cum duplex numerus Romulo sese ostendisset, utrumque regem sua multitudo consalutaverat. Tempore illi praecepto, at hi numero avium 2 regnum trahebant. Inde cum altercatione congressi

certamine irarum ad caedem vertuntur.

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Ibi in turba

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numero: a general word is implied in praecepto, which, of course, is not true of numero. is not necessary to supply it, because Livy does not have a definite word in his mind. This usage is often called zeugma. trahebant, were proceeding to claim; a description of the state of things when the time of vertuntur begins.

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2. altercatione, a war of words. certamine: abl. of cause. irarum the plural assigns more vividly the angry feeling to each of the two parties; see Gr. 75. 3. c. - ad caedem, to bloodshed; not the murder of Remus, but the mutual violence. - vertuntur, are excited; i.e. beginning with words, they at last come to blows. — ibi, thereupon; in the caedes. - in turba, in the mêlée; emphatic as opposed to ab irato Romulo.

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