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Auguriis certe sacerdotioque augurum tantus honos accessit ut nihil belli domique postea nisi auspicato gereretur, concilia populi, exercitus vocati, summa rerum, 7 ubi aves non admisissent, dirimerentur. Neque tum Tarquinius de equitum centuriis quicquam mutavit; numero alterum tantum adiecit, ut mille octingenti equites 8 in tribus centuriis essent. Posteriores modo sub isdem nominibus qui additi erant appellati sunt, quas nunc, quia geminatae sunt, sex vocant centurias.

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Hac parte copiarum aucta iterum cum Sabinis confligitur. Sed praeterquam quod viribus creverat Romanus exercitus, ex occulto etiam additur dolus, missis qui magnam vim lignorum, in Anienis ripa iacentem, ardentem in flumen conicerent; ventoque iuvante accensa ligna, et pleraque impacta in ratibus sublicis cum hae

6. certe: i.e. whether the old tradition is true or not. nihil, etc. i.e. whereas augury had only been used for the most important matters, now nothing of any account was done without it. concilia populi: probably the comitia tributa.- exercitus: the comitia centuriata, which was assembled as a military muster; cf. 44. I. summa rerum, acts of the highest moment, in apposition with the preceding. admisissent: cf. ubi dixisset, 32. 13 n. - dirimerentur: i.e. the bodies called together for the highest functions of the state are dissolved again, if the omens are unfavorable. This power of interrupting proceedings by real or pretended auspices (obnuntiatio) became a potent factor in politics, and continued through the republic.

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7. neque tum: i.e. Tarquin was prevented from doing what he intended on that occasion; an example under the general rule just given. -mutavit: i.e. he did not add a

new division, he only increased the number, which was not an innovation. alterum tantum, as many more; cf. as much again.' Livy probably wrote the words in this order, though the MSS. have tantum alterum, here and X. 46. – mille octingenti: this number does not agree with Livy's other accounts (cf. 13. 8, 30. 3), but it is to be remembered that Livy does not claim exactness; and as accounts differed, he takes sometimes one and sometimes another. The whole subject is in utter confusion.

8. modo: i.e. only they did have a distinctive name, posteriores. geminatae: from three to six. sex centurias: regularly sex suffragia, as having, under the Servian constitution, six votes as centuries. The number of persons is uncertain.

WAR WITH THE SABINES. 37. ex occulto: opposed to the increased Roman strength, which was an open advantage. — arden

rerent, pontem incendunt. Ea quoque res in pugna 2 terrorem attulit Sabinis, effusis eadem fugam impediit, multique mortales, cum hostem effugissent, in flumine ipso periere; quorum fluitantia. arma ad urbem cognita. in Tiberi, prius paene quam nuntiari posset, insignem victoriam fecere.

Eo proelio praecipua equitum gloria fuit. Vtrimque 3 ab cornibus positos, cum iam pelleretur media peditum suorum acies, ita incurrisse ab lateribus ferunt, ut non sisterent modo Sabinas legiones ferociter instantes cedentibus, sed subito in fugam averterent. Montes effuso cursu Sabini petebant. Et pauci tenuere; maxima pars, ut ante dictum est, ab equitibus in flumen acti sunt. Tar- 5 quinius instandum perterritis ratus, praeda captivisque Romam missis, spoliis hostium-id votum Vulcano erat - ingenti cumulo accensis, pergit porro in agrum Sabinum exercitum inducere, et quamquam male gestae res 6 erant nec gesturos melius sperare poterant, tamen, quia consulendi res non dabat spatium, iere obviam Sabini tumultuario milite iterumque ibi fusi, perditis iam prope rebus, pacem petiere.

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Collatia et quicquid citra Collatiam agri erat Sabinis ademptum, Egerius-fratris hic filius erat regis - Collatiae in praesidio relictus. Deditosque Collatinos ita 2 accipio eamque deditionis formulam esse: Rex interrogavit Estisne vos legati oratoresque missi a populo Conlatino, ut vos populumque Conlatinum dederetis?' 'Sumus.' 'Estne populus Conlatinus in sua potestate?' 'Est.' 'Deditisne vos populumque Conlatinum, urbem, agros, aquam, terminos, delubra, utensilia, divina humanaque omnia in meam populique Romani dicionem ?' 'Dedimus.' 'At ego recipio.'

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Bello Sabino perfecto Tarquinius triumphans Romam 4 redit. Inde Priscis Latinis bellum fecit, ubi nusquam ad universae rei dimicationem ventum est: ad singula oppida circumferendo arma omne nomen Latinum domuit. Corniculum, Ficulea vetus, Cameria, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullia, Nomentum, haec de Priscis Latinis aut qui ad Latinos defecerant capta oppida. Pax deinde est facta.

