Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

A

TA

nianner:

principle of multiplication of effects, however, it often happens

moderately care!ul where they step, they will not be bitten.” that the suppression of one order of phenomena causes certain

And yet I could as easily justify myself for doing that as for other phenomena to arise. The Free Trader calls attention to

putting wine on my table, and offering it to the young. the restriction of our foreign commerce, and the falling off in At last it biteth like a serpent,” is written of strong drink, the consumption of foreign goods; the Protectionist calls

but that is not the whole of the truth; it does not always wait attention to the growth of internal commerce, and the to the last. It often bites at first, and all the way through to increased use of domestic manufactures. The Moralist shows

the end. how a high-license tax thins out the saloons; the cynic points

If you say that the reason is thoughtlessness, I reply that to the increase of homie-drinking and club-tippling. The

that is not the general reason, nor is it a worthy one, I do philosophy of social taxes is greatly misunderstood. Legisla

not think you put wine on your table for a real hospitality. I tors do not see that to close up a certain route to the satisfac

fear that most persons put wine on their table from quite diftion of a desire does not remove the desire. The demand

ferent motives. For the most part, we are not a wine-raising persists and opens up new routes to its satisfaction. Hence

nor wine-drinking people. It is a matter of fashion and social taxes should aim to destroy the demand itself.

infinitesimal vanity. Ordinarily men put wine on their table

for the sake of show, by way of fashionable compliance. There SOCIALISTIC PERIL AND NATIONAL DISARMAMENT. is but little difference between these reasons. They are a great Deutsche Revue, Breslau, December.

vulgar mass. None of them will bear investigation.-From COLLECTION of letters from distinguished statesmen Mr. Beecher's Unprinted Words, Ladies' Home Journal,

concerning the best means of combating the socialistic January . peril, and the possibility or impossibility of lightening the military burdens and of disarmament, will be interesting to our readers, and perhaps not without due influence on popular EDUCATION, LITERATURE, ART. opinion. We begin with the publication of a letter from M. Jules

THE SCHOOL QUESTION.
Sinion.

THE VERY REVEREND WILLIAM BYRNE, D.D.
Paris, November 9, 1892.

Condensed for The LITERARY Digest from a Paper (12 pp.) in Sir: I thank you for the communication you have been

Donahoe's Magazine, Boston, January. pleased to make me. The policy followed here in respect to workmen is not the

TAKING for our guide the utterances of the Holy See, the policy that I would advise. It has all the inconvenience

decrees of the Council of Baltimore, the pastorals of attending weakness. It irritates without governing. I do not

several bishops, and the tolerated usages of many dioceses, we dold it responsible for the catastrophe of yesterday. These

venture to define the attitude of the Catholic Church towards assassinations are due to more remote causes. It is not the

popular education and public neutral schools in the following weakness of the political government which has produced. shem; it is the absence of moral government. It may be said

The Church is in favor of popular education; and she is not 10-day in respect to all peoples: the Gods are going away. They adverse to private or public schools, so long as they are conleave behind them naught but unbridled covetousness. It ducted with due regard to the interests of the souls, as well as makes me sad to behold the condition in which I shall leave

the temporal welfare of the young, and she will not object to a the world.

system of public education that is free from serious danger to with you as to the necessity of a disarmament, but I

faith and morals. Where the system does not sever secular agree do not think that a proposition to disarm can be niade by those

from religious education and training the Church approves who were vanquished in the last war. I am persuaded that if such public schools. the proposition were made by some great State, France would

• The Catholic Church," says Monsignor Satolli, “and second it eagerly. We do not need an armament like the one

especially the Holy See, neither condemns nor ignores public we have to protect ourselves against the Commune; for that

schools as such, but rather desires that, by the coöperation of purpose our old army would suffice. Moreover, the Commune

civil and ecclesiastical authorities, there should be in every is dreaming of coming into power by the ballot-box. It is tak

State public schools suitable to the condition of the people, ing, however, the wrong road to reach such a position. The

the promotion of useful arts, and of the sciences." attacks, of which we are the witnesses, far from facilitating the

The Church, however, shrinks from such features of public accession of the Commune, will produce very probably in the

schools as are adverse to the truth of the Christian religion, electoral body a movement of return to what is called a strong

and to morality." government.

With regard to neutral schools, which exclude religion from I beg you to accept, sir, the assurance of my distinguished

their course of instruction, the Church; 'while willing to consideration.

