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Tarquinio, quisquam Romanae iuventutis ulla arte conferri potuit, filiamque ei suam rex despondit.

Hic quacumque de causa tantus illi honos habitus 5 credere prohibet serva natum eum parvumque ipsum servisse. Eorum magis sententiae sum qui, Corniculo capto, Servi Tulli, qui princeps in illa urbe fuerat, gra vidam viro occiso uxorem, cum inter reliquas captivas cognita esset, ob unicam nobilitatem ab regina Romana prohibitam ferunt servitio partum Romae edidisse Prisci Tarquini domo. Inde tanto beneficio et inter mulieres 6 familiaritatem auctam, et puerum, ut in domo a parvo eductum, in caritate atque honore fuisse; fortunam matris, quod capta patria in hostium manus venerit, ut serva natus crederetur fecisse.

Duodequadragesimo ferme anno ex quo regnare coe- 40 perat Tarquinius non apud regem modo, sed apud patres plebemque longe maximo honore Servius Tullius erat.

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or respect. — filiamque, and accordingly, etc.

5. hic: i.e. the honor of being married to the king's daughter. quacumque de causa: implying that Livy has a doubt about the preceding story accounting for the superiority of Servius to the other youth; cf. 3. 3.- honos habitus, the fact that, etc.; see Gr. 292. a. credere: see Gr. 331. e. 2.— serva natum: according to one tradition, he had, like other heroes, a supernatural origin, being the son of the Lar familiaris of the house.

Corniculo: an old Latin town near Tivoli; cf. 38. 4. — princeps: the tradition satisfies the necessary requirements by making him of royal blood. -occiso... captivas: according to the laws of war, the males capable of bearing arms were killed, and the women and chil

dren made slaves. - prohibitam: the noble commander's wife was reserved by womanly compassion from the usual fate. - domo: instead of domi; cf. bello, 34. 12.

6. beneficio: the rescue of the mother. - fortunam, the fate; here, as often, of bad fortune. patria, native city, as usual. In ancient times the city was the unit of political life; cf. cremata patria, 1. 8. -serva: as she was legally but for the rescue.

MURDER OF TARQUIN.

40. duodequadragesimo: the importance of the date comes from its being that of the king's death, although that occurrence is not immediately mentioned. The effect is, 'In the year, etc., occurred the king's death in the following manner.'

2 Tum Anci filii duo, etsi antea semper pro indignissimo habuerant se patrio regno tutoris fraude' pulsos, regnare Romae advenam non modo vicinae, sed ne Italicae quidem stirpis, tum impensius iis indignitas crescere, si ne 3 ab Tarquinio quidem ad se rediret regnum, sed praeceps inde porro ad servitia caderet, ut in eadem civitate post centesimum fere annum quod Romulus, deo prognatus deus ipse, tenuerit regnum donec in terris fuerit, id Servius serva natus possideat. Cum commune Romani nominis, tum praecipue id domus suae dedecus fore, si Anci regis virili stirpe salva non modo advenis sed servis etiam regnum Romae pateret.

Ferro igitur eam arcere contumeliam statuunt. Sed et iniuriae dolor in Tarquinium ipsum magis quam in Servium eos stimulabat, et, quia gravior ultor caedis, si superesset, rex futurus erat quam privatus, tum Servio occiso quemcumque alium generum delegisset, eundem regni heredem facturus videbatur, ob haec ipsi regi

2. Anci filii: see 35. 1.-antea: opposed to tum below. non modo: in such expressions, where there is only one verb, ne is sufficient to negative the whole, though we say 'not only not... but not even.' See Gr. 149. e. — - vicinae: which Numa had been. indignitas crescere: instead of a verb to go with filii, which in the long parenthesis has been forgotten.

si. rediret the apodosis is merged in indignitas; properly, it would be indignum, they felt, if he should not,' etc. See Gr. 341. c.

