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esset, duas filias iuvenibus regiis Lucio atque Arrunti 2 Tarquiniis iungit. Nec rupit tamen fati necessitatem humanis consiliis, quin invidia regni etiam inter domesticos infida omnia atque infesta faceret. Peropportune ad praesentis quietem status bellum cum Veientibusiam enim indutiae exierant aliisque Etruscis sump3 tum. In eo bello et virtus et fortuna enituit Tulli, fusoque ingenti hostium exercitu haud dubius rex, seu patrum seu plebis animos periclitaretur, Romam rediit. + Adgrediturque inde ad pacis longe maximum opus, ut, quemadmodum Numa divini auctor iuris fuisset, ita Servium conditorem omnis in civitate discriminis ordinumque, quibus inter gradus dignitatis fortunaeque 5 aliquid interlucet, posteri fama ferrent. Censum enim instituit, rem saluberrimam tanto futuro imperio, ex quo belli pacisque munia non viritim ut ante, sed pro habitu

2. nec rupit, etc.: a short-hand way of saying, and yet he did not succeed (for it is impossible to change the course of destiny by human counsels) in preventing,' etc. invidia regni, the envious desire for the regal power. -domesticos, his own family, but with the same general reference that is seen in the preceding sentence.. - praesentis: referring to the hint of discord above, though trouble was brewing, yet for the moment,' etc. -indutiae: cf. 30. 7.—exierant: the sacred character of ancient compacts caused peoples to set a definite limit to treaties, in order to provide for contingencies. In modern times nations are rarely so particular.

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pecuniarum fierent. Tum classes centuriasque et hunc ordinem ex censu discripsit vel paci decorum vel bello.

Ex iis qui centum milium aeris aut maiorem censum 43 haberent octoginta confecit centurias, quadragenas seniorum ac iuniorum prima classis omnes appellati - 2 seniores ad urbis custodiam ut praesto essent, iuvenes ut foris bella gererent. Arma his imperata galea, clipeum, ocreae, lorica, omnia ex aere, — haec ut tegumenta corporis essent; tela in hostem hastaque et gladius.

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munia: i.e. service and taxes. — vi-
ritim, individually.
pro habitu,
according to the state (of their
fortunes). fierent, should be per-
formed; subjunctive of purpose.
tum: i.e. after having caused the
assessment to be made.. classes:
this word, akin to calare, but prob-
ably borrowed from Greek Kλnσis
(λaois), must have originally re-
ferred to the calling out of troops,
as the militia is called to arms (cf.
legio), whence its constant use for
army and fleet: But at the time of
the Servian Constitution, its mean-
ing must have changed, so that it
came to express the different divis-
ions according to property.cen-
turias: this word also doubtless
changed its meaning at this time,
and came to be used of divisions
irrespective of numbers. - hunc:
i.e. the one given in the following.

ordinem, scale; the order in which rights and duties were given, according to the assessment already made. paci: as giving dignity to political and social relations.

bello: one would expect utile or the like, but that idea is merged in the splendor of the organization.

THE SERVIAN ARMY. 43. centum milium: these numbers can hardly be the origi

nal ratings; for, first, these depended upon holdings of land, and second, they are not based on the full pound of copper, the original as, but upon the later reduced value. - aeris: equal to assium; here probably reckoned of the value of one-tenth of a denarius (15 to 20 cts.). The fortune of the first class would therefore be about two thousand dollars of our money. - censum, fortune; an almost technical use of the word; properly, rating. confecit, he made up. centurias: here not a definite number, but a division of the class, whatever number it happened to be. - seniorum: from forty-five to sixty. - iuniorum: from seventeen to forty-five.

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2. omnes: i.e. both seniors and juniors. — ad urbis, etc. : the whole was especially a military institution, although used also for other purposes. essent: depending on confecit. imperata: they were obliged to provide their own equipment; this sense of requisition is undoubtedly the original one of impero. - galea: a leather cap with metal mountings. - clipeum (here neuter): the round shield like that carried by Greek warriors. — tegumenta corporis : i.e. defensive armor, opposed to tela.- que et: for et... et, as often in Livy; cf. II. 59. 7.

3 Additae huic classi duae fabrum centuriae, quae sine armis stipendia facerent; datum munus ut machinas in 4 bello ferrent. Secunda classis intra centum usque ad quinque et septuaginta milium censum instituta, et ex iis, senioribus iunioribusque, viginti conscriptae centuriae. Arma imperata scutum pro clipeo et praeter loricam 5 omnia eadem. Tertiae classis in quinquaginta milium censum esse voluit. Totidem centuriae et hae, eodemque discrimine aetatium factae; nec de armis quicquam 6 mutatum, ocreae tantum ademptae. In quarta classe census quinque et viginti milium, totidem centuriae factae; arma mutata, nihil praeter hastam et verutum da7 tum. Quinta classis aucta, centuriae triginta factae; fundas lapidesque missiles hi secum gerebant; in his

3. additae, etc.: the form of this statement indicates that these were not selected according to the census. -- fabrum, engineers, but acting as a sort of artillery. — machinas: the engines for throwing stones and darts, corresponding to modern ord.

nance.

4. scutum: the oblong, curved Ishield of the later soldiers. — loricam: i.e. they had no bronze breastplate, which was made unnecessary by the size and shape of the shield.

