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125 "I am directing the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to conduct systems analyses and other studies to dettermine the most effective means of bringing high-quality medical services to all the people at the lowest cost. "I recommend a 3-year program to provide grants for training in allied health professions; To construct and to improve needed educational facilities. To offer fellowships for students in advanced training. To stimulate institutions to develop new types of health personnel.

"Over the past 10 years, Congress has increased the budget for health research thirteenfold. The dividends from this investment are incalculable." President Johnson's message stated, and restated, this Nation's commitment to medical and paramedical training and research, and the great benefits that result from such support.

At the present time most of us are reacting emotionally (and justifiably so) to the pet thievery and the horrible conditions at several profiteering animal dealers. These have been scandalously presented in the various news media the past several months. It is indeed regrettable that the manner in which they have fbeen presented infers that the biomedical community is a party to these horrible herba conditions.

We sincerely believe that the Members of Congress and the biomedical scienattists of this country have the same goals; namely, to establish a favorable legal of he and social environment in which to provide training and conduct studies that I will improve the health and well-being of both man and animals.

And now to my fourth purpose, which is to suggest a means whereby Congress can obtain knowledgeable assistance to frame constructive legislation. We are faced with a huge number of bills in both Houses of Congress which have been referred to several different committees. The cross purposes and confusion are so great that most of us feel immobilized. This is evidenced by the fact that the various branches of the biomedical sciences organizations and agencies have not reached full accord as to the best approach to achieve our common goals. Other organizations will undoubtedly present modified versions of the bills under consideration. The Medical Research Association of California would like to include into the record as part of this written testimony constructive modifications of the bills which are concerned with the interstate shipment of dogs and cats which are considered to be personal property.

We further propose Mr. Chairman that you appoint a committee of your choice, composed of congressional colleagues, legislative legal counselors, repreallsentatives from universities, medical schools, dental schools, schools of public health, schools of veterinary medicine, Government agencies and laboratories, commercial laboratories and, most important of all, a representative from the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources-National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources was norganized in November 1952 under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, acting in an advisory capacity. The Institute is engaged in the dissemination of information and education on experimental animal resources and the establishment of standards.


Its objectives are

I(a) To survey and list existing suppliers and sources of animal stocks used in biological (including medical, agricultural, and industrial) research, testing, and assaying.

(b) To ascertain location and numbers of currently available breeds and strains of both laboratory-raised animals and animals obtained from natural environments.

(c) To provide for the perpetuation and maintenance, including emergency financial support, of special and new strains of singular importance for the study of specific problems or diseases.

II (a) To survey and list present users of animal stocks.

(b) To determine volumes of demand for the various species and strains. III. To improve the supply of laboratory animals by establishing and promulgating scientific standards of definition, terminology, and tolerable variation by

(a) Providing information to suppliers and breeders on improving the quality of species and strains, genetic inbreeding, housing, breeding techniques, care, feeding, and disease prevention and treatment.

(b) Defining species and animals available from natural sources and encouraging the collecting, breeding, and improving of these species, particularly those imported from distant and unreliable source areas.

(c) Suggesting the introduction of new animals for experimenta! and new breeds for specific uses.

IV. To collect and disseminate information on animals most suitable f specific types of investigations and assays, including the determination specific susceptibilities and resistance of animal strains in important are of research and assaying (e.g., climatic and parasitologic conditions, 2. tritional deficiencies, radiation, drugs).

V. To act as a clearinghouse for the collection, correlation, evaluat. and dissemination of information of value to animal suppliers and us and for cooperation with other interested groups.

V. To help, in natural and other emergencies—

(a) Devise means of meeting promptly a sudden increase in denar for given animal stocks;

(b) Procure emergency supplies and animal stocks:

(c) Obtain animals from distant areas and particularly from natur. i sources;


(d) Collect information concerning ability of suppliers to expe facilities and production;

(e) Promote studies on use of alternate strains of animals for e perimental use;

(f) Anticipate changes in major needs of animals; and

(g) Recommend relocation of key stocks in event of disease epider or insecurity of areas.

VIII. To promote the comparative study of extrapolation of animal dr to conditions in man.

VIII. To promote international exchange of information and of specialize stocks and assist in securing needed replacements or new stocks.