JULES SIMON. tolerate them when they are a vecessity, characterizes them

as dangerous to faith and morals. USE OF WINE ON NEW YEAR'S DAY.-It seems to me that The only school for youth that is worthy to receive the in the present state of the world, and in the present state of approbation of the Catholic Church, or of any member thereof, life, it must be a niatter of utter thoughtlessness on the part is the Catholic school; the school that recognizes the authorof persons that would offer, on such a day as New Years, to the ity of the Catholic Church as far as faitli and morals are conyoung the means of intoxication, kuowing, as they do, that there cerned. The tone of such a school will be in accord with the will be niany coming to their houses who are not able to resist truths of the Catholic religion, and a direct aid in the salvatemptation; knowing that many who, coming to their liouses, tion of souls. and to scores of other places, and being tempted to drink, will Most men are agreed that there cannot be an efficient code turn that day into a disgrace to themselves and to their friends; of morals that does not draw its sanction from religion, and knowing the unutterable mischiefs that spring from intemper- that, therefore, education to be moral should be religious. ance; knowing what torments and evil experiences are going on Guizot declared that the State could not do its proper work about them. I cannot conceive how any should spread upon their without the aid of religion; and even Cousin asserts that the table the means of destruction for the young. I would not, “religion as well as the civil authority ought to be represented for the price of my life, turn out in my parlor a whole box of in the education of the young." adders, saying: “If men will keep their eyes open, and be As man has eternal as well as temporai interests, and as

both are affected by education, the Church is impeded in hier work if excluded from the school. In the execution of her divine mission it is necessary that she should make her influence felt at every stage of man's growtlı, and preside over the processes by which the moral character is developed, habits of thought and action formed, and faith in religious truth implanted. The formative time is the school-age, and the school lias as much to do with the quality of the results as the family.

There are strong grounds for anxiety and solicitude, whereever children are submitted to the influence of a system whichi, faulty in theory, is manipulated by men who, for the most part, are either indifferent to religious truths or positively hostile to the Catholic Church.

In too many places a system professedly neutral as regards religious differences is converted into something positively harmful to Catholics by being administered in the interests of the evangelical sects. In too many cases, the spirit that gives vitality, energy, and longevity to the public-school system is not so much patriotism or zeal for education as the lurking hope that thereby the youth of Catholic parentage may be detached from the faith of their fathers and withdrawn from the influence and guidance of the Catholic Church.

Ours is an unsectarian system, we are told; and teachers are under orders not to wound the religious susceptibilities of any scholar. But many of the pupils come from Protestant homes steeped in anti-Catholic bigotry and saturated with detestation of the Pope of Rome; is it any wonder that their language and conduct towards Catholic children should be found in practice what in theory we can fancy it to be-intensely anti-Catholic?

Our system of public-schools being so defective and the dangers in herent in it so manifest, the question arises: Can we use it at all, even in the absence of a better?

If the danger of damage to faith or morals is proximate, and cannot ordinarily be made remote, the schools are to be avoided at all hazard and at whatever cost.

When the schools are not positively harmful, and the danger is remote, we are not obliged, under grave inconvenience or to our serious loss, to avoid them, although we are bound to take prudent precautions to guard against the danger.

This is a conditional decision; and is of no practical value till the doubt as to the matter of fact is cleared up. Rome has given no decision as to the amount of danger incurred by frequenting our public-schools. Beyond the general statement that the system is desective, and the public-schools, for the most part, dangerous, no decision has been given by a plenary Council in this country.

manifestations of power. Only we must wish that people would look behind those outer laws. They are not ultimate; most people who think at all, know that. Nor is the ultimate truth unkuowable, often as it seems unknown. As self-con scious beings we must ask the true meaning of this world wherein we live, of this history which we help to make, of this self-conscious humanity of which we are fragments. When we begin to ask sucii questions we show that we are not content with merely the few things that we can describe and define. We begin to see that consciousness is boundless in a way so indescribable that the problem of infinite space is as nothing before it. Once started on this restless search for the meaning of the world-for our foundation of describable knowledgeand we must come sooner or later to the belief in the Infinite Consciousness; and if we are true men, we must believe that we have some relation to the Infinite Consciousness. This Consciousness we call God. Once, then, realize the inadequacy of describable knowledge, and you must be led to believe the reality of appreciable knowledge, and so you will come at last to the belief in some sort of God.

