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Tarquinio audiebat, se iniussu populi regnare, conciliata prius voluntate plebis agro capto ex hostibus viritim diviso ausus est ferre ad populum, vellent iuberentne se regnare, tantoque consensu, quanto haud quisquam alius 2 ante, rex est declaratus. Neque ea res Tarquinio spem adfectandi regni minuit; immo eo impensius, quia de agro plebis adversa patrum voluntate senserat agi, criminandi Servii apud patres crescendique in curia sibi occasionem datam ratus est, et ipse iuvenis ardentis animi et domi uxore Tullia inquietum animum stimulante. 3 Tulit enim et Romana regia sceleris tragici exemplum, ut taedio regum maturior veniret libertas, ultimumque regnum esset quod scelere partum foret.

4 Hic L. Tarquinius — Prisci Tarquini regis filius neposne fuerit parum liquet; pluribus tamen auctoribus filium ediderim - fratrem habuerat Arruntem Tarqui5 nium, mitis ingenii iuvenem. His duobus, ut ante dictum est, duae Tulliae, regis filiae, nupserant, et ipsae

mal vote of the people.' - concili-
ata, etc. Livy doubtless has in his
mind the later politics of the leges
agrariae, for without this there was
no doubt of the popular approval;
cf. 42. 3.
vellent iuberentne:
the regular form of beginning a
rogatio; cf. XXII. 10. 2.

2. neque, and yet... not. — impensius: used as if conatus or egit were to follow. But in the course of the sentence the thought changes, as so often in Livy and indeed in Latin generally, and concludes in a different turn in ratus est. It must be remembered that the ancient style of writing was much nearer to the course of speech than our own conventionally restrained language. crescendi i.e. gaining influence and power. et ipse, etc., being at the same time himself, etc.; et

uxore, etc., and having in his house his wife Tullia to stimulate,

etc.

3. tulit, there was produced in, etc., to give the proper emphasis.

et: i.e. as well as at Thebes, Mycenae, etc.— tragici: not merely as an epithet, tragic, but of the tragic stage. -ut, etc.: introduced as a kind of purpose of fate. — ultimum: i.e. the reign of Tarquin. Avoid in translation the last which, etc., for that has an entirely different meaning.

4. pluribus, etc., in accordance with; ablative absolute. ediderim: see Gr. 311. 6.-habuerat: before the events of 9.

5. ante: see 42. 1.—et ipsae, who were likewise. — ne... iungerentur: the proper result clause after inciderat is changed into a

longe dispares moribus. Forte ita inciderat, ne duo violenta ingenia matrimonio iungerentur, fortuna credo populi Romani, quo diuturnius Servi regnum esset constituique civitatis mores possent. Angebatur ferox Tul- 6 lia nihil materiae in viro neque ad cupiditatem neque ad audaciam esse; tota in alterum aversa Tarquinium eum mirari, eum virum dicere ac regio sanguine ortum ; spernere sororem, quod virum nacta muliebri cessaret audacia. Contrahit celeriter similitudo eos, ut fere fit 7 malum malo aptissimum; sed initium turbandi omnia a femina ortum est. Ea secretis viri alieni adsuefacta sermonibus, nullis verborum contumeliis parcere de viro ad fratrem, de sorore ad virum, et se rectius viduam et illum caelibem futurum fuisse contendere quam cum impari iungi, ut elanguescendum aliena ignavia esset. Si sibi eum quo digna esset dii dedissent virum, domi 8 se prope diem visuram regnum fuisse, quod apud patrem videat. Celeriter adulescentem suae temeritatis implet. Lucius Tarquinius et Tullia minor prope continuatis 9

purpose of the divine will; so also we have a purpose clause in quo ... esset.

6. ferox Tullia: not the fierce Tullia,' which is not a Latin form of expression, but being a violent woman.' - materiae: used exactly as we use stuff. cupiditatem, ambition, to conceive ambitious desires; audaciam, daring, to use the means to gratify such desires. - mirari: not merely admired,' but expressed her admiration for.' virum: cf. 41. 3; so again in next line. - muliebri: opposed to virum, the feminine daring to correspond to her husband's.

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7. ut fere fit, etc. this clause, properly parenthetical, absorbs the main clause, malum (est), etc., on account of the similar meanings of

est and fit. initium ortum: cf. Pref. 12 n. - viri: after sermonibus, the usual construction in Latin between two nouns, whatever the relation in English.— alieni, another's. de viro ad fratrem, about (her) husband to (his) brother. de sorore ad virum, about her sister to her (that sister's) husband. In Latin the unnecessary words are left out. viduam, unmarried; cf. 43. 9. — futurum fuisse: Gr. 337. b. 2.. - elanguescendum esset, to be obliged to, etc.

8. visuram fuisse: see Gr. 337. b. 2. celeriter: notice the emphasis, it does not take long,' or the like. temeritatis: see Gr. 248. 8. 2. R.

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9. Lucius: a necessary correction of the MSS., which have Arruns.

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funeribus cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, iunguntur nuptiis, magis non prohibente Servio quam approbante.

Tum vero in dies infestior Tulli senectus, infestius coepit regnum esse. Iam enim ab scelere ad aliud spectare mulier scelus, nec nocte nec interdiu virum conquiescere pati, ne gratuita praeterita parricidia es2 sent: non sibi defuisse, cui nupta diceretur nec cum quo tacita serviret; defuisse, qui se regno dignum putaret, qui meminisset se esse Prisci Tarquini filium, qui 3 habere quam sperare regnum mallet. Si tu is es cui nuptam esse me arbitror, et virum et regem appello; sin minus, eo nunc peius mutata res est, quod istic cum 4 ignavia est scelus. Quin accingeris? Non tibi ab Corintho nec ab Tarquiniis, ut patri tuo, peregrina regna moliri necesse est; di te penates patriique et patris imago et domus regia et in domo regale solium et nomen Tar5 quinium creat vocatque regem. Aut si ad haec parum est animi, quid frustraris civitatem? Quid te ut regium iuvenem conspici sinis? Facesse hinc Tarquinios aut Corinthum, devolvere retro ad stirpem, fratris similior

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ancestors. — imago: as one of the insignia of nobility; cf. 34. 6. regia: he is thought of as still living in the house of his ancestors, who were once kings.

5. ad haec: i.e. the endeavor to regain the regal power. - frustraris: i.e. by remaining here you excite the hopes of those who wish to be freed from the rule of Servius, but these hopes you disappoint. regium, princely. facesse, take yourself off; a colloquial word, used like proficiscor. devolvere (a middle use; cf. perfunderis, 45. 6), sink back; strictly of rolling down a declivity.

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quam patris.' His aliisque increpando iuvenem instigat, 6 nec conquiescere ipsa potest si, cum Tanaquil, peregrina mulier, tantum moliri potuisset animo ut duo continua regna viro ac deinceps genero dedisset, ipsa, regio semine orta, nullum momentum in dando adimendoque regno faceret.

His muliebribus instinctus furiis Tarquinius circumire 7 et prensare minorum maxime gentium patres, admonere paterni beneficii ac pro ea gratiam repetere, adlicere donis iuvenes, cum de se ingentia pollicendo tum regis criminibus omnibus locis crescere. Postremo, ut iam 8 agendae rei tempus visum est, stipatus agmine armatorum in forum inrupit. Inde omnibus perculsis pavore, in regia sede pro curia sedens, patres in curiam per praeconem ad regem Tarquinium citari iussit. Conve- 9

nere extemplo, alii iam ante ad hoc praeparati, alii metu, ne non venisse fraudi esset, novitate ac miraculo attoniti et iam de Servio actum rati.

6. his aliisque: cf. omnibus, 45. I n.- increpando: see Gr. 301 footn. ipsa: opposing her ambition in reference to her own position and influence to her ambition on behalf of her husband. - si . . potuisset: i.e. if this is to be the situation, as she conceives it in her mind, it gives her no peace. The subjunctives are used on account of the indirect discourse. peregrina: opposed to regio, etc. — 1 momentum faceret, should have weight.

7. muliebribus: merely because it is his wife's ambition and not his own; a little more vivid than uxoris would be. — furiis, blind, mad passions, as unreflecting and crazy, like the madness inspired by the Furies. circumire et prensare, go about and interview, in the manner of the canvassing of later times.

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Ibi Tarquinius maledicta ab stirpe ultima orsus, servum servaque natum, post mortem indignam parentis sui, non interregno, ut antea, inito, non comitiis habitis, non per suffragium populi, non auctoribus patribus, II muliebri dono regnum occupasse. Ita natum, ita crea

tum regem, fautorem infimi generis hominum, ex quo ipse sit, odio alienae honestatis ereptum primoribus 12 agrum sordidissimo cuique divisisse; omnia onera, quae communia quondam fuerint, inclinasse in primores civitatis; instituisse censum, ut insignis ad invidiam locupletiorum fortuna esset, et parata unde, ubi vellet, egentissimis largiretur.

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2

Huic orationi Servius cum intervenisset trepido nuntio excitatus, extemplo a vestibulo curiae magna voce 'Quid hoc' inquit, 'Tarquini, rei est? Qua tu audacia me vivo vocare ausus es patres aut in sede considere mea?' Cum ille ferociter ad haec, se patris sui tenere sedem, multo quam servum potiorem filium regis regni heredem, satis illum diu per licentiam eludentem insultasse dominis, clamor ab utriusque fautoribus oritur et concursus populi fiebat in curiam, apparebatque reg

the strange and marvellous occur

rence.

mor

10. stirpe: i.e. the origin. tem indignam, shameful murder, unworthy of his position and his acts. -non interregno, etc.: see 41.- occupasse, had usurped.

II. ereptum: in so far as it should have been assigned only to the patricians; here again Livy is undoubtedly thinking of later politics.

12. onera: see 42. 5 and 43. 9. —insignis, a mark, made conspicuous by being publicly recorded.

48. huic orationi: the position gives the force, while he was thus haranguing.' - cum interve

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