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Maiore inde animo pacis opera incohata quam quanta 5 mole gesserat bella, ut non quietior populus domi esset quam militiae fuisset. Nam et muro lapideo, cuius exor- 6 dium operis Sabino bello turbatum erat, urbem, qua nondum munierat, cingere parat, et infima urbis loca circa forum aliasque interiectas collibus convalles, quia ex planis locis haud facile evehebant aquas, cloacis fastigio in Tiberim ductis siccat, et aream ad aedem in Capi- 7 tolio Iovis, quam voverat bello Sabino, iam praesagiente animo futuram olim amplitudinem loci, occupat fundamentis.

Eo tempore in regia prodigium visum eventuque mira- 39 bile fuit. Puero dormienti, cui Servio Tullio fuit nomen, caput arsisse ferunt multorum in conspectu. Plurimo 2 igitur clamore inde ad tantae rei miraculum orto excitos reges et, cum quidam familiarium aquam ad restinguen

5. animo...mole: i.e. the spirit with which he improved the city in peace was greater than the effort he had made in war. quietior: as the labor was enforced like military service, the imposition was as great in peace as it had been in

war.

6. exordium: see 36. 1. — -infima: including the Forum, and the valleys running into it, the region between that and the Tiber, and the Circus Maximus. ex planis, etc. the reason why the water did not run off, because there was no pitch. - fastigio, with a grade. The level did not carry off the water, and so the sewer was built sloping down to the Tiber, necessarily under ground.

7. aream: the regular Latin word for a lot in a city; here of the place on which the great temple was afterwards to be built. — futuram: i.e. quae futura erat; see

Gr. 293. b.

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fundamentis: the substructure to enlarge and level the rough hill. The temple was not built till afterwards; see 55. 2.

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE OF SER-
VIUS TULLIUS.

39. eo tempore: i.e. in the part
of the reign of Tarquin just de-
scribed. - visum: sc. est; the sec-
ond part (with fuit) is from a
different point of view, yet undoubt-
edly it is the thought of fuit that
makes Livy omit the copula.
eventu, its fulfillment. - puero:
it is not necessarily but naturally
implied that he was a slave.
Tullio cf. Troiano, 1. 3 n.
sisse: a common omen among the
ancients; cf. Virg. Aen. II. 681 seq.

-- ar

2. clamore: the means of excitos. ad: cf. ad desiderium, 7. 7 n.

-reges, the royal family. - familiarium, servants, in accordance with its derivation from familia, famu

dum ferret, ab regina retentum, sedatoque eam tumultu moveri vetuisse puerum donec sua sponte experrectus 3 esset. Mox cum somno et flammam abisse. Tum abducto in secretum viro Tanaquil 'Viden tu puerum hunc' inquit, 'quem tam humili cultu educamus? Scire licet hunc lumen quondam rebus nostris dubiis futurum praesidiumque regiae adflictae. Proinde materiam ingentis publice privatimque decoris omni indulgentia nostra nutriamus.'

Inde puerum liberum loco coeptum haberi erudirique artibus quibus ingenia ad magnae fortunae cultum excitantur. Evenit facile quod diis cordi esset: iuvenis evasit vere indolis regiae nec, cum quaereretur gener

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3. in secretum, in private; the regular word for a private interview.

viden: the regular colloquial form of videsne; cf. do not and don't in English. inquit: this sudden change from indirect to direct discourse is common in all periods of the language, either with or without the verb of saying. humili: in reference to his position as a slave. scire licet, it is clear; cf. scilicet, which is often, though not regularly, used in the same sense. -lumen: in allusion to the phenomenon; cf. for the figure, lucem adferre rei publicae, Cic. Manil. 12. 33. hunc (regularly hoc, Gr. 195. d): here equivalent to hunc puerum. quondam, at

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some time; cf. Aen. VI. 876, and the common use of olim.—regiae, the royal house. - proinde: cf. 9. 4 n. publice: see Gr. 207. d. This use becomes more and more frequent in later writers.

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4. liberum, of a son. The word, denoting collectively the children of the house as opposed to the slaves, is frequently used of one person. coeptum: resuming the indirect discourse. artibus: sc. liberalibus, as a liberal education is still called. magnae fortunae, of a lofty position. cultum: opposed to cultu in 3, but with a different shade of meaning; there the process, and here the result, as in the much-abused culture. It means everything that belongs to life and its ideals. excitantur, are elevated. esset: characteristic subjunctive, as often happens, giving at the same time the reason why it turned out so. See Gr. 320.indolis: predicate after evasit; cf. incedo regina, and see Gr. 214. c. — arte: cf. artibus above, but best translated quality

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