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a spear-head, and others louk as if they were large nails with broad heads.

The objects of bone and horn are numerous. Among them I have noted four long combs used in weaving, iwo of which are ornamented with diamond-shaped patterns. Three neatly-formed needles, about three inches long. A novel object, curiously worked and highly polished, is supposed to have been a weaver's shuttle.

One or two tines of deer-horn have a striking resemblance to the cheek-pieces of the peculiar bridle-bils found in the Swiss lake-dwellings and in the "Terremare of Italy.

One massive bead or ring of lustrous jet about an inch in diameter, and several fragments of bracelets made of coarse shale.

Pottery is abundant, but much broken. The finer kind is of a dark color, and ornaniented with a variety of linear and checked patterns -on rectangular and curvilinear spaces. One small fragment shows an incised circle, three-quarters of an inch in diameter, circumscribing two other circles, each of which has a diameter a little less than the radius of the former, and within these again are two other circles similarly arranged. One or two vases have been reconstructed, the largest of which is one foot in depth, and half a foot in width at the mouth. It has an elegant form, bulges slightly beneath the rim, and stands on a flat bottom. Two fragments show small perforations, as if they had been part of the base of a percolator.

A group of objects of fire-baked clay was disinterred in circumStances which suggest that it was the débris of a bolller's factory. The objects, which were all found on one mound, and in the vicinity of svhat was probably a furnace, as they were associated with masses of highly-calcined clay flooring, are as follows: A few perforated clay weights ; some balls of the size of a large marble, pierced, sometimes partially and sometimes completely, with a small round hole ; about sixty ovale objects of the size of a pigeon's egg; a flat circular cake like a greatiy-magnified spindle-whorl; three small crucibles, and the fragments of a massive funnel, such as might be used in the casting of metal.

The upper stone of a quern mill, of unusual weight, and broken through the middle into two portions, is interesting as showing that an effort had been made to mend it. It is made of a hard, gritiy slone, in the form of a thick cheese, and measures eighteen inches in diameter. The central aperture is four inches in width, and this size is unisormly retained through its entire depth. Other two querns were represented by mere fragments. Among other objects of stone I have noted several spindle-whorls and a few flakes and cores of fint.

The organic remains include beans, wheat, rye, nutshells, etc., together with a large number of bones, presumably of domestic animals.

The work already done at Glastonbury is sufficient to show that the settlement is rich in the handiwork remains of man, and worthy of being adequately explored, whatever period it may be ultimately assigned 10. So far, however, as the excavations have yet disclosed the nature of its buried treasures, the result is of special interest, owing to the predominance among them of articles unquestionably belonging to the period known as “ Lake Celtic." Hitherto nothing indicative of Roman influence has come to light, neither coins nor Samian ware being among the relics; and should this pre-Roman character be maintained, ile complete excavation of the entire village becomes a national duty.

over him.

He was the posthumous child of a rough, drunken fellow, a singer and sub-chanter in the cathedral choir of Bristol who left his widow to support herself by dressmaking in one of the back streets of the old town, and the boy was able to gain only the rudiments of an education in the charity school. His biographer tells us that he was of a peculiar temper, sullen and silent. So much of his time was spent in solitude, and he seemed to have so few of the characteristics of children that many regarded him as weak in intellect. His after-life is well known. Failure met him at every hand, and by degrees he sank lower and lower into the depthis of despair, until finally, with his last penny, he purchased sufficient arsenic to end his unhappy life.

Another example of Winslow's doctrine is Hugh Miller, the self-taught Scottish genius who, as a boy, chose the calling of a stonemason that he might be unemployed during the hard frosts of winter, and thus have opportunity to educate himself. His career was successful, but the night following the completion of his greatest work, “ The Testimony of the Rocks," he yielded to the strain to which his overworked brain had been subjected, and sent a bullet through his heart.

Another similar case is that of Robert Taunahill, the Paisley weaver-poet who wrote “ Jessie, the Flower of Dunblane." He was sliy, sensitive, and awkward, and uncomfortable in the presence of any but his humble friends. The one memorable day in all his life was that on which he received a visit from James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd. The meeting was prolonged far into the night, and the parting was painful and pathetic. Tannahill, grasping the hand of his poet-brother, said, while tears suffused his eyes: “Farewell! We shall never meet again." Shortly afterward his body was found, stark and stifi, in a pool near the house.