This belief in the reality of appreciable knowledge, and its vital connection with truth, cannot be taught any one in a. day. The task seenis particularly difficult now, when the distractions of a commercial world are so great that men thrust aside the deeper and more difficult questions which come to them, that they may solve the niany interesting problems of the outer world which seem to offer immediate and profitable solution. The lesson must be taught the boy in some way, that when he is a man he may not have to revolutionize his thought in order to see the true world. The task is subtle. Dogmatic assertions will not convince a boy. Clearly we must demand some delightful approach to this aspect of truth, and I believe that English literature presents the possibility of an introduction to it, at once the surest and the most attractive.

Yet how, one asks, can this help Religion? It helps Religion because it turns the child's mind to recognize the reality of the appreciable. He may not be convinced of his relationship to God just because he has seen the genuine power of the appreciable; but he certainly has gained the most iniportant approach to that conviction. This reading, perhaps, opens to the boy for the first time the certainty of power aside from mechanical laws. He sees ideals, he sees these ideals becoming the purposes of men ; hie sees a world opening before him that he will call mysterious; yet its mystery lies not in the fact that he does not know it, for he becomes sure that it is the most kuowable of all realities. Only he cannot describe it; he can merely appreciate it. Again, English literature may teach a boy that the world is what men interpret it to be; and, further, it encourages the expression of a child's innate belief in the appreciable. Above all, English literature may aid religion by encouraging right action. If you fill a boy's mind with noble ideals, he cannot help being brave, honest, and unselfish. So, through stimulus to right action, English Literature may lead a boy at last to the best question man can ask,—“What is my relation to God?”

MAN

CAN RELIGION BE TAUGHT IN THE SCHOOLS?

CHARLES LEWIS SLATTERY.
Condensed for the THE LITERARY Digest from a Paper (6 pr.) in

New England Magazine, Boston, December.
ANY good people regret that our American school-system

gives no place to religious teaching. It is quite true that in public-schools the differences of our so-called creed are a bar to the setting forth of particular dogmas; but just as in the great science of Astronomy, you must first get your pupil's mind into a proper attitude, that he may conceive tremendous distances and proper methodical notions, so in the greater science of Religion you must prepare your pupil to understand the infinite power of hidden influences and the reality of things not seen. We must develop that part of the child's nature which alone comprehends religious truth. How this can be done, I wish here to illustrate.

In our own country, the emphasis is laid on descriptive knowledge. The tendency of the day seems to be scientific. All this is good as far as it goes. No one would have people less interested in this world, teeming as it is with wonderful

JEAN DE JOINVILLE.

LE VICOMTE H. FRANçois DELABORDE.
Translated and Condensed for THE LITERARY Digest froin a Paper (35 pp.) in

Revue des Deux Niondes, Paris, December 1.
HEN Jean de Joinville died, on the day before Christ-

mas, 1317, at the age of nearly a hundred, he left a book which has survived for nearly six centuries, and still holds an honorable place in Frenchi literature. His “ History of Saint Louis” is nowadays more written about than read. Nevertheless the author was the second great writer in Old French, and in a manner occupied the interval between Villehardouin and Froissart. His book, composed without art, will be, as long as

[ocr errors]

nust

cer

our language is understood, the work to which one always go to get a living portrait of the greatest king of France.

From whatever point of view you regard it-philology, literature, history of manners—the volume is most precious. It is one of the oldest historical texts written in French, and, better than any ot

er, enables us to conceive what was the moral ideal of a man of the Middle Ages. Joinville lived at the culmination of that great epoch, of which he is, perhaps by a better title than Saint Louis, the most complete personification. A just judgment of the History of Joinville must be sought in the biography of the author. Holding the hereditary post of Seneschal at the court of Champagne he became, in matters of etiquette, an authority. He was endowed with an affectionate disposition, a sensitive conscience, and a tain good sense, which Saint Louis was quick to recognize. A very lively sense of duty supplemented some defects in his character. Although without military instincts, and, on some occasions, a poltroon, as he does not hesitate to inform us, he showed in battle, generally, a valor and firmness worthy of the most fiery knights. He was still quite young when, during the stay at Acre he formed a close intimacy with Saint Louis, which was strengthened while Joinville was with the king in Egypt and Palestine. Altogether he passed six years in the Orient. He was but thirty years old when he returned to France from the crusade led by the French King. In taking part in this crusade Joinville had followed the example of his ancestors, for his family had been persistent crusaders for several generations. Much as he loved Saint Louis, he declined to follow his royal master on his unlucky second crusade. Joinville does not attempt to hide his motives for staying at home, not concealing his conviction that it was better to be in mortal sin than to have the leprosy. He survived his friend and master nearly half a century. His fief in the course of time became part of the vast estates of the Orleans family, and thus caused Louis Philippe to bestow on his third son the title of Prince de Joinville.

