Lapas attēli

Et in quem

Enetos Troianosque eas tenuisse terras. primo egressi sunt locum Troia vocatur, pagoque Troiano inde nomen est; gens universa Veneti appellati. 4 Aeneam ab simili clade domo profugum, sed ad maiora rerum initia ducentibus fatis primo in Macedoniam venisse, inde in Siciliam quaerentem sedes delatum, ab 5 Sicilia classe ad Laurentem agrum tenuisse. Troia et huic loco nomen est. Ibi egressi Troiani, ut quibus ab immenso prope errore nihil praeter arma et naves super

Helbig, Die Italiken in der Poe-
bene. - et, and in fact; as still
appears; though, of course, these
names may have been given from the
story. This is a remark of Livy out-
side of the indirect discourse.
in quem
locum: see Gr.
200. b. primo: i.e. their first land-
ing, though they afterwards con-
quered the whole country. - Tro-
iano: the name; see Gr. 231. b. -
— universa, united; i.e. including
both stems.

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Veneti: the resemblance of name may have been merely an accident giving rise to the story; but such migrations were common in early times, and the story may possibly be true in its main features.

appellati: attracted to the nearest noun; see Gr. 204. b.

4. Aeneam: cf. Antenorem, 2. -ab, from.

maiora: we should expect maiorum; but it is almost a tendency of the Latin, especially in poetry, to make an adjective agree with some subordinate but grammatically leading part of a complex idea. Cf. Aen. VII. 44, maior rerum ordo.

rerum: we should say destiny; but Livy has in his mind the Roman state. Cf. res Romana, 9. 1.

fatis: a common idea with the Romans. Cf. Aen. I. 2, III. 182, VII. 123.

Macedoniam: there was a city Ænea in this province, perhaps connected with the worship of Venus, to which cult this name Æneas especially belongs. Cf. Aen. III. 17, which probably refers to the same place.

Siciliam: Segeste was very early recognized as a kindred city by the Romans. It is likely that the myth of Æneas was connected with the worship of Venus on Mount Eryx, and perhaps came from that region by way of Cuma to Latium. Cf. Aen. Book V., and Tac. Ann. IV. 43. 6.

Laurentem agrum: this region lies south of the mouth of the Tiber. Its chief city was Laurentum, about fifteen miles southwest from Rome and a little southeast from Ostia. Cf. Aen. VII. 171.— tenuisse: sc. cursum, which is often omitted.

5. Troia: the emphasis causes the nominative instead of the more common dative; cf. Troiano, 3. et huic: the name seems to have become attached to several places, probably only through the influence of the myth.; cf. Cic. Att. IX. 13. 6, Troianum (praedium).—ibi: Virgil puts the landing farther north, by the mouth of the Tiber.-ut quibus: explanatory of the Trojans' predatory excursions; in the characteristic relative construction, a

esset, cum praedam ex agris agerent, Latinus rex Aboriginesque, qui tum ea tenebant loca, ad arcendam vim advenarum armati ex urbe atque agris concurrunt.

Duplex inde fama est: alii proelio victum Latinum 6 pacem cum Aenea, deinde adfinitatem iunxisse tradunt; alii, cum instructae acies constitissent, priusquam signa 7 canerent, processisse Latinum inter primores ducemque advenarum evocasse ad conloquium; percunctatum deinde qui mortales essent, unde aut quo casu profecti domo quidve quaerentes in agrum Laurentem exissent, post- 8 quam audierit multitudinem Troianos esse, ducem Aeneam filium Anchisae et Veneris, cremata patria

favorite one with Livy; properly, as persons to whom,' etc., as men would naturally do,' etc.

Latinus: see Aen. VII. 45. urbe: i.e. Laurentum. The ancient commonwealths consisted of an oppidum, a fortified city which was the centre and citadel, and the ager, as much land—usually ten or a dozen miles across-as could be cultivated and defended by operations from the city. In case of invasion, the persons and property were taken into the city for security, and the country abandoned, or else the militia was rallied to repel the invaders.

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Aborigines: it is uncertain whether this has a real or only a popular Latin etymology. It may have been a tribe, but was supposed to mean the original inhabitants of Italy.

6. inde, from that point.-proelio: the emphasis gives the force, 'Some say there was an actual battle; others, that only the lines were formed,' etc. adfinitatem: i.e. by the marriage with Lavinia.

7. inter primores, to the front; among those who fought in the first iine.

mortales: used by Sallust and later writers for homines. The use of the word at all adds a little emphasis to the question, like 'what manner of men they were,' or 'who the strangers were.' unde . . . domo: i.e. 'where was their home, and by what chance they had come away from it?' Vnde domo are often used together, but here domo is connected also with quo casu.aut: we should expect et; but the Latin often presents questions, like negatives, disjunctively; so quidve. This form of expression gives a peculiar force to a question, like Who are you, or why have you left your homes (any way, whoever you are)? We don't know you, nor have you any business to be away from home, nor at any rate to be making depredations on our land.' So Aen. I. 369.

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8. audierit: in direct discourse, audivit, and the tense is retained (Gr. 336. B. a). — multitudinem: i.e. the people in general; cf. 2. n.

- Troianos: answer to qui mortales and unde; cremata: answer to quo casu; sedem: answer to quidve quaerentes. - patria,

domo profugos sedem condendaeque urbis locum quaerere, et nobilitatem admiratum gentis virique et animum vel bello vel paci paratum, dextra data fidem futurae 9 amicitiae sanxisse. Inde foedus ictum inter duces, inter exercitus salutationem factam, Aeneam apud Latinum fuisse in hospitio. Ibi Latinum apud penates deos domesticum publico adiunxisse foedus filia Aeneae in 10 matrimonium data. Ea utique res Troianis spem adfirmat tandem stabili certaque sede finiendi erroris. II Oppidum condunt, Aeneas ab nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat. Brevi stirpis quoque virilis ex novo matrimonio fuit, cui Ascanium parentes dixere nomen.

native city; the fatherland of the ancients was their city. conden

dae urbis the dative might have been used, depending on the verbal idea.-sedem, locum: referring to domo profugos and to patria chiastically. It is of the greatest assistance to remember, in reading Latin, that it is a very formal language, and proceeds by antitheses and ideas regularly matched, not always in exact form, but always in substance. The best way to be sure what a Latin expression means is to see what it is opposed to. nobilitatem, the fame; i.e. as being the well-known Trojans and Æneas. - animum, their spirit, as shown by their conduct, intrepid, but not malicious nor savage.


fidem: only a pledge; the treaty follows afterwards. sanxisse : used like our sealed, made it binding by the hand-shaking; a very old form of promise.

UNION OF THE TWO RACES. 9. foedus: a formal treaty, with religious ceremonies (ictum).lutationem, mutual greetings. Cf. salve, salutem dicere.


penates: the gods of the household. Exactly what they were is

very uncertain; perhaps the Romans didn't know themselves. Their name is evidently connected with penes, penitus, penus, so that they represent the gods of the inner family life of the Romans.

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10. ea res: the marriage. utique, fully; properly, at any rate, however doubtful the hope might have been before, but implying that there was some. adfirmat, confirmed; the original meaning, for which usually confirmo is used. stabili, permanent, likely to last (objective); certa, secure, about which they had no distrust (subjective). The Latin is very fond of presenting the two sides or phases of an idea in a way that seems to us tautological.

II. Lavinium: the name of the woman is probably made up from the name of the town; see Introduction, 4.-brevi: often thus without tempore.- stirpis: a longer form, retaining the original i.—quoque : i.e. an heir to the line as well as a founder of it.-novo: in reference to the earlier marriage of Æneas, see Aeneid, passim, where this son is assigned to the first marriage; cf. 3. 2.

Bello deinde Aborigines Troianique simul petiti. 2 Turnus rex Rutulorum, cui pacta Lavinia ante adventum Aeneae fuerat, praelatum sibi advenam aegre patiens, simul Aeneae Latinoque bellum intulerat. Neutra 2 acies laeta ex eo certamine abiit: victi Rutuli, victores Aborigines Troianique ducem Latinum amisere. Inde 3 Turnus Rutulique diffisi rebus ad florentes opes Etruscorum Mezentiumque regem eorum confugiunt, qui Caere, opulento tum oppido, imperitans, iam inde ab initio. minime laetus novae origine urbis et tum nimio plus quam satis tutum esset accolis rem Troianam crescere ratus, haud gravatim socia arma Rutulis iunxit.

Aeneas, adversus tanti belli terrorem ut animos Abori- 4 ginum sibi conciliaret nec sub eodem iure solum sed etiam nomine omnes essent, Latinos utramque gentem


2. bello: notice the emphasis. So far they had had peace, now they had a trial of war.- - Turnus: see Aen. Book VII. seqq. — fuerat: see Gr. 291. b. R.

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2. victores: as if 'were victorious, but,' etc.

3. Rutulique, and the rest of the Rutulians; as often with -que. — diffisi rebus, despairing of success; properly, not having confidence in the condition of their affairs.-florentes: emphatic as opposed to diffisi rebus. - Mezentium: Virgil makes him a king of a small portion only of the Etruscans.- Caere (ablative): one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan league; here represented as master of all. — oppido: Cicero would use in; but poetic constructions begin to appear in Livy. — tum : in Livy's time it was in ruins. — nimio, very

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4. adversus, to meet. - tanti belli terrorem, so formidable an enemy.— belli: almost concrete in Latin, referring to the combined force arrayed against him. The whole, by the use of adversus and by the position, makes a shorthand expression for "This combination was so alarming that Æneas felt the need of some special measures to meet it. These he found in the closer union of his two classes of subjects, and therefore, to attach, etc., he called, etc.'

ut, wishing to; cf. Aen. XII. 190, 823, and 837.

iure... nomine: their position had been the same, but from the

5 appellavit. Nec deinde Aborigines Troianis studio ac fide erga regem Aeneam cessere; fretusque his animis. coalescentium in dies magis duorum populorum Aeneas, quamquam tanta opibus Etruria erat ut iam non terras solum, sed mare etiam per totam Italiae longitudinem ab Alpibus ad fretum Siculum fama nominis sui implesset, tamen, cum moenibus bellum propulsare posset, in 6 aciem copias eduxit. Secundum inde proelium Latinis, Aeneae etiam ultimum mortalium operum fuit. Situs est, quemcumque eum dici ius fasque est, super Numicum fluvium, Iovem indigetem appellant.

3 Nondum maturus imperio Ascanius Aeneae filius erat, tamen id imperium ei ad puberem aetatem incolume

difference of name there was a lack of common national feeling which was now secured.

5. ac: the ideas are closely united, where aut would separate them.

fretus the emphasis gives the idea, 'And such was his confidence, etc., that he did not shrink from the contest, and that, too, in the open field.' his animis: i.e. studio ac fide in both classes. - coalescentium: this to us awkward compression of a relative clause into a participle is characteristic of postCiceronian Latin. It emphasizes the meaning of the participle.-iam: notice the force of coming to,' 'getting to,' or the like, which is always present in this word.-cum: introducing a new subordinate concession. bellum, the enemy, or the invasion; cf. belli above (4).

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