To come down to more recent times, we have a familiar example in Richard Realf, an English peasant, who became intimate with Jolin Brown, and was with him at Harper's Ferry, and narrowly escaped lynching. The next we hear of him he was writing a remarkable series of poems for the Rochester Union. Domestic troubles oppressed him beyond endurance, and he committed suicide by poison. He made two attempts before success resulted, and between them composed the poem beginning “ De mortuis nil nisi bonum."

Haydon, the celebrated historical painter and writer, overcome by debt, disappointment, and ingratitude, laid down the brush with which he was at work upon his last great effort,

Alfred and the Trial by Jury,” wrote with a steady hand, “Stretch me no longer upon this rough world,” and then, with a pistol-shot, put an end to his unhappy existence.

Richard Payne Knight, the poet, Greek scholar, and antiquary, was a victim of melancholia, and ended his life withi poison.

Burton, the vivacious author of the Anatomy of Melancholy,” who had the reputation of being able to raise laughter in any company, was in reality constitutionally depressed, and finally ended his life in a fit of melancholy.

Sir Samuel Romilly, a man of brilliant genius, by whose efforts the criminal laws of England were remodeled—a man loved for his sweet nature and upright manliness--while overcome by grief at the death of his wise, with his own hand sought rest beyond.

Michael Angelo, after receiving a painful injury to his leg by a fall from a scaffold, while painting his “ Last Judgment,” became so melancholy that he shut liimself in his own room and “resolved to let himself die.” Fortunately his intentions were frustrated by the celebrated physician Bacio Routini, who accidentally heard of his condition.

Vittoria Alfieri, of whom it has been said that every event in his life is either a factor of disease or a symptom of mental alienation, attempted suicide in Holland, in the course of one of his restless trips through Europe in search of change.

Kotzebue, who at last met a tragic death at the hand of an

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GENIUS AND SUICIDE.

CHARLES W. PILGRIM, M.D.
Condensed for THE LITERARY DIGEST f:om a Piper (9 pp) in

Popular Science llonthly, Vew York, January.
INSLOW, in his Anatomy of Suicide, says, A person

who accustoms himself to live in a world created by his own fancy, who surrounds himself with flimsy idealities, will, in the course of time, cease to synipathize with the gross realities of life,” and anyone who will take the trouble to read the biographies of men of genius will see that this statement is borne out to it remarkable degree. Perhaps the most striking example of this doctrine, as well as the most pathetic instance of suicide in the annals of literature, is found in the records of Chatterton's short life. From the beginning, shadows hovered

assassin, was at one time so melancholy that he mediated before our day had not this fourth-century narrownesss of self-destruction.

horizon and littleness of scholarly spirit increased, and by its Cowper,when bowed down by religious melancholy, made two increase brought upon the Church the darkness and death of unsuccessful attempts on his life; and the list of distinguished the Middle Ages. Whatever science there had been in the men, who either attempted or admitted that they contemplated Church's critical work died out, and the Church's knowledge suicide, includes Chateaubriand, the brillant representative of of her own historic origin disappeared, and the Church's faith French literature; Dupinghen, the distinguished anatomist changed to superstition, and the Church's life became corand surgeon; Cavoạr, the regenerator of Italy ; Lincoln, the rupt, and the world grew sick of everything that was called by martyr-President; George Sand; Goethe; Comte; Shelley, and

her name. It was a dark picture, but we understand to-day Byron.

how its darkness was, in the ordering of Providence, the best Evidence is not lacking to warrant the assumption that background for the light that was to come through the genius is a special morbid condition. Centuries ago, Seneca Renaissance and the Reformation. At first that light was but taught that there was no great genius without a tincture of a glimmer, but this glimmer fell upon everything of the Church, madness, and more than a century ago Diderot exclaimed: and touched in its falling, the Church's criticism. It simply “Oh how close the insane and men of genius touch!” Lamar- brought about another reaction. The argument from authority tine speaks of the mental disease called genius; Pascal says began to be questioned, then opposed, then given up, and the that extreme mind is akin to madness, and everybody is Reformers placed themselves squarely upon the argument from familiar with Dryden's couplet

the internal character of the books themselves. Great wits are sure to madness near allied,

