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genere honoris, statua equestri, donavere: in summa Sacra via fuit posita virgo insidens equo.

Huic tam pacatae profectioni ab urbe regis Etrusci ab- 14 horrens mos, traditus ab antiquis, usque ad nostram aetatem inter cetera sollemnia manet, bona Porsinnae regis vendendi. Cuius originem moris necesse est aut inter 2 bellum natam esse neque omissam in pace, aut a mitiore crevisse principio quam hic prae se ferat titulus bona hostiliter vendendi. Proximum vero est ex iis quae tra- 3 duntur, Porsinnam discedentem ab Ianiculo castra opulenta convecto ex propinquis ac fertilibus Etruriae arvis commeatu Romanis dono dedisse, inopi tum urbe ab longinqua obsidione; ea deinde, ne populo immisso diri- 4 perentur hostiliter, venisse, bonaque Porsinnae appellata, gratiam muneris magis significante titulo quam auctionem fortunae regiae, quae ne in potestatem quidem populi Romani esset.

Omisso Romano bello Porsinna, ne frustra in ea loca 5

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exercitus adductus videretur, cum parte copiarum filium 6 Arruntem Ariciam oppugnatum mittit. Primo Aricinos res necopinata perculerat. Arcessita deinde auxilia et a Latinis populis et a Cumis tantum spei fecere, ut acie decernere auderent. Proelio inito adeo concitato impetu se intulerant Etrusci ut funderent ipso incursu Aricinos. 7 Cumanae cohortes, arte adversus vim usae, declinavere paululum effuseque praelatos hostes conversis signis ab tergo adortae sunt ; ita in medio prope iam victores caesi 8 Etrusci. Pars perexigua duce amisso, quia nullum propius perfugium erat, Romam inermes et fortuna et specie supplicum delati sunt. Ibi benigne excepti divisique in 9 hospitia. Curatis vulneribus alii profecti domos nuntii hospitalium beneficiorum, multos Romae hospitum urbisque caritas tenuit. His locus ad habitandum datus, quem deinde Tuscum vicum appellarunt.

hinted at in the metamorphosed narrative. Aricia (cf I. 50. 3), with the help of the Greek colony of Cumæ, seems to have stayed their advance.

6. perculerat : cf. consalutaverat, I. 7. 1 n, and intulerant, below. - arcessita, etc.: the emphasis gives the force, but having received upon application assistance from their neighbors, they ventured,' etc. - funderent, etc.: notice the chiastic antithesis. This is the more necessary because to us at first sight Aricinos seems the emphatic word. But a careful examination shows that funderent is the main word, of which the antithetic idea is postponed in chiastic fashion to the end.

7. declinavere: i.e. withdrew to one side, and let the enemy go by them in their onward rush (praelatos). - conversis signis: i.e. after the enemy had gone by, they wheeled and attacked them.

8. fortuna et specie (loose ablatives of manner): i.e. their condition and their attitude were those of suppliants. delati sunt: the regular word for reaching a haven, and probably used here with a consciousness of that meaning; not merely came to,' but 'brought up at' Rome, as the end of their flight; for number of the verb, see Gr. 205. c. 1. divisi, etc.: i.e. distributed round to be entertained as guests.

9. alii: opposed to multos below. hospitalium: i.e. referring to their entertainment just spoken of.caritas, affection for; but in Latin the idea is looked at (as often) from the other end as the 'dearness' to them of the objects of affection; cf. Gr. 213 and note.

Tuscum vicum: a narrow street just under the Palatine, between that and the Capitoline, leading from the Forum down towards the river. It was the place of busi

Spurius Larcius inde et P. Valerius Publicola con- 15 sules facti. Eo anno postremum legati a Porsinna de reducendo in regnum Tarquinio venerunt. Quibus cum responsum esset missurum ad regem senatum legatos, missi confestim honoratissimus quisque e patribus: non 2 quin breviter reddi responsum potuerit, non recipi reges, ideo potius delectos patrum ad eum missos quam legatis eius Romae daretur responsum, sed ut in perpetuum mentio eius rei finiretur, neu in tantis mutuis beneficiis in vicem animi sollicitarentur, cum ille peteret quod contra libertatem populi Romani esset, Romani, nisi in perniciem suam faciles esse vellent, negarent cui nihil

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construction, see Gr. 321, Rem. -
recipi: the tense represents in ef-
fect a present indicative (non reci-
pimus), a regular colloquial form
of refusal; cf. non emo, I'm not
buying = I won't buy, and see Gr.
276. c.ideo: referring back to
quin, and best omitted in transla-
tion. - missos: an indirect quota-
tion from the supposed argument in
favor of the course pursued. It
sounds like a far away echo of the
senatorial or diplomatic debate on
the subject. daretur: the regular
construction after such compari-
sons as this is a result clause with
ut, but the ut is omitted in all peri-
ods, particularly in early Latin; see
Gr. 332. b.-ut, etc.: the purpose
of their action opposed to the rea-
- in vicem:
son just negatived.
belonging with sollicitarentur, op-
posed to mutuis, and anticipating
the cum clauses ille peteret, Ro-
mani negarent. - vellent: if this
part of the answer were indepen-
dent both of the purpose and of the
cum construction, it would be 'Ro-
mani nisi... velint (potential subj.),
negant cui nihil velint. -ne-
gatum: see Gr. 292. d. N.

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3 negatum vellent. Non in regno populum Romanum, sed in libertate esse; ita induxisse in animum, hostibus potius portas quam regibus patefacere. Eam esse voluntatem omnium, ut qui libertati erit in illa urbe finis, 4 idem urbi sit; proinde, si salvam esse vellet Romam, 5 ut patiatur liberam esse orare. Rex verecundia victus 'Quando id certum atque obstinatum est' inquit, 'neque ego obtundam saepius eadem nequiquam agendo, nec Tarquinios spe auxilii, quod nullum in me est, frustrabor. Alium hinc, seu bello opus est seu quiete, exsilio quaerant 6 locum, ne quid meam vobiscum pacem distineat.' Dictis facta amiciora adiecit. Obsidum quod reliquum erat reddidit, agrum Veientem foedere ad Ianiculum icto ademp7 tum restituit. Tarquinius spe omni reditus incisa exsulatum ad generum Mamilium Octavium Tusculum abiit. Romanis pax fida ita cum Porsinna fuit.

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3. non in regno, etc.: a part of what the embassy was to say. potius... quam . patefacere: here only the two nouns are compared, while the predicate remains the same, hence there is no need of a subjunctive. erit: see Gr. 336. b.

4. proinde: the clause following is really an imperative one, though orare, representing a parenthetical oramus, governs the construction; hence the use of this particle.

5. verecundia: ie. respect for the noble sentiments of the Romans. - neque ego, etc.: the real opposition is between the Romans and the Tarquins, but this is disturbed by the earlier one between the Romans and Porsena, which would be brought out if Livy had stopped at agendo. The result is a careless confusion of antithesis. The same confusion appears in obtundam ... frustrabor. quod nullum:

as Livy would say nullum auxilium,
he also says quod nullum, though
we use a partitive construction; cf.
Gr. 216. e. - - exsilio: see Gr. 226.
b. -
-meam: opposed to the Tar-
quins.

ad

6. agrum, etc.: cf. 13. 4. Ianiculum: not necessarily inconsistent with 13. 2, because the negotiations themselves may have taken place there, though the initiative may have been taken by Porsena; but the whole is probably garbled.

7. Mamilium: see I. 49. 9. Romanis pax fida: these words, as opposed to the action in reference to the Tarquins, by their emphasis crowd ita out of its place. WAR WITH THE SABINES. ATTIUS CLAUSUS.

16. triumpharunt, were honored with a triumph.

2. et connecting the idea of fight

Consules M. Valerius P. Postumius. Eo anno bene 16 pugnatum cum Sabinis; consules triumpharunt. Maiore 2 inde mole Sabini bellum parabant. Adversus eos et ne quid simul ab Tusculo, unde, etsi non apertum, suspectum tamen bellum erat, repentini periculi oriretur, P. Valerius quartum T. Lucretius iterum consules facti. Seditio 3 inter belli pacisque auctores orta in Sabinis aliquantum inde virium transtulit ad Romanos. Namque Attius 4 Clausus, cui postea Appio Claudio fuit Romae nomen, cum pacis ipse auctor a turbatoribus belli premeretur nec par factioni esset, ab Inregillo magna clientium comitatus manu Romam transfugit. His civitas data agerque 5 trans Anienem; vetus Claudia tribus, additis postea novis tribulibus, qui ex eo venirent agro appellata. Appius inter patres lectus haud ita multo post in principum dignationem pervenit. Consules infesto exercitu in 6 agrum Sabinum profecti cum ita vastatione, dein proelio

ing against them, implied though not expressed, and the definitely expressed purpose of ne quid. These together explain the reason why veterans and not new men were chosen to command.-P. Valerius quartum: his three previous consulates are mentioned 2. 11, 8. 9, and 15. 1; see, however, note on 15. 1.- Lucretius: cf. 8. 9.

3. inde: i.e. a Sabinis.

4. Attius Clausus: though this name might be the same as its supposed derivative, it can hardly be the origin of it. The whole

looks like the working over of various disconnected facts into one story. -belli: used as objective genitive with turbatoribus, just as one might say turbare bellum in the cognate accusative construction. - Inregillo : the name is uncertain, and the situation of the place is unknown.

5. vetus Claudia tribus: opposed to the new members who were added to the tribe, not to a new tribe.qui: the antecedent of this relative is the subject of appellata (est); see Gr. 199. eo: the land assigned to these Sabines. - venirent: the subjunctive is occasioned by the idea of indirect discourse in appellata. — lectus: by the senate itself. - dignationem: differing from dignitas as a verbal abstract; 'the being held in esteem' from an abstract quality, 'the worthiness' of the man himself. The Latin does not often make such distinctions, and these two words afterwards were much confused in meaning.

6. vastatione: sapping their resources by predatory excursions; proelio: destroying their fighting power by killing, wounding, or cap

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