Lapas attēli


two kinds. The priests, as a rule, and the great majority of THE NEWLY-DISCOVERED GOSPEL OF ST. PETER mankind, have embraced the one; the prophets and a very

DOCTOR ED. BRADKE. small minority the other. The one is the religion of savages

Translated and Condensed for THE LITERARY Digest from and of a low state of evolution; we may, therefore, call it the

Theol. Literaturblatt, Leipzig, No. 48. religion of the past. The other is the religion of the noblest

INCE the Greek Bishop Bryennios found the Teaching of of our race, it belongs to the highest stage of evolution, and

the Twelve Apostles, few, if any, discoveries in the departwe may, therefore, call it the religion of the future.

ment of Biblical literature equal in worth that of the fragIt is frequently said that religion is dying. But we should

ments of a Gospel attributed to the Apostle St. Peter, be more correct in saying that it is yet to come.

In the good

unearthed some time ago in the City of the Dead, Akhnim, the sense of the word, religion has but barely existed in the past.

old Panopolis. The manuscript is written on parchment, and The undying religion of the future is taking the place of the

has been published by U. Bouriant, the Director of the French religion of the past.

Archæological Institute in Cairo. This document, which is Will the religion of the future involve a Deity? It is some

now in the Museum at Gizeh, is of thirty-three pages, in old times said that an atheistic religion is “ nothing but morality.”

leather binding. It is not dated, but the orthography and Well, if this were true, morality without a God would be better

writing show that it is not older than the eighth, and not than a God without morality. But it is a mistake to say that

younger than the twelfth, century. It was found in an old a religion of conduct is only morality. Morality is the beginn

Christian cemetery. ing of true religion ; it is religion not yet come to full con

On the first page is a sign, doubtless representing the Copsciousness of itself. The man who has done the will of God is

tic cross; to the right and left are the letters Alpha and not to be called irreligious because he has made a mistake in

Omega, On the back, the text itself begins at what turns out metaphysics.

to be parts of an old Gospel attributed to St. Peter. But Atheism is a mistake in metaphysics none the less.

The fragment of the Gospel happens to begin with the words, There are three arguments for the existence of God which

"But of the Jews no one washed his hands, neither Herod, nor together amount almost to demonstration : (1) The uniform

any of the Judges, nor of the Senate washed their hands. ity of nature, (2) the rationality of nature, and (3) the progres

Pilate arose, and Herod the King commanded that the Lord siveness of nature; and these seem to afford overwhelming

should be brought." The fragment covers nine pages of the evidence of the fact that her phenomena are controlled by a

manuscript, and breaks off in the middle of a sentence; and Being of transcendent wisdom and benevolence, that is to say

after stating that the women had come to the grave and found by God. And if this be so, the religion of the future will be

it empty, concludes with these words: “ But I, Simon Peter, explicitly Theistic.

and Andrew, my brother, taking with us our nets, returned to I think that the religion of the future will involve immortal

the sea, and there was with us Levi, the son of Alpheus, whom ity. While there is no evidence against the theory of immortal

the Lord .." This sentence is of the greatest value, ity, there is a great deal of evidence in favor of it. (a) It is a

showing that the author claims to be Peter himself. hypothesis which is in harmony with experience. (6) It is the

The leading variants between the statements of this pseudohypothes is which explains experience. (c) It is the only hypoth- Gospel fragment and the canonical Gospel are briefly the folesis which affords a logical basis for religion.

lowing: At the request of Joseph, here declared to be a friend Will the religion of the future be called Christianity? No, if

of Pilate and of the Lord, the former asks Herod for the body by Christianity be meant the Christianity of Christendom.

of the Christ. The request is granted with the statement Yes, if by Christianity be meant the Christianity of Christ.

that if no one had asked for the body, then Herod and the And in thus associating the name of the Nazarene with the

Jews would have buried the Lord, because the Sabbath was religion of the future, we do not ignore, much less condemn,

approaching, and it was a mandate of the Law that the body of the religious performers who preceded and followed Him. We

one who had been killed should not remain unburied at the only mean that their work is comprehended and completed in

setting of the Sun before the Feast of Unleavened Bread; then His. He was greater than some of the prophets by reason of

follows a description of the sufferings of Christ, but in a more His Theism; greater than any—Gautama alone excepted-in

vivid manner than that found in the Gospels. Then we are the charm of his personality ; greater than all on account of

told: “And they led two malefactors and crucified the Lord His plan of salvation,—the attainment of righteousness through

between them. He Himself, however, said nothing and had love. He was the creator par excellence of the religion that

no suffering." According to these words the real Lord was not will never die. Alas! He has lain buried for centuries in the

nailed to the Cross. When