Modern scholars are very fond of saying that, subjective as And thin partitions do their bounds divide.

this attitude of the Reformation criticism was, it had behind But, be this as it may be, if we take into consideration the

it the beginning of that scientific spirit of real historic inquiry

which has characterized the Church's criticism in these modern fact that the poet lives in an ideal world, surrounded by creatures of his own imagination, to whom he attributes the most

days; but our review of Patristic criticism has shown us that exaggerated sentiments, it seems to me reasonable to believe its beginnings were far back of this. The ignorance of the that sooner or later, unhealthy introspection must be awakened,

Middle Ages broke in upon these beginnings and swept them and followed, not infrequently, by the development of morbid

away. But the learning of the Renaissance brought them into tendencies.

life again, and under the new vitality of the Reformation they had before them the possibility of becoming a true and service

able criticism for the Church. RELIGIOUS.

How was it that, instead of realizing that possibility, they

sank away again out of sight, and in their place grew up the THE EVOLUTION OF NEW TESTAMENT CRITI. new scholasticism of Church-usage that determined the Canon CISM, AND THE CONSEQUENT OUTLOOK

according to custom, and relegated criticism to the universe of

unknown things ? The question is answered by remembering FOR TO-DAY.

that purely subjective criticism can never give a standingPROFESSOR MELANCTHON W. JACOBUS.

ground for the Church. Its tendency is inevitably toward the Condensed for The LITERARY Digest from a Paper (24 pp.) in

destruction of the Bible by shivering it into the thousand Hartford Seminary Record, October and December.

pieces of individual opinion. But the Reformation Church EW TESTAMENT criticism is mostly made to begin with needed Bible standing-ground. As a natural consequence it

the Reformation age. I venture to say that so to begin came to abandon this subjective attitude toward the Scripture; it is wrong. While the great work of criticism has been done but it allowed itself to drist into the opposite extreme of the since the Reformation time, yet criticism was before the attitude of external usage, so that, before the Reformation Reformation, before the Renaissance, before the days of century was ever, the New Testament came to be formally Augustine and Jerome, before the golden age of the Alex- accepted as a whole, without note or comment, and was thus. andrian School. However faulty it may have been in its withdrawn from the field of historical inquiry as entirely as it. method and process of work, however lacking in its spirit, had been in the Roman Catholic Church by the rulings of the criticism of some kind was practised from the beginning of Council of Trent. Bible-study in the Christian Church.

In such a condition of affairs as this, there was need of reconIt is a matter of interest to recall the fact that the critical struction in Biblical criticism for the Reformation was. work of the first two centuries was based on internal grounds, making a mockery of itself. The Reformation Church had on evidence contained within the documents themselves. one mission—to preach the Bible; one aim—to study the And this was not simply with reference to the Old Testament, Word of God, to understand it, to make it known to men. Her concerning whose Mosaic and Prophetic origin there was then sacred business was to get at the Bible facts and tell them; to no suggestion of doubt, but with reference to the New Testa- discover Bible truths and unlock them. And now here it was. ment, whose separate books were acknowledged the historical with its Bible wrapped in a napkin and buried in the earth, a documents we hold them to be to-day. This was true not slothful, if not a wicked, servant. God punishes Churches as only of the fathers who studied the New Testament inside the well as men. For this scholasticism, having reduced religion Church, but also of the heretics who studied it outside the to an absurdity, a new apologetic was called for, and it was. Church. They never denied the historic origin of the New offered by Rationalism. The offer was accepted, and the Testament books.