3. porro: Tarquin, though a foreigner, had not been a slave, so that the present prospect was a still further step downward. servitia : the generalizing plural, though only servum is meant. - tenuerit, etc.:

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see Gr. 336. B. a, and N. - Servius: with a sarcastic allusion to its derivation from servus. — advenis: like Tarquinius.

4. sed: opposed to the inference that Servius would be the object of their attack. -et et: there were three reasons for the attack upon Tarquin, one introduced by the first et, and the other two grouped together by quia ... tum, and introduced by the second et. iniuriae: their wrongs had been occasioned originally by the acts of Tarquin. superesset: standing for supersit in their thought. delegisset: standing for fut. perf. delegerit in their thought. dem, etc.: if he survived, they could not prevent him from choosing a son-in-law, and it was likely

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insidiae parantur. Ex pastoribus duo ferocissimi delecti 5 ad facinus, quibus consueti erant uterque agrestibus ferramentis, in vestibulo regiae quam potuere tumultuosissime specie rixae in se omnes apparitores regios convertunt. Inde, cum ambo regem appellarent clamorque eorum penitus in regiam pervenisset, vocati ad regem pergunt. Primo uterque vociferari et certatim alter 6 alteri obstrepere. Coerciti ab lictore et iussi invicem dicere tandem obloqui desistunt, unus rem ex composito orditur. Dum intentus in eum se rex totus averteret, 7 alter elatam securim in caput deiecit, relictoque in vulnere telo ambo se foras eiciunt.

Tarquinium moribundum cum qui circa erant exce- 41 pissent, illos fugientes lictores comprehendunt. Clamor inde concursusque populi mirantium quid rei esset. Tanaquil inter tumultum claudi regiam iubet, arbitros eiecit; simul quae curando vulneri opus sunt, tamquam spes subesset, sedulo comparat, simul, si destituat spes, alia praesidia molitur.

this son-in-law would be made king, whoever he should be.

5. ferocissimi, most desperate. quibus: sc. eis; see Gr. 200. b.

ferramentis, implements, pikes, axes, or the like, for defense against wolves, and for chopping; cf. securim, below.-vestibulo: conceived as a yard in front of the house, no doubt the original sense of the word.-rixae: the pretended quarrel was between themselves, and their violent action draws the attention of the servitors to keep the peace. - appellarent: each one appealed to the king for justice.-vocati: the king heard them and called them in.

6. vociferari, began to cry out at once. certatim, etc., obstreper

ously endeavor to, etc. obloqui, to interrupt each other. -rem (to state) his case.

7. totus: see Gr. 191. teret: see Gr. 328. a. N.

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41. excepissent, had caught, as he fell. illos fugientes, the flying assassins. mirantium: see Gr. 187. d. — quid rei esset, what the matter was; see Gr. 216. a. 3.— arbitros: in its earlier sense of witnesses. - simul. . . simul: correlatives not found in Cicero, but frequent in Livy. curando: cf. Gr. 299. a. subesset, there were still; for tense, see Gr. 312. — destituat: present sequence, to avoid the implication of the contrary-tofact idea. The apodosis is merged in alia praesidia.

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Servio propere accito cum paene exsanguem virum ostendisset, dextram tenens orat ne inultam mortem 3 soceri, ne socrum inimicis ludibrio esse sinat. 'Tuum est' inquit, Servi, si vir es, regnum, non eorum qui alienis manibus pessimum facinus fecere. Erige te deosque duces sequere, qui clarum hoc fore caput divino quondam circumfuso igni portenderunt. Nunc te illa caelestis excitet flamma, nunc expergiscere vere. Et

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nos peregrini regnavimus. Qui sis, non unde natus sis, reputa. Si tua re subita consilia torpent, at tu mea 4 consilia sequere.' Cum clamor impetusque multitudinis vix sustineri posset, ex superiore parte aedium per fenestras in Novam viam versas habitabat enim rex ad 5 Iovis Statoris — populum Tanaquil adloquitur. Iubet bono animo esse: sopitum fuisse regem subito ictu, ferrum haud alte in corpus descendisse, iam ad se redisse; inspectum vulnus absterso cruore; omnia salubria esse.

2. virum, her husband. - inultam, etc. the arrangement is chiastic. ludibrio: according to ancient ideas, an unavenged outrage makes the sufferer a subject of ridicule, a laughing-stock.

3. vir, a man, really and truly such; cf. 'all are not men who wear the human form.' alienis: implying that the pastores were only the agents of the sons of Ancus. facinus fecere: a favorite form of alliteration in Latin, like' do a deed' in English. vere: as opposed to his former awaking from sleep. Now he is to awake from his unambitious sloth. et nos, etc.: i.e. we, too, were foreigners as well as you, and yet we gained the royal power. qui sis: i.e. your great genius, as opposed to your humble origin. - tua: notice the emphasis, opposed to mea. consilia, counsels; i.e. the knowl

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edge what to do. torpent, are paralyzed.

4. clamor impetusque, etc., the clamorous, rushing crowd; i.e. the throng trying to break into the palace. ex superiore, etc.: the Roman houses were built with hardly any windows in the lower story on the street, as is seen in the ruins of Pompeii, but with openings closed by shutters in the upper stories. — Novam viam : this street descended from the ancient Porta Mugionis, on the Palatine, along the Forum. The temple of Jupiter Stator was on it. The ruins of these places are still traceable on the newly excavated Palatine Hill. habitabat, etc., for the king's house was, etc.

5. sopitum, rendered unconscious. fuisse: after the word of saying implied in iubet.-confidere: sc. se, omitted on account of the rapidity of the narrative.

Confidere prope diem ipsum eos visuros; interim Servio Tullio iubere populum dicto audientem esse; eum iura redditurum obiturumque alia regis munia esse. Servius 6 cum trabea et lictoribus prodit ac, sede regia sedens, alia decernit, de aliis consulturum se regem esse simulat. Itaque per aliquot dies, cum iam exspirasset Tarquinius, celata morte per speciem alienae fungendae vicis suas opes firmavit; tum demum palam factum est ex complora· tione in regia orta. Servius, praesidio firmo munitus, primus iniussu populi voluntate patrum regnavit. Anci 7 liberi iam tum, comprensis sceleris ministris, ut vivere regem et tantas esse opes Servi nuntiatum est, Suessam Pometiam exsulatum ierant.

Nec iam publicis magis consiliis Servius quam priva- 42 tis munire opes et ne, qualis Anci liberum animus adversus Tarquinium fuerat, talis adversus se Tarquini liberum

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iubere: sc. regem; cf. last note. -Tullio: see Gr. 227. N. 2. eum ... esse: the words of the king. iura redditurum, would dispense justice; one of the chief functions of a king; cf. the legal fiction of English courts, 'Court of King's Bench,' etc.

6. trabea: a robe, worn by the early kings, and preserved in the garb of the augurs and Salii, and of the equites and consuls on special occasions. It was certainly variegated in color, probably by purple and white stripes (trabes).

lictoribus: cf. 8. 2. sede regia: Livy has in his mind the sella curulis, which was certainly later one of the insignia of supreme power, but perhaps not in early times. alia... aliis: i.e. different questions that were brought before him-simulat: thus keeping up the pretence that he was acting as a substitute for the king. - ce

lata: accompanying (not preceding) the main action (firmavit); a use of the perfect participle that grows more and more common, but is on the whole rare except in some deponents (Gr. 290. b). — alienae : see Gr. 214. a. 2. vicis: cf. regiae vicis, 20. 2. suas: opposed to alienae. tum demum : i.e. not till after he had secured his power, as set forth. praesidio, body-guard. iniussu, not elected; cf. 17. 10.- voluntate, the acquiescence, as opposed to their formal approval (auctoritate).

7. iam tum: i.e. before Servius acted independently as king.

WARS AND INSTITUTIONS OF
SERVIUS.

42. publicis, etc.: i.e. his official acts; privatis: i.e. his proceedings in his domestic affairs, mentioned in the following sentence. - - Anci liberum: cf. 40. 2.

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