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culosum esse in tot humanis erroribus sola innocentia vivere. Ita iam sua sponte aegris animis legati ab regi- 5 bus superveniunt sine mentione reditus bona tantum repetentes. Eorum verba postquam in senatu audita sunt, per aliquot dies ea consultatio tenuit, ne non reddita belli causa, reddita belli materia et adiumentum essent. Interim legati alia moliri, aperte bona repetentes 6 clam reciperandi regni consilia struere; et tamquam ad id quod agi videbatur, ambientes nobilium adulescentium animos pertemptant. A quibus placide oratio ac- 7 cepta est, iis litteras ab Tarquiniis reddunt, et de accipiendis clam nocte in urbem regibus conloquuntur.

Vitelliis Aquiliisque fratribus primo commissa res est. 4 Vitelliorum soror consuli nupta Bruto erat, iamque ex eo matrimonio adulescentes erant liberi, Titus Tiberiusque. Eos quoque in societatem consilii avunculi adsu- 2 munt. Praeterea aliquot nobiles adulescentes conscii adsumpti, quorum vetustate memoria abiit. Interim 3 cum in senatu vicisset sententia, quae censebat reddenda bona, eamque ipsam causam morae in urbe haberent legati, quod spatium ad vehicula comparanda a consulibus sumpsissent, quibus regum asportarent res, omne id tempus cum coniuratis consultando absumunt, evincunt

means alone; one needs some indulgence for frailties besides.

5. sua sponte: i.e. without the additional stimulus of the arrival of the envoys. animis: ablative.. ne: i.e. 'on account of the fear that'; the purpose, properly, of the debate.

6. alia: opposed to the ostensible aim of their visit. - tanquam ad id, etc. i.e. this was their excuse for visiting the young nobles, to gain their influence.

7. placide, favorably; properly, without objection or offence. THE YOUNG NOBLES SIDE WITH THE TARQUINS.

4. adulescentes, grown up. 3. eam ipsam: cf. Gr. 195, d. causam, excuse; hence the subjunctive sumpsissent, putting the words into the mouths of the envoys. - evincunt, finally succeed in having. ut darentur: object clause, as with words of persuading

que instando, ut litterae sibi ad Tarquinios darentur: 4 nam aliter qui credituros eos non vana ab legatis super rebus tantis adferri? Datae litterae, ut pignus fidei 5 essent, manifestum facinus fecerunt. Nam cum pridie quam legati ad Tarquinios proficiscerentur cenatum forte. apud Vitellios esset, coniuratique ibi remotis arbitris multa inter se de novo, ut fit, consilio egissent, sermonem eorum ex servis unus excepit; qui iam antea id 6 senserat agi; sed eam occasionem, ut litterae legatis darentur, quae deprehensae rem coarguere possent, exspectabat. Postquam datas sensit, rem ad consules detu7 lit. Consules ad deprehendendos legatos coniuratosque profecti domo sine tumultu rem omnem oppressere, litterarum in primis habita cura, ne interciderent. Proditoribus extemplo in vincla coniectis de legatis paululum addubitatum est, et quamquam visi sunt commisisse ut hostium loco essent, ius tamen gentium valuit.

and the like. litterae: i.e. from the conspirators, in order to compromise, and so bind them.

4. qui, how. - credituros: Gr. 338.

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5. proficiscerentur: see Gr. 327. - arbitris, witnesses; the earlier meaning. ut fit, as was natural; this idea is immediately connected with novo, as it was because their heads were full of the new plans that they talked about them. — qui, etc. translate with a new sentence, 'he,' etc.

6. eam occasionem: i.e. the opportunity afforded by the giving of the letter; hence the dependent clause takes the form of a purpose clause he was waiting for the letter to be delivered, to take advantage of that opportunity. detulit: the technical word for laying definite information before the authorities.

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7. profecti, etc.: as magistrates they had the power of proceeding immediately, without our machinery of warrants, etc.- sine tumultu: i.e. without creating any alarm or stir outside of their own official cir

cle. oppressere, crushed; the
word properly means more than this.
They anticipated the outbreak by
putting their hand on it in its incep-
tion, caught it in the act and nipped
it in the bud, as it were; or, they
seized it by the throat; hence lit-
terarum in primis, etc., in accord-
ance with the rest of the figure.
ne interciderent: a common form
of explanatory purpose clause, where
an object has already been expressed;
cf. 9. 5 and see Gr. 334. c. for a sim-
ilar usage in the indirect question.
ut hostium, etc.: i.e. had for-
feited the rights of ambassadors
(cf. ius gentium).

De bonis regis, quae reddi ante censuerant, res integra 5 refertur ad patres. Ibi victi ira vetuere reddi, vetuere in publicum redigi: diripienda plebi sunt data, ut con- 2 tacta regia praeda spem in perpetuum cum iis pacis amitteret. Ager Tarquiniorum, qui inter urbem ac Tiberim fuit, consecratus Marti Martius deinde campus fuit. Forte ibi tum seges farris dicitur fuisse matura messi. 3 Quem campi fructum quia religiosum erat consumere, desectam cum stramento segetem magna vis hominum simul immissa corbibus fudere in Tiberim tenui fluentem aqua, ut mediis caloribus solet. Ita in vadis haesitantis 4 frumenti acervos sedisse inlitos limo. Insulam inde paulatim et aliis, quae fert temere flumen, eodem invectis factam. Postea credo additas moles manuque adiutum, ut tam eminens area firmaque templis quoque ac porticibus sustinendis esset.

Direptis bonis regum damnati proditores sumptum- 5

CONFISCATION OF THE ROYAL

PROPERTY.

5. reddi: see Gr. 331. d, and cf. reddenda, 4. 3.—integra, afresh; i.e. as if the matter had not been considered; the technical meaning of the word.refertur: by the consul, for whom referre is the technical term. - in publicum, etc., to be confiscated; i.e. sold and 'covered into the treasury.'

2. diripienda: as the property of armed enemies. ager: comprising the whole level ground on which most of modern Rome stands. 3. seges: the standing grain. religiosum: because consecrated with the land to the god. stramento: the usual way was to cut the heads and leave the straw, but here the whole, for religious reasons, was cut off, as with us. caloribus: this does not agree with

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que supplicium, conspectius eo quod poenae capiendae ministerium patri de liberis consulatus imposuit, et qui spectator erat amovendus, eum ipsum fortuna exactorem supplicii dedit. Stabant deligati ad palum nobilissimi 6 iuvenes. Sed a ceteris, velut ab ignotis capitibus, consulis liberi omnium in se averterant oculos, miserebatque non poenae magis homines quam sceleris, quo poenam 7 meriti essent: illos eo potissimum anno patriam liberatam, patrem liberatorem, consulatum ortum ex domo Iunia, patres, plebem, quidquid deorum hominumque Romanorum esset, induxisse in animum ut superbo 8 quondam regi, tum infesto exsuli proderent. Consules in sedem processere suam, missique lictores ad sumendum supplicium. Nudatos virgis caedunt securique feriunt, cum inter omne tempus pater vultusque et os eius spectaculo esset, eminente animo patrio inter publi9 cae poenae ministerium. Secundum poenam nocentium, ut in utramque partem arcendis sceleribus exemplum nobile esset, praemium indici pecunia ex aerario, libertas I et civitas data. Ille primum dicitur vindicta liberatus.

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very general statement; cf. nihil used instead of nemo, quid instead of quis, etc.

8. sedem: the raised platform or tribunal. - eminente, showing itself.

9. utramque: i.e. both in punishment of offenders and reward of informers, each of which would tend to prevent (arcendis) crime.

10. primum: one would expect primus according to the Latin idiom, but Livy is perhaps thinking of the first time,' the occasion rather than the person. — dicitur: naturally this could not be true, and even Livy does not believe it. -vindicta: the rod with which a formal

Quidam vindictae quoque nomen tractum ab illo putant; Vindicio ipsi nomen fuisse. Post illum observatum ut qui ita liberati essent in civitatem accepti viderentur.

His sicut acta erant nuntiatis incensus Tarquinius 6 non dolore solum tantae ad inritum cadentis spei, sed etiam odio iraque, postquam dolo viam obsaeptam vidit, bellum aperte moliendum ratus circumire supplex Etruriae urbes, orare maxime Veientes Tarquiniensesque, ne 2 se ortum, eiusdem sanguinis, extorrem egentem ex tanto modo regno cum liberis adulescentibus ante oculos suos perire sinerent. Alios peregre in regnum Romam accitos; se regem, augentem bello Romanum imperium, a proximis scelerata coniuratione pulsum. Eos inter se, 3 quia nemo unus satis dignus regno visus sit, partes regni rapuisse, bona sua diripienda populo dedisse, ne quis expers sceleris esset. Patriam se regnumque suum repetere et persequi ingratos cives velle. Ferrent opem,

claimant of a person alleged to be free, but claimed by some one as a slave, asserted his (formal) right in the process for freedom.- Vindicio: this etymology is, of course, impossible, though the whole family of words is a puzzle to etymologists. The word vindicius comes from vindex, the name for a claimant in such a case, whence also comes vindico (-are), the word for the action; vindicta may be a noun of agency like nauta. The words all point to vim dicere; but as the first part is a case, and not a stem, the combination could not regularly yield vindex nor its derivative vindico. The only way of explaining the anomaly is to suppose a form vindex irregularly made in imitation of iudex, index; for as iudex is to ius dicere, so is vindex to vim dicere.

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catio, as distinguished from other forms of manumission.

WAR WITH THE TARQUINS. 6. sicut, etc.: i.e. with all their details. - ad inritum (in-ratum), to naught. - dolo: dative.

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2. se ortum: referring to Tarquinienses (cf. I. 34. 1); eiusdem sanguinis: apparently referring to Veientes, in the common chiastic order. extorrem, an exile; for derivation, cf. concors, and see Gr. 168. d. - ex... regno: cf. ex bello tam tristi, I. 13. 6. — adulescentibus: i.e. not mere children, but young men of promise. — alios: used of Numa by a rhetorical exaggeration familiar even in colloquial language. augentem: it heightens the picture that he was driven out just at that moment.

3. eos: sc. proximos. — expers: cf. extorrem above. ferrent: see

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