The author of · The History of Saint Louis” had hardly closed his eyes when the work fell into a forgetfulness from which it did not emerge for two centuries. By the end of the sixteenth century it had appeared in four editions, and, in 1527, was translated into Castilian. It appeared, however, somewhat imperfect in form, until M. Natalis de Wailly undertook to settle the exact text. He studied the French language and grammar of the fourteenth century with patience and sagacity, and now we have the History under a form as correct, if not more correct, than that of the primitive text. Buchon's and Michaud's editions have translations into modern French, which, however, are hardly necessary, for Joinville's language is very easy.

The first question suggested by the History is: Is the book original? As to this, it is certain that the work is wholly one of personal recollections. The author had a remarkable memory for details of events. For example, in a tumult during which he was taken prisoner on the Nile, while he felt the daggers of the miscreants at his throat, he preserved sufficient coolness to observe that the Saracen who had him in his grip wore a pair of unbleached drawers. These details give wonderful precision and vivacity to his pictures. An instance of this is the obstinate defense of Joinville and his companions at Mansourah, when Louis IX. appeared on the field of battle with a “gilt helmet on his head, and a German sword in his hand.” He excels in painting certain scenes with few persons present, like the charming page in which he relates how he was surprised by Saint Louis putting his hands on Joinville's shoulders after the Council at Acre.

In these bits Joinville does not give proof of what may be properly called literary qualities. He has none such, and the charm of his writing is due to the absence of all art. The work is rather the record of gossiping talk than a book regularly com

posed. It is the conversation of an honest man who, without talking for effect, without sacrificing anything to form, by his own good sense and a certain natural humor hits on the right word and expressions. By the candor with which he displays his emotions, and the simplicity with which he expresses them, he makes his readers sharers of his feeling, and keeps them always wide awake. The whole spirit of th narrative is thor. oughly French in its irresistible good sense, and the gaiety which breaks out under the most depressing circumstances.

FIRST EDITIONS OF TENNYSON.

Bookworm, London, December. HE first sale by public auction of the earliest editions of

recently at Messrs. Puttich & Simpson's rooms, in Leicester Square. The sums realized in each case indicate a decided upward tendency, whilst the competition for the possession of two or three of his earliest works is as keen as the demand for the later issues is flaccid. The explanation is obviously found in the fact that of recent years—indeed for more than a quarter of a century-each of the familiar volumes has been issued in extremely large numbers, and that in every instance within the period indicated the market is stocked with sufficient first editions to satisfy collectors for many generations to come. With “ Poems by Two Brothers ” and a few others it was very different, and whatever changes may occur in the fashion of book-collecting, they are not likely to affect the commercial value of the first fruits of the dead Laureate. In regard to the now historic little volume which first saw the light at Louth in 1827—“ Poems by Two Brothers"—the copy which came under the hammer the other day was bought by Mr. Bumpus for £30, and this figure represents up to the present the high-water mark of its value, being £2 in excess of the highest figure paid hitherto.

The copy of th Poems, Chiefly Lyrical” (1830), which was the immediate work of Alfred Tennyson, was an exceptionally pretty one, being bound in green morocco extra, double, with water-silk linings, and having gilt edges. This went for £5 1os. The next edition of this book, which was published in 1833, contained three sonnets and two other pieces which were afterwards suppressed, a fact which alone gives it an extraneous value, and a copy of this was knocked down for £7. The first collective edition of Tennyson's “Poems ” (1842), in two volumes, in cloth and uncut, with the author's autograph attached, sold for £10 55 ; whilst a first edition, in similar condition, of “ In Memoriam,” went for £5.