eighteenth century opened with Reason established as the As the Church grew away from Apostolic times, its own champion of the Bible. She began proving the Bible true, by attitude and that of its opponents toward the Bible docu- showing it to be in harmony with herself. She ended by ments changed, so that by the end of the fourth century books proving the Bible false by showing it was beyond herself, for were accepted or rejected, not on the internal basis of their everything in the Bible was subjected to the test of herself, teaching, but on the external basis of the ancient testimony and so she became authority in place of the Spirit of God. regarding them; and the criticism of this period opened the But all this while, since the eighteenth century began, there way for the critical results of modern times, by bringing into had been coming into the study of the Church a scientific consideration for the canonicity of the New Testament books criticism. the historic evidence of their Apostolic origin. And these But I want to make clear what scientific criticism is, and I results of modern criticism would have been forthcoming long cannot do that better than to point back to the Alexandrian

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THE

School, and call your attention to the position which Origin, memorial of Gothic speech and intellectual life, and at the Dionysius, and the scholars of that famous period assumed. same time a monument of so great, strong, and palpable a perFor it will be noticed that their merit lay, not in holding sonality, that we shall make no mistake if we ascribe to the external evidence to the exclusion of internal evidence, but in author of this immortal work the title of The Gothic addition to it. It is in this combination of the internal and Luther,” external that the essence of scientific criticism consists. Scien- Gothic was the common language of all the East-German tific criticism is, on the one hand, the study of the books

tribes. This people originally occupied the broad region language, style, and thought, in their personal, historical, and between the Caspian Sea and the Baltic, and later pushed geographical references. And, on the other hand, it is the forward upon the southeast provinces of the Roman Empire. study of all the historic testimony of every kind, in any way It was the Goths, in the more restricted sense of the term, who concerning them, in and out of the Church, back to the earliest first came into collision with the Romans. Even at that time times. But the combination of these results is made on the they had divided into two principal stems, the Ostragoths and principle that the exegetic opinion must always stand subordi- the Visigoths. It was among the latter, who were already in nate to the historic facts.

part Christians, that Ulfilas labored forty years as Aipiskaupus There is a puzzle in the history of the Biblical criticism of (Bishop). He was born 311 A.D., and it appears that his youth the eighteenth century. It has been a wonder how, if criticism was spent in Byzantium where he was probably baptized. Durduring this time has been so scientific, it should have produced ing the first six or seven years of his clerical activity he encounsuch false results. But in this element of the combination of tered no opposition from the Visigoth rulers, but at the close the internal and external in true scientific criticism lies the of this period, King Athanarich inaugurated a system of perseexplanation. For this so-called scientific criticism has pro- cution of the Christians which occasioned the im migration of duced these false results because it has laid a false emphasis on Ulfilas and his co-religionists across the Danube to Mesia the one side or the other of the combination. In other words, near the site of the present Tirnova, the ruler of which, Conit has not been truly scientific.

stantius, was a Christian, and received them hospitably. In (To be continued.)

this province, now entirely occupied by Slavic people, originated the first great linguistic memorial of the German people,

the Gothic translation of the Holy Scriptures. ULFILAS AND THE GOTHIC TRANSLATION OF

The respect with which Ulfilas was regarded by the whole THE BIBLE.

Christian world may be inferred from the fact that the Emperor ERNST ECKSTEIN.

summoned him to Constantinople as his personal advisor in Translated and Condensed for THE LITERARY Digest from a Paper (5 pp.) in

an important religious discussion. There, in the summer of Westermann's Monats-Hefte, Braunschweig, December. 383, Ulfilas fell sick and died, seventy-two years old. HE ancient Romans regarded the Germans, especially The presumption is strong that Ulfilas's translation embraced

those with whom they came little in contact, very much the whole Scriptures. The statement that he omitted the in the light in which civilized people nowadays regard the Red Books of the Kings, lest they should fire the Visigoths with a Indians. They recognized, however, that the rule was subject still more warlike sentiment, may be relegated to the domain to some notable and brilliant exceptions, as in the person of

of fable. At present, however, we possess only the hall, and Hermann, the conqueror of the Teutoburger Forest, who had

this has been recovered within comparatively recent years. been a volunteer in the Roman service, and of his father-in- Copies existed down to the ninth century, when they entirely law, Segest. Nevertheless, it is certain that the intellectual disappeared, leaving no trace until the world-renowned Codex culture of the German tribes, even of those which had scarcely Argenteus, the Silver Writing, now preserved in the library of come into contact with Rome must have been immeasurably Upsala in Sweden, was discovered in the sixteenth century above that of the general body of Roman historians.