IX. To promote improvements in the transportation, quarantining, dis tribution, and care of laboratory animals.

A committee with this composition, knowledgeable and mature people, shock be given the task of framing a bill that will be beneficial, effective, workałe worthy of support by a majority of both House and Senate and acceptable * the President of the United States.

We suggest that temporary political expediencies and distracting emotives be set aside so that we can produce, forthwith, in a cooperative effort a c structive and meaningful law, that will be a credit to the combined wisdom this great Congress and their scientific partners.

Senator MONRONEY. Our next witness is Mrs. Christine Steves Animal Welfare Institute and Society for Animal Protection Leg lation. She will be accompanied by Mrs. Kay Pittman and Mr. T. I Hughes who will also testify at the same time.

Thank you, Mrs. Stevens, for appearing before the committee ar for bringing your assistants to assist in the testimony. I believe y have added one or two other witnesses.


Mrs. STEVENS. Yes. These are not necessarily our assistants. Mrs. Dyce is the laboratory animal consultant for the Animal We fare Institute. Mr. Hughes is the executive director

Senator MONRONEY. Would you give the initials of Mrs. Dyce ar Mr. Hughes?

Mrs. STEVENS. Mrs. Robert Dyce and Mr. T. I. Hughes. Mr. Hughe is executive director of the Ontario Humane Society. He has co here from Canada because he has a great deal of information and is o of the pioneers in this effort to regulate dog dealers.

Miss Fay Brisk, who is here today, is the similar pioneer in the country on this subject.

Mrs. Kay Pittman on my left is a reporter for the Memphis Press Scimitar and has had a series of outstanding front-page stories on her visits to the Ripley, Miss., Monday Trade Day.

Miss Helene Artsay is a 4th-year veterinary student at Michigan State University. She has visited many laboratories, has assisted with animal experimentation, and has just recently published an excellent paper on animal care based on her own original research.

The reason we have brought people from outside the organizations which I represent, which are the Animal Welfare Institute and the Society for Animal Protective Legislation, is that we believe that each one can throw a special light on questions that are before this committee.

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First of all, perhaps I should summarize my own testimony if that is agreeable with you, Senator Monroney.

Senator MONRONEY. Yes.

Mrs. STEVENS. And then each one will continue with his.

Also it is important that we should answer some of the charges which have been incorrectly made, but I think that might best come at the end.

Senator MONRONEY. That will be fine.

Mrs. STEVENS. Thank you.

Senator MONRONEY. Your statement will appear in full as though read, and then you may summarize.

Mrs. STEVENS. I will read certain parts of the statement.

Also, before I begin I would like to submit for the record reports which we made last year to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare when they asked for comments, "A Critical Review of Conditions in Institutions Receiving Funds Under Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Auspices," by the Animal Welfare Institute. It gives many examples of mistreatment of animals particularly in the area of care and housing which would be covered by S. 2322 and S. 3059.

With this we submit "Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals," published by the institute and given free on request to all laboratories in an attempt to improve conditions for laboratories on a voluntary basis.

Also "Basic Care of Experimental Animals" which is given free to all animal caretakers on request.

Also a statement from the Society for Animal Protective Legislation was presented at this time to the Department of HEW. This copy is for the committee, and I would read one brief note from it because it relates to what Dr. Greenbaum said about the supply of animals from the ASPCA shelters in New York City under the HatchMetcalf Act:

As Dr. Piliero of the New York Medical College told us in 1962, the college used to get them

That is, dogs

from SPCA, but they are "scrub dogs, full of fleas," so the college changed to Pennsylvania dealers.

The major point in this bill we believe is the broad coverage whereby all animals in both laboratory and dealers' premises and in transport must be humanely handled and cared for.

We believe provision for stopping payments of Federal fundany institution which refuses to obey the law is a sound sanction should be included. It has worked well in the Federal Hu Slaughter Act of 1958 and should be equally effective in stopp abuses in care and housing of animals for experimentation.

Scientific groups are making a determined effort to have the p visions requiring humane care and housing of animals in laboratordeleted from these bills. Despite all evidence to the contrary, t still claim that outside intervention is not needed.

We have heard repeatedly during this testimony about wh known as the AAALAC. That is the American Association for A creditation of Laboratory Animal Care. And the reason you haveoften heard the desire to shift to another committee on the subject animal care in laboratories is twofold.

One point was brought out very firmly by Miss Jones just nowthat legislation on the subject has been pending before that commirfor 6 years with no action whatsoever. Another is that the bill whi the opponents desired to see enacted would give power to this ne group, the AAALAC. It is the brainchild, as you heard from Dr. Vscher, of the National Society for Medical Research, accompanied the AMA, the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, and others.

This AAALAC will send members of its council on a "site visit to a laboratory for a fee of $100 to $1,000. If the laboratory is a credited as a result of this site visit, the accreditation is valid for: years.

What exactly would be accomplished by the "site visits" and accred tation? A view from the inside will make this clear, and I quote from the testimony of Dr. Samuel Peacock, who was unable to be here today because he is so greatly occupied with research and writing for å scientific meeting. You have his testimony in full, but I will quote it briefly:

I have always used animals in my research and will continue to do so. I am a member of the American Physiological Society and American Academy & Neurology.

Of the AAALAC he writes:

Self-regulation through the American Association for Accreditation of Labora tory Animal Care is a farce. For example, one of the facilities with which I am a consultant research associate, was inspected by a committee representing this organization. Their appointment was set up a week in advance. The animal colony attendant worked overtime for days cleaning up the colony, painting cages et cetera. No cats were ordered for the week so that the usual overcrowding would be avoided.

When the committee arrived, they saw cats each in its own cage with food and water. Had they arrived unannounced 1 week later, they would have seen four or five cats in cages designed for one cat, cages with dead cats among the living neither food nor water in the cages, and a crate of new cats for which there was no room at all.

Such a situation is not at all unusual. In short, the research community will not and cannot regulate itself. If they could, the present conditions would not exist.

The animal quarters in research facilities I have seen have been totally inade quate for the task expected of them, and the personnel incompetent to care for the animals entrusted to them.

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129 Clearly the provision in pending legislation for licensing research institutions and requiring humane standards of care and housing by

them is essential.

Dr. Peacock's estimate on mortality of animals received from dealers agrees with that I reported (hearings, Subcommittee on Livestock, House Agriculture Committee, March 7, 1966) from three other scientific institutions (Brooklyn Jewish Hospital, Bionetics Laboratory of e. Hazleton, and Downstate Medical Center of New York State Uniપ્રેસ. versity).

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we usually find that 30 to 50 percent of our animals will die before they are used for research.

I would point out if these animals did not die there would not be such a great, enormous market that we are having such a problem with. In other words, if they were decently cared for there would not be such a high mortality.

Dr. Peacock sums up the situation concisely:

The animal dealer for economic reasons and ignorance will not reform his A methods unless he is forced to do so. The research institutions and universities will not improve their facilities unless forced to do so for basically the same reasons. As long as the research worker has enough animals to do his work, the present system, unless forced by public opinion to change, will continue indefinitely, completely uncontrolled.

"Enough" animals, of course, means quite different things to different scientists. Ten thousand dogs a year may be used up by the University of Minnesota, for example, and every possible source, both in and out of the State, tapped to give the dog to the researcher at the minimal charge of $5.75. (Figure given ÄWI Laboratory Animal Consultant in 1964.)

Minnesota, of course, has a pound law. I would like to submit these photographs of laboratory dogs at the university for the committee. You will see that the cages are hosed with the dogs inside. The dogs are never removed for exercise. In fact, they are never removed unless they actually are taken to the laboratory for experimentation. This may be a matter of years.

Animals in Minnesota are apparently being reshunted through different laboratories because there is such a tremendous demand.

We got this information from Mr. Mayer, employee of a laboratory in Minneapolis, who testified at the House hearings, and I would quote briefly:

I would not leave a room until I was sure every one had as much as it could drink plus a full pan. *** The floors of the cages are of a wire mesh. *** Very frequently dogs have caught their toes in this mesh and suffered considerably before they were noticed. *** There have been times when it was necessary to anesthetize them to remove the toes from the grid. I have seen a dog with toes on each of three legs caught so that the dog was completely immobilized.

Checking with Mr. Mayer about any improvements this wellfinanced Government laboratory might have made since the extreme negligence and callousness it has displayed was brought out at public hearings, I learned that two dogs were caught in the mesh on Sunday; and Thursday a dog which has been in the laboratory since 1962 was found with a terrible infection in his foot.

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