6. mutata, etc.: with the fourth class begin the distinctively lightarmed. They had no defensive armor. - verutum: a light dart, not used as a lance, like the hasta, but only for a missile. With the hasta, however, they could form a part of the solid phalanx as well, but only in the rear of the heavy

armed.

7. in his accensi, etc.: no very satisfactory meaning can be made out of these words, because any view seems to be inconsistent with the known facts. The whole num

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accensi, cornicines, tubicinesque, in tres centurias distributi. Vndecim milibus haec classis censebatur. Hoc 8 minor census reliquam multitudinem habuit; inde una centuria facta est, immunis militia.

Ita pedestri exercitu ornato distributoque equitum ex primoribus civitatis duodecim scripsit centurias. Sex 9 item alias centurias, tribus ab Romulo institutis, sub isdem quibus inauguratae erant nominibus fecit. Ad equos emendos dena milia aeris ex publico data, et quibus equos alerent, viduae attributae, quae bina milia

confusion is probably Livy's own, who, writing so long after, may easily have counted the unclassed citizens as one century, which in respect to the army they were not.

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-accensi: originally enrolled in addition, but later used as a name for attendants on magistrates. Here, if the theory given above is adopted, it must be taken in its original sense, but as a noun. cornicines: 'players on the horn'; originally literally so; later a bronze instrument of a crooked shape was used, the proper trumpet of the cavalry. tubicines: players on the (straight) trumpet, the proper instrument of the foot. - tres: to make this number correct, we must suppose some such mistake as above suggested, making three extra centuries of orderlies and musicians.

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8. milibus: ablative of price. hoc

ie. than the eleven thousand. - census: a short-hand form for the roll of those having such an amount of property. - inde: i.e. ex eis. — immunis: only those who had a stake in the country were supposed to make good soldiers or to be fit to vote. - militia: ablative of separation. The more regular construction would be genitive. ornato loosely used, not

ment.

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of actual but of regulated equip- primoribus, leading men; apparently chosen arbitrarily, though they would naturally be from the first class.duodecim: apparently Servius, wishing to increase the cavalry as well as the votes of the better class, with true Roman conservatism, did not disturb the old equites, as they had been originally instituted from noble families, but merely doubled their number, and enrolled twelve other centuries not necessarily from the nobles.

9. sex alias, etc.: these were, no doubt, the original equites, which Servius did not venture to disturb. They were always distinguished afterwards as the sex suffragia. tribus, etc. ablative absolute.. isdem the names had a religious character and could not be disturbed. The centuries were called

priores, posteriores, with the origi-
nal designation; cf. 36. 8.- nomi-
nibus: see 13. 8.. dena milia:
the aes equestre, whence the knights
were called equites equo publico..
ex publico: i.e. from the treasury.
- quibus: loosely construed with
bina milia. — viduae: unmarried
women of fortune, who thus paid
their share of the common bur-
dens.bina milia: the aes hor-

ΙΟ

aeris in annos singulos penderent. Haec omnia in dites a pauperibus inclinata onera.

Deinde est horos additus: non enim, ut ab Romulo traditum ceteri servaverant reges, viritim suffragium eadem vi eodemque iure promisce omnibus datum est, sed gradus facti, ut neque exclusus quisquam suffragio videretur et vis omnis penes primores civitatis esset. II Equites enim vocabantur primi, octoginta inde primae classis centuriae primum peditum vocabantur; ibi si variaret, quod raro incidebat, ut secundae classis vocarentur, nec fere umquam infra ita descenderent ut ad 12 infimos pervenirent. Nec mirari oportet hunc ordinem, qui nunc est post expletas quinque et triginta tribus, duplicato earum numero centuriis iuniorum seniorumque,

dearium. — haec omnia: all the arrangements of the constitution in regard to military service, which bore harder on the rich, from the expense of arms and horses, etc.

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10. honos: i.e. a compensating privilege. viritim: i.e. each man having a separate vote. - gradus facti: this was done by giving each century one vote, though the numbers of the centuries differed enormously.-vis omnis, etc. : eighteen centuries of equites and eighty of the first class at once made a majority if they agreed.

II. primum: genitive plural with peditum, consisting of the best class of the foot, i.e. the richest. — ibi: i.e. in eis; cf. ubi, 38. 4.— variaret: see Gr. 309. b.- ut vocarentur: the construction is distorted by incidebat, as if the whole depended on a verb of happening instead of being independent, as in vocabantur. - descenderent: sc. the people in voting.

12. nec mirari, etc. : Livy here evidently refers to the different state

of things in his time in regard to the relative power of the classes of people. At some time in the third century B.C., the constitution was so changed that the first class lost its power of voting first, and at the same time the number of centuries

was

so altered (probably by increase) that the higher classes no longer constituted a majority, as they had under the Servian constitution. The precise nature of the change is unknown, but the organization of the centuries was approximated to that of the local tribes, whereas under the Servian constitution the centuries were independent of the tribes. mirari: sc. quemquam. — ordinem, organization, but referring particularly to the number (cf. summam below) and the consequent change in the tendency of the constitution. — expletas: the number of tribes was gradually increased from four to thirty-five. duplicato: just how this is to be taken is uncertain. If we look at the text alone, it

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