and at once recognized as Ulfilas's translation. The history of A proof of this view,which renders all other evidence unneces- this “silver code” is the common property of all educated sary, is the highly developed substance of the Gothic language,

It was found at Werden on the Ruhr, and, in consethe oldest form of German of which any memorials have been quence of the troublous times, was transferred to Prague. On preserved.

the conquest of that city by Königsmark, it fell into the hands Unquestionably the most important of these memorials is of the Swedes, who removed it to Stockholm ; from there it Ulfilas's incomparable translation of the Bible in the fourth went to Holland, and was finally brought back by the Count century; but the language with which this master-work makes De la Gardie, who caused the precious manuscript to be bound us acquainted, exhibits such wondrous perfection-as well in in silver, and presented it to the high-school of Upsala. the coinage of its grammatical forms, as in its capacity for

The entire Codex” is written on dark-red parchment with reflecting the finest shades of ideas, that one is bound by

silver letters. In certain remarkable paragraphs the language every philological analogy to conclude that this perfection, is emphasized by the substitution of gold for silver letters. It with some trifling exceptions, must have been already attained

is in fact a worthy, but by no means too pretentious a in the first century after Christ. Of course, the translator of

for the first great literary memorial of young Germany. the Bible found it necessary to adopt some Greek and Latin words for which the heathen Goths had no equivalents, as " CONVENTIONALITY,”—Have you never had a clerical friend, apostolos, angelus, etc. Apart from this the Gothic language, a boon companion, jolly good fellow, who after dinner on a as presented in Ulfilas's translation of the Bible, is a pure, Saturday night in the library or smoking-room, was the centre homogeneous, and highly developed language, with its laws of of conversation, the merriest man, the best raconteur of you construction and pronunciation, such as could have been all? See how, over the latest joke or story, his eye lights up, created only by a clear-thinking, intellectually cultivated his face beams, voice, hands, body, features, all seem unconnation—by a nation possessing a valuable artistic literature, sciously to lend their aid to the interpretation. Delsarte could although such literature may have been confined to lyric and at this moment teach him nothing. The climax reached, the epic poems in oral circulation only. This entire early Gothic merry shouts of his companions attest the power of his effort; literature is lost, but a glance at the work of the powerful or it may be that in a tender and reflective mood he unfolds translator permeates us with the sure conviction that such a some touching tale of sad experience among his flock, to the literature existed.

picturesque and pathetic strength of which the sympathetic Ulfilas's translation of the Bible is for every cultivated Ger- murmurs and moistened lids of his hearers bear ample testiman a work of the highest interest; it is the one surviving mony. “ But, oh, what a difierence in the morning." With

men.

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measured tread and solemn face he mounts the pulpit, drones Archbishop Satolli is a man of great culture and of enorout a hymn, which the author meant for a glad pæan of joy, mous learning. Perugia of modern Tuscany is his old home, as if it were a funeral dirge, then with hard, dry voice and stiff and here his latent faculties were developed under the very eye manner delivers his sermon for the day, the last word of which of Leo XIII., then Archbishop of that ancient See. The Ponis greeted with a deep, if concealed, satisfaction. Why should tiff, early in his Papal career, called the Perugian professor to this be so? It cannot be that the preacher is indifferent, that Rome, in which city he has held many high positions. He is he does not believe the great message that he is so bad giv- a Canon of the famious Church of St. John of Lateran. He is ing. Where is the animation, the enthusiasnı, the desire to rector of the “ Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics." He filled please of a few hours before? All sacrificed to a stupid con- the chair of dogmatic theology in the world-renowned College ventionality which greater, perhaps more devout, men nobly of the Propaganda until his mission to the United States. and properly put aside.-A. P. Burbank, in Reading Aloud, His learning is known by others than the thousands of stuGodey's Magasine. January.

dents wlio liave attended his lectures in Rome; for, in addi

tion to his many professional duties, he has found time to MISCELLANEOUS.

write three volumes of philosophy and five of theology, besides many essays on various subjects.

Regarding the object of the Delegate's mission, there has ARCHBISHOP SATOLLI.

been much speculation. There is no need of any. He came THE REVEREND JOHN CONWAY.

here to examine into the affairs of his Church. He will repreCondensed for THE LITERARY Digest from a Paper (3 pp.) in

sent the Pope at the Columbian Exposition. There is no Literary Northwest, St. Paul, January.

phase of ecclesiastical affairs with which he is not concerned ; "HE following correspondence showing the official cour

but lie will deal at once with those requiring immediate tesies extended to Archbishop Satolli is ample evidence

attention. inat Pope Leo's esteem for the United States is not mis- Already his visit to the United States has been productive placed :

of great good. His scliolarly mind easily enabled him to draw TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

clearly the lines us demarcation among the riglits of the State, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY,

of the Church, of the parent, and of the individual. His zeal WASHINGTON, D. C., Oct. 6, 1892.

for education extends to all its departments. No man appreCollector of Customs, l’ew York, N. \'.: SIR-The department is advised of the expected arrival at your port,

ciates more than he tlie advantages of higher education for

the clergy. per slujestic, on the 12th or 13th inst., of Mgr. Satolli and two secrefinies, Dr. Pace and Mgr. O'Connell.

Short as is the time since the Papal Delegate came to this Upon the landing of these gentlemen you will please extend to them country, lie lias already shown a strength of character and a the official courtesies, and facilitate the entry of their personal baggage

breadth of view that are very encouraging to the more thoughtful and effects.

and better educated clergy of his own Church. He reproves Respectfully yours,

those in high places with the same consciousness of rectitude as A. B. NETTLETON.

marked the action of St. Paul when the latter felt called upon

to reprimand St. Peter. He has given golden counsel to the CUSTOM HOUSE, New York, 2

Catholic press. Starting out with the principle that religious To the Deputy Surveyor in charge of the Third Division :

newspapers liave just as much right as the secular press to disSir-The Papal delegates to the World's Fair are expected to arrive

cuss questions of politics, still he believes that such discussions on the steamship Majestic, due to-morrow.

should be regulated by a spirit of Christian charity. More You will please permit them to be transferred to the revenue culier

pointed yet, and more useful still, are his words to the effect Grant, Capt. Thomas S. Smith, at Quarantine, immediately after the

that the Catholic press should not allow itself to introduce the ship has been passed by the health officer. You will please notify Mr.

Church into the arena of political strife. R. C. Kereos, at the Holland House, as soon as the steamer is sighted, Archbishop Satolli is well fitted for carrying out the enlightboil by telephone and by special messenger; also the collector, at the ened policy of Pope Leo the Thirteenth. Leo, who teaches Fifth Avenue Hotel,

that a nation grown to manhood is not bound by the agreeRespectfully yours,

ments of its infancy, that the people liave a right to choose (Signed) S. N. BLATCHFORD,

their own ruler. The visit of his Delegate, Monsigneur Satolli, Auditor in charge of First Division.

who is so much imbued with the policy of his chief, and who is Oct. 12, 1892.

already an enthusiastic admirer of the United State, cannot This order has been carried out, as requested, by Grant.

fail to react favorably upon European peoples.
Thomas S. Smythe, U. S. R., commanding Grunt.
(Endorsed) N. J. O'CONNELL,

SOME FAMOUS ALPINE ASCENTS.
Rectoi, American College.

ARTHUR MONTEFIORE.
Whilst this is a Christian country, it does not give official

Condensed for The Literary Digest from a Paper (11 pp.) in recognition to any religious denomination. The Constitution

Outing, New York, December. of the United States is diametrically opposed to an official ROFESSOR TYNDALL has pronounced the Weisshorn, a denominational religion. The foregoing correspondence points more difficult mountain to climb than Monte Rosa, and merely to an act of Christian courtesy shown by officials of the he is a good authority since he was not only the first man that greatest nation on earth to the representative of the Head of ever gained the summit of the Weisshorn, but also the first, the strongest and oldest Christian denomination in the world. and probably the only one, that has reached the “Höcliste

Archbishop Satolli visits this country under very favorable Spitze ” of the Rosa without a guide, and absolutely alone. auspices. The Nation is not only courteous but friendly Tyndall's first ascent of the Weisshorn was made on Aug. 19, towards him. Representing Pope Leo at the Columbian 1861, in company with his guide, Johann Beven, and a man Exposition, he comes as one directly promoting the success of named Wenger. When they finally placed the pointed sumthe greatest enterprise ever undertaken; and he comes with a niit of the Weissliorn beneath their feet, Tyndall tells us, special recommendation to the liospitality of the two Catholic “ The long-pent-up feelings of my two guides found vent in a prelates wliom the people have learned to look upon as the wild and reiterated cheer.

Beven deplored liaving no best exponents of American life-Cardinal Gibbons and Arch- flag to hoist as a nonument of our achievement; it was then bishop Ireland.

suggested that he should knock the head off his axe, use the

PROFESSOR

.

.

handle as a flagstaff and surmount it with a red pocket-hand- One of the most famous Alpine ascents on record was that kercliies. This was done, and for some time subsequently this of the Dôme du Gonber, made in 1858 by Sir Alfred Wills, extempore banner was seen floating in the breeze.”

later a Judge of the High Court of Justice, and Professor The effect of the scene upon Professor Tyndall must have Tyndall. been intense, for he neglected his usual scientific observations. The chief object of the ascent was to place a minimum-therEvery other mountain that he has climbed lias afforded the mometer on the summit in order to determine the lowest occasion for illustrating or emphasizing some scientific fact or winter temperature. The idea originated with Auguste Baltheory.

mat, the famous guide who led and guided the party to and The descent was dangerous work, as avalanches were con- from the summit in safety, althouglı at the summit they were stantly falling near them. But still they went down, dropping enveloped in a blinding snow-storm, and on reaching the foot from ledge to ledge, glissading over rock débris worn to powder, of tlie Calotte the guide discovered that his hands were frostcutting steps down ice-slopes, and working round the edge of bitten, necessitating delay and energetic measures for their precipices, here having to skirt across the mountain face, and relief in the howling wind and dristing snow. there having to reascend to dodge dangerous gullies, or round Another famous ascent of members of the English Alpine some difficult cornice on hands and knees, until, finally, they Club was the first ascent of the Finsteraarhorn on Aug. 12, reached the glaciers in safety.

1857 The Lyskamm, which rises to the height of 14,889 feet, is This party consisted of Hardy and Kennedy, the two Matone of the most stupendous mountains in the High Alps. To thews, and Ellis, and five guides, also a servant of Kennedy's, the Alpine climber who appreciates not only actual lieight, but and a porter. Reaching the foot of the arête, the two latter also the difficulties of ascent and ultimate view, there is hardly were left behind and the party were unroped ; August Simond, a mountain in the Germatt region that presents more varied who was leading, deciding that ici, chacun pour lui même." attractions.

The truth was that a slip of one must have destroyed the On the 19h of August, 1861,—the very day that Tyndall had wliole. At this arête they went, testing the foothold with the conquered the Weisshorn-a party of fifteen, under the leader- stock before trusting to it. Several times the stock pierced ship of the late Rev. John Frederick Hardy, of Cambridge the snow and left a hole through which the glaciers could be University, started from Seiler's Inn, on the Riffel Berg, to seen thousands of feet below. But the party reached the sumconquer the virgin peak of the Lyskamm.

mit in safety, and, after Hardy had led a chorus of cheers, the At 1.40 A.M., under brilliant moon, the party started from party sat down to rest and take in the vast magnificence of the Riffel, and reached the glacier in about an hour's work. the view. Crossing the glacier obliquely, they arrived at “Auf der Platte,” at the foot of the Rosa, at 4.15 A.M. From the Lys Col, seven

SOME NOTED AUSTRALIAN NUGGETS. thousand feet above, the Grenz pours down wave upon wave

Condensed for The LITERARY Digest from a Paper (2pp.) in of alternate hummock and crevasse, forming a most noble and

Chambers's Fournal, Edinburgh, Dec. 1. difficult division between the sheer precipices of Monte Rosa EFERRING to an interesting article, entitled " Gold in and the snow-clad cliffs of the Lyskamm.

Nature," appearing in this Journal April 19, 1890, and Up the glacier they liad to go, and the party, being too large mentioning a nugget of 134 pounds weight found in “South for one rope, was split into two divisions. The snow lying on Australia” (Victoria ?) perhaps a reference to some noted Austhe glacier was in excellent condition, but the crevasses so tralian nuggets might be of interest. Chief among these nugnumerous as to make progress slow. For the first two hours

gets comes the Welcome Stranger," which contained over the long line of clinibers steadily pushed their way up in Indian 2,300 ounces of gold, worth about £9,200, and was found on file, and then, turning to the riglit, made straight up a stiff Feb. 5, 1869, at Moliagal, near Dunolly, in Victoria. Next in snow slope in the direction of the summit.

rank comes the “ Welcome” nugget, found at Bakery Hill, At nine o'clock the ascent of the arête was begun, Pierre Ballarat, in the same colony, on June 11, 1878, at a depth of Perren leading the way. It was a trying climb, the climometer about 180 feet. This nugget weighed 2,200 ounces in the gross, showing the ascent in several places to be thirty-six degrees, and its net value was £8,780. It was sold for £10,000 to a party and the incline of the slopes each side to be fifty-two. An who wanted it for show purposes, and doubtless cleared thereby hour's climbing on the arête brought the party to a small the difference in cost. plateau, whence they could see the summit. The work before It would perhaps be a little too much to say that “nuggets them was difficult enough, but victory seemed in sight. Step have family ties,” but though they usually “ lie low,” there are by step, hand over land, a sudden slip, and as sudden a check

at times exceptions to the rule, and when found near the sur

face, as in the following instances, they are not infrequently'in by the rope, then a pause for a few minutes' rest, then again

groups. The selections referred to (found in 1870, '71 and '72) upwards. At last the snow ceased, and there remained nothing are taken from the record of the Berlin ” gold field, in Vicbut a narrow and very steep slope of ice. Every footstep had toria, arid do not include the many minor nuggets found in that to be made with the ice-axe, and every foot had to be planted

locality. in it. As we neared the summit Pierre Perren called out to

“Precious” nugget, 1,717 ounces, value £6,868, Catto's Pad

dock, at a depth of 12 feet. Mr. Hardy, asking if he would like to be first man on the sum- " Viscount Canterbury” nugget, 1,121 ounces, value £4,420, mit. Oh yes,” replied Mr. Hardy, and in another minute the John's Paddock, at a depth of 15 feet. guide stood aside, hat in hand, “and I,” said Mr. Hardy, in

Viscountess Canterbury” nugget, 896 ounces, value £3,656. describing the occurrence, “found mysels upon the summit,

• Kum Torr” nugget, 795 ounces, value £2,872, Catto's Pad

dock, at a depth of 12 feet. the first man that had ever trodden its eternal snows.”

Needful” nugget, 249 ounces, value £984, Catto's Paddock, Aster remaining on the summit nearly an hour tlie descent at a depth of 12 feet. of the arête was commenced, This was the most perilous part Crescent” nugget, 179 ounces, value £704, John's Paddock, of the expedition. Face to the snow, hand under hand, look

at a depth of 2 seet.

These members of the royal family of nuggets thus totaled ing between their legs for the footholds below, sudden slips

nearly 5,000 ounces of gold, worth $ 19,384. ominous pauses, the deep voices of the guides uttering words As a rule, the richest gold fields are not those where the of caution and direction, the chip of the ice-axe, the deep largest nuggets are found, as witness the well-known Guigong plunge of its staff; at one time arrétez at another en avant

gold field. The largest piece of gold found on this field was

only 64 ounces in weight, and was so thoroughly coated witli quickly spoken, and this describes briefly the descent of the

ferric oxide that the man who was forking the gravel, etc., arête, which occupied two long hours of mental and bodily out of the sluice-box in which it was found, was going to strain.

throw it out, but that its weight attracted his attention.

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