ART AND UTILITY.—The theory of art for art's sake alone has had its day. The artist who condescends to vivify with his talent a piece of furniture or a jewel, is no longer exposed to the contempt of his fellow artists. Did the most skillful painters or the first sculptors, I will not say of the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, but of the seventeenth or eighteenth century, ever hesitate to lend their aid to architects? The illustrious Le Brun, who proved himself capable of finishing in four years the paintings of the great gallery of Versailles, did not consider it the slightest descent to draw a design for a fountain, a lock, a table, or an iron railing. Did not Antoine Coyzevox take a leading part in the designing of the children and the execution of those marvelous trophies of gilt, bronze, which are objects of endless admiration in the same gallery at Versailles? Who scupltured the charming mythologies which disport themselves so graciously on the arches of the ceiling or on the medallions of the panels in the old Soubise Palace, if not some of the most celebrated sculptors of the beginning of the reign of Louis XV., the Lemoines, the Adams, the Le Lorraines? The deplorable, unhappy separation of the two old allies is, then, a modern innovation, contrary to all French traditions.-). J. Guiffrey, in the December Gazette des Beaux Arts, Paris.

PRINCE

seen.

SOLAR PHYSICS.

energy. Some physiologists (Benege, R. Oddi, and others). SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.

have shown that it cannot be the sole source, and some three years ago some new researches on the subject were undertaken

at the Bonn Physiological Institute by Argutinsky. The RusRECENT SCIENCE.

sian doctor experimented on himself, and came to a conclusion ASTRONOMY.

opposed to the current theory; discussion was provoked, and RINCE KRAPOTKIN, summing up the recent achieve- no less an authority than Pflüger (the chief of the Bonn Phys

ments of science in a paper in the current number of the iological Institute, and the editor of the well-known Archiv Nineteenth Century, gives his first attention to the planets für Physiologie), came forward with a new array of facts in Venus, Mars, and Jupiter, all of which during the past few support of the same views. The question is, however, extremely months, stood in the most favorable position for being complicated, and Pflüger's experiments not having been pubobserved from the Earth.

lished in full, the final verdict of science cannot yet be foreIt has now, he tells us, been placed almost beyond question that all we can see of Venus are the clouds that envelop her,

ARTIFICIAL IMMUNITY.-It was Professor Emmerich who with a few protruding polar peaks, rising above the mist. The

first discovered (1886) that the blood of an animal which had Mars phenomena have all been studied afresh without aiding

recovered from an infectious disease, was capable, by subin any way their interpretation.

cutaneous injection, of imparting immunity to other animals. As to Jupiter, the efforts of the astronomers have been

He had proved that the bacteria of disease are killed rapidly rewarded by the discovery of a fifth satellite which describes its

in the blood of an animal that had acquired immunity artiimmense orbit round the giant planet in the short space of

ficially, and assumed the formation of certain aibuminous seventeen hours. But when it comes to solving the mysteries of

bodies poisonous to bacteria. the physical constitution of Jupiter the great telescope reveals

In concert with Professor Tsuboi he investigated the blood nothing. The current opinion has been that we see only the

of rabbits on which immunity against hog-plague had been gaseous envelope of Jupiter, but Mr. E. E. Barnard, who has

artificially conferred. The serum of this blood was (after studied Jupiter for the last twelve years, inclines to the view

separation of the globulin), concentrated at 42° C. in vacuo, that the surface is in a plastic, molten state, and that its

whereby an albuminous body of pronouncedly curative propimmense spots are due to eruptions from from the interior.

erties was precipitated. The filtered liquid, moreover, upon

precipitation with alcohol, gave also a substance of the same The chief progress has been achieved in solar physics, in curative property. This substance was washed with alcohol which research has been rewarded by quite an unexpected dis- and ether, and dried at a low temperature. This dry powder covery. Something new has been learned about a most familiar possessed all the curative properties of the blood itself against body-hydrogen—which is commonly handled in our labora- hog-plague. This production of the remedial agent in a dry tories. For a long time it has been known that incandescent state, although mixed with inert albuminous substance is a hydrogen gives a spectrum consisting of four bright lines, all fact of immense importance in bacteriological science in its situated in positions which correspond to the bright part of relation to medicine.-0. Loew, in Sca New York, Dec. 23. the solar spectrum. But W. Huggins discovered in the spectra of the stars which have a white light, and namely in the ultra- THE NEW STAR IN AURIGA.—The star which appeared sudviolet, darkest part of the spectrum, ten more brilliant lines

denly during the month of December, 1891, in the constellation which were proved by laboratory experiments to belong to

of Auriga has been watched by astronomers with the closest hydrogen. As if to enhance the interest of these discoveries, attention. After being a star of the fifth magnitude from the Prof. Balmer soon found out the analogy which exists between

