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8 maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius. Is finis orationi fuit. Aversi omnes ad Tarquinium salutandum, qui, silentio facto, monitus a proximis ut purgaret se quod id temporis venisset, disceptatorem ait se sumptum inter patrem et filium cura reconciliandi eos in gratiam moratum esse et, quia ea res exemisset illum diem, pos9 tero die acturum quae constituisset. Ne id quidem ab Turno tulisse tacitum ferunt; dixisse enim nullam breviorem esse cognitionem quam inter patrem et filium paucisque transigi verbis posse: ni pareat patri, habiturum infortunium esse.

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Haec Aricinus in regem Romanum increpans ex concilio abiit. Quam rem Tarquinius aliquanto quam videbatur aegrius ferens confestim Turno necem machinatur, ut eundem terrorem, quo civium animos domi oppresse2 rat, Latinis iniceret. Et quia pro imperio palam interfici non poterat, oblato falso crimine insontem oppressit. Per adversae factionis quosdam Aricinos servum Turni auro corrupit, ut in deversorium eius vim magnam gladi

lawless action.' cum maxime, just when; for mood, see Gr. 323. The whole sentence, with Latin compression, contains two statements, 'Thus,' etc., did the man harangue, being (to account for his action) a man who,' etc., 'and just as,' etc., Tarquin came in.'

8. is, that (his coming); see Gr. 195. d. silentio: i.e. by proclamation. - proximis: who had been present. id temporis: see Gr. 240. b. disceptatorem, an arbiter, in a private capacity.

9. id, with that; obj. of tulisse. tulisse, etc., he (i.e. Tarquin) got off without reproach; a colloquial use of ferre, as in the comedy. dixisse: i.e. Turnus, with the Livian careless change of subject.

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cognitionem: cf. 49. 4.- quam inter, etc., than that between, etc., in accordance with the English idiom. -verbis: i.e. the following, which would be the judgment. — pareat: cf. audiant in 6. — habiturum infortunium: a pregnant expression like the English 'come to grief'; cf. malum habere. The patria potestas was unlimited.

RUIN AND DEATH OF TURNUS. 51. quam videbatur, than he showed.

2. pro imperio, by virtue of his authority, as a Roman could have been. per: see Gr. 246. b. deversorium: i.e. the place where he lodged while attending the council.

Ea cum una nocte perfecta 3

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orum inferri clam sineret. essent, Tarquinius paulo ante lucem accitis ad se principibus Latinorum quasi re nova perturbatus, moram suam hesternam, velut deorum quadam providentia inlatam, ait saluti sibi atque illis fuisse. Ab Turno dici sibi et primoribus populorum parari necem, ut Latinorum solus imperium teneat. Adgressurum fuisse hesterno die in concilio; dilatam rem esse quod auctor concilii afuerit, quem maxime peteret. Inde illam ab- 5 sentis insectationem esse natam, quod morando spem destituerit. Non dubitare, si vera deferantur, quin prima luce, ubi ventum in concilium sit, instructus cum coniuratorum manu armatusque venturus sit.

Dici gla- 6 diorum ingentem esse numerum ad eum convectum. Id vanum necne sit, extemplo sciri posse: rogare eos ut inde secum ad Turnum veniant. Suspectam fecit rem 7 et ingenium Turni ferox et oratio hesterna et mora Tarquinii, quod videbatur ob eam differri caedes potuisse. Eunt inclinatis quidem ad credendum animis, tamen nisi gladiis deprehensis cetera vana existimaturi.

Vbi est eo ventum, Turnum ex somno excitatum cir- 8 cumsistunt custodes, comprehensisque servis, qui cari

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tate domini vim parabant, cum gladii abditi ex omnibus locis deverticuli protraherentur, enim vero manifesta res visa iniectaeque Turno catenae, et confestim Latinorum 9 concilium magno cum tumultu advocatur. Ibi tam atrox invidia orta est gladiis in medio positis, ut indicta causa novo genere leti deiectus ad caput aquae Ferentinae crate superne iniecta saxisque congestis mergeretur.

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Revocatis deinde ad concilium Latinis Tarquinius conlaudatisque qui Turnum novantem res pro manifesto 2 parricidio merita poena adfecissent, ita verba fecit: posse quidem se vetusto iure agere, quod, cum omnes Latini ab Alba oriundi sint, in eo foedere teneantur quo ab Tullo res omnis Albana cum coloniis suis in Romanum 3 cesserit imperium; ceterum se utilitatis id magis omnium causa censere, ut renovetur id foedus, secundaque potius fortuna populi Romani ut participes Latini fruantur quam urbium excidia vastationesque agrorum, quas

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Anco prius, patre deinde suo regnante perpessi sint, semper aut exspectent aut patiantur.

Haud difficulter persuasum Latinis, quamquam in co 4 foedere superior Romana res erat. Ceterum et capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant et Turnus sui cuique periculi, si adversatus esset, recens erat documentum. Ita renovatum foedus, indictumque 5 iunioribus Latinorum ut ex foedere die certa ad lucum Ferentinae armati frequentes adessent. Qui ubi ad 6 edictum Romani regis ex omnibus populis convenere, ne ducem suum neve secretum imperium propriave signa haberent, miscuit manipulos ex Latinis Romanisque, ut ex binis singulos faceret binosque ex singulis; ita geminatis manipulis centuriones imposuit.

Nec, ut iniustus in pace rex, ita dux belli pravus fuit; 53 quin ea arte aequasset superiores reges, ni degeneratum

4. quamquam, etc.: i.e. though they saw it would be an unequal alliance, yet the reasons given determined them.-adversatus esset: in a kind of indirect discourse (following the idea of warning in documentum) for a future perfect of the direct. For the apodosis, see Gr. 341. c.

5. indictum: the beginner must carefully distinguish between the participle compounded with in negative, and the verb with its participle compounded with in.

6. secretum, separate, its proper meaning. Ordinarily such troops would act as allies independently under their own commanders; cf. 27. — manipulos: there is much confusion about the earlier organization of the Roman army. The maniples are said (VIII. 8. 3) to have been made much later, and are not mentioned in II. 64. 10, though they may possibly be supposed; but Livy

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had no distinct idea of details, nor care for them, except as they are picturesque, and so conceives the army as it was in later times, which, after all, is just as well, for the maniple, in some form or other, must have belonged to the earliest organization. ex binis, etc.: 'making two out of one and one out of two' could only be done by taking half of each and putting them together, in which sense they could be said to be doubled (geminatis). — centuriones: two, as the maniple was composed of two centuries.

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2 in aliis huic quoque decori offecisset. Is primus Volscis bellum in ducentos amplius post suam aetatem annos 3 movit Suessamque Pometiam ex his vi cepit. Vbi cum divendita praeda quadraginta talenta argenti refecisset, concepit animo eam amplitudinem Iovis templi, quae digna deum hominumque rege, quae Romano imperio, quae ipsius etiam loci maiestate esset. Captivam pecuniam in aedificationem eius templi seposuit.

Excepit deinde eum lentius spe bellum, quo Gabios propinquam urbem nequiquam vi adortus, cum obsidendi quoque urbem spes pulso a moenibus adempta esset, postremo minime arte Romana, fraude ac dolo, 5 adgressus est. Nam cum, velut posito bello, fundamentis templi iaciendis aliisque urbanis operibus intentum

292. a. The noun which would agree with the participle disappears, because the verb is used impersonally in the passive: the fact that he was degenerate,' etc. The construction is founded deep in the genius of the language, but does not come to the surface generally till after Cicero. aliis: cf. omnibus, 45. I n.- huic quoque, etc.: other fine points were not strictly cast into the shade (offecisset), because he did not have them, but loosely it may be said that they did not appear, and the same is true (for another reason) of this one.

2. in ducentos: i.e. he began the war which was to last, etc. ex his not exactly from them,' but of their territory.'

3. talenta: as he is copying from Greek sources, Livy uses Greek sums. refecisset: i.e. taken in, made out; a common force of re-; cf. redigo. -concepit animo, conceived the design of; emphatic, because it was not built till long afterwards. - esset: expressing his purpose; which should be.

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assault, which failed. — obsidendi quoque: the next process, of siege, was also hopeless, inasmuch as his forces were driven from their position around the city (a moenibus). -minime . . . Romana: a patriotic sentiment not at all uncommon in all times; cf. 'British fair play,' with about as much truth. In general, however, the Roman vices were those of the strong rather than of the weak. fraude ac dolo: i.e. a stratagem founded on deceit.

5. posito, having abandoned, from the idea of laying down a thing. templi: the temple of Jove; see 3.-iaciendis: the regular word for 'laying' foundations, doubtless on account of the use of

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