middle of December to the end of February, 1892, it became, the fourteen hydrogen lines and the upper harmonics of a in the course of March, a star of the fourteenth magnitude. Its sound ; he has shown that the exact number of vibrations spectrum has revealed to Mr. Huggins some very peculiar charwhich produce each of these lines, increase in the same succes

acteristics. While the brilliant lines of the hydrogen were in sion as the numbers of vibrations in the sound-larmonics; the one sense displaced, rays of absorption of the same gas were growth of the numbers can be expressed by a simple formula moving in the opposite direction, indicating, according to the analogous to that used for sound. Now, not only were these Doppler-Fizeau phenomenon, a difference in quickness of nearly fourteen lines found in the spectra of the solar prominences, 500 kilometres a second in the direction of the visual ray. Conbut five lines more were discovered, and their positions so well

sidering the enormous distance from the star, and its maximum agree with the same law of vibration, that there is no doubt brilliancy, it appears very probable that its total radiation was they also belong to the hydrogen spectrum. This discovery of much greater than that of our Sun, and it is impossible to admit the full spectrum of hydrogen is one of the most astonishing

that a burning body of this nature could cool in so short a achievements of modern science.

time. Mr. Huggins thinks that the star in question is com

posed of two stars which, reaching with great velocity each BIOLOGY.

other's sphere of attraction, set to work to turn (probably with In biology, Weismanı's theory of the continuity of the germ-plasm is rivaled and in part replaced by De Vries, who

strong eccentricity) around their common centre of gravity.

Their mutual action has produced changes of form analogous claims the same independent transmission of all constituent

to tides, though much more considerable. Prodigious erupparts of the cells—vacuoles, chlorophyll-grains, starch-produ

tions have taken place, accompanied, doubtless, by electric cing spots, etc., all of which are shown to multiply by division.

phenomena, and by a great rise of temperature on a portion of The protoplasm of the cell is thus a compound organ, a col

one of the bodies. The great difference between them during ony. But discovery goes on very rapidly in this domain, and

the phenomenon indicates that they were, before it occurred, we are certainly not yet in possession of a theory of heredity

in a very different state of formation.La Nature, Paris, which could have a serious bearing upon researches in

Dec. 1o. evolution. PHYSIOLOGY.

SULFONAL.- Among new drugs belonging to what is called In physiology the chief feature of interest has been an the hypnotic group, sulfonal has grown most rapidly in favor. attempt at reëstablishing the muscle-producing capacity of It is without any unpleasant effects, has proved especially benenitrogeneous foods. For some years past, the hydrocarbons ficial in cases of delirium tremens and asthma, and has also have generally been deemed the sole source of muscular been recommended as the best preventive of sea-sickness.

THE TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY.

WH

JOULE'S DISCOVERY.

V. E. JOHNSON, M.A.
Condensed for The LITERARY Digest from a Paper (11 pp.) in

Westminster Review, London, December.
HEN we say that anyone is full of energy, we mean, do

we not, that they are full of the power of doing work? And when we say that a thing is full of energy, we mean that it is full of the power of doing work, and we estimate the energy which it possesses by the amount of work which it can do before it is utterly spent.

Now, it is very easy to see that a moving body possesses energy, but we may also have energy in a quiescent state. Suppose, for example, I carry a stone weight to the top of a high tower, and place it on a ledge there, the stone would possess a certain amount of energy or power of work in virtue of its position, for if I were to push it over the edge it would at once fall to the ground beneath, and, by virtue of the motion acquired in falling, be made do a certain amount of work.

The energy possessed by this stone weight in virtue of its position is called potential energy. The energy which I expended in carrying it to the top of the tower is actual or

the Sun must both come, and with their death, the end of all life on earth. But the human race of to-day is providing for its own extinction long before either of these events conie to pass.

No fallacy can be greater than to suppose that any scientific discovery can avert this disaster, because every such discovery only leads to a more rapid exhaustion of earth's garnered. stores.

The offspring of the people of the United States alone, at their present rate of increaee would, in four centuries, if all other races were to die out, cover the whole habitable globe, allowing each person only 27 square feet of surface.

lf, then, we continue to multiply, and to consume the earth's stores of lise-supporting energy, as we are now doing, the human race cannot do otherwise than come to an untimely end.

We should endeavor, also, when possible, to horrow, not tospend, that those same agencies in Nature which make exhausted land again become fertile, may come into play, and by their action maintain the fertility of the soil. The waste of combustible materials of which we are now guilty, is utterly inconsistant with our claim to be responsible beings—“Intel-lectual heirs of all the Ages "-holding the accumulated stores. of Nature in trust.

kinetic energy

I have said that in falling, the stone will perform a certain amount of work; now the amount of work which it will perform is exa ly equivalent to the work which I performed in carrying it to the top of the tower, and this stone weight while at the top of the tower possesses a "potential energy” or “energy of position” equal in amount to the actual or kinetic energy expended by myself in the

There is no creation of energy; neither the steam-engine, electro-dynamo, human muscle, nor any mechanical contrivance which can create force. All we can do is to transform one kind of energy into another more convenient to us, and similarly in all machines or combinations of machines the law is universally true that “what we gain in power we lose in space," or that the power multiplied into the distance it descends is always equal to the weight multiplied into the distance that it ascends-neglecting friction.

It is chiefly due to the labors of Mr. James Prescott Joule, of Manchester, that these doctrines were transferred from the realm of speculation to the sure basis of experimental fact.

To produce a certain amount of one kind of energy, the equivalent amount of another kind of energy is always necessary, and we are led to the great principle of the Conservation of Energy, than which no truth stands on a firmer scientific basis. “Work is worship,” says an old proverb.

“ Work is a necessity," is the doctrine of modern science. “For a certain amount of one kind of energy, I will give you,” says Nature, “so much of the other kind of energy, no more and no less.” For a certain amount of work to be done (without injury or waste of the system), a certain quantity of food must be digested. It is the combustion of the food in our system that furnishes the energy of our bodies and any food capable of nourishing our bodies may, if well dried, be burned in the fire.

In every case this food derives its energy from the SUN. Apart from organic energy, the other sources of energy in nature available to man for the production of mechanical effect, are rain, the tides, the air in motion, and fuel. Coal and wood are now the prime sources of available energy, and they are rapidly being exhausted. In ten or twelve generations, if not earlier, the coal fields of Great Britain will be exhausted. Similarly too with the forests, which are being wantonly destroyed.

No fresh energy is being created by the earth. At her birth, she possessed a certain amount which is rapidly being radiated into space like that of the Sun. The death of the earth and

DISCOVERY OF AN ANCIENT LAKE-VILLAGE IN

SOMERSETSHIRE.
R. MUNROE, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.E.
Condensed for The LITERARY Digest from a Paper (5 pp.) in

Antiquary,* London, December.
N my return home early in , a

months' absence on the Continent, I found among the letters awaiting my arrival one from Mr. John Morland, Glastonbury, Somersetshire, which begins thus:

“ Mr. Arthur Bulleid, of this town, discovered in the spring of this year, and is now examining under the auspices of our local Antiquarian Society, a group of prehistoric remains which I think cannot faib to interest you. Mr. St. John Hope recommended your book on the lake-dwellings of Europe, and we have found in it very much that. throws light on the 'find’; but nothing is described therein which exactly resembles these remains. I described the remains at the Somer-set Archæological Society's meeting at Wellington, and Prof. Boyd Dawkins spoke of the communication as the most important he had heard made to a local association for many years. He has since been here, and is coming again.

“The site is about a mile north of Glastonbury, on the road to the village of Godney. It is in the level moor, now grass-grown, which stretches to the British Channel. Before examination, the remains consisted of a number (sixty or seventy) of low mounds, rising one to two feet above the surrounding soil, and from twenty to thirty feet. across."

The writer then goes on to give a short description of the mounds then examined, and the relics collected, and concludes by expressing a hope that I would find the subject sufficiently interesting to induce me to visit the locality. Accordingly I did so as soon as I could get some other engagements disposed of. I arrived at Glastonbury on Sept. 20, and that sanie evening met Messrs. Morland and Bulleid, and arranged to accompany them to the sites of the discovery on the following day. Meantime they brought me to see the relics, which were located partly in Mr. Bulleid's residence, and partly in the Glastonbury Museum. I was quite astounded at the number and character of these objects. This is not the place to enter on a detailed description of them, but the following jottings will be sufficient to indicate their general character:

Of bronze, four fibulæ of La Tène types, one small, penannular, horseshoe-headed brooch, and two massive spiral finger-rings.

A few objects are of iron, but they are so much corroded as to make it difficult to determine what they were intended for. One resembles

* Reprinted from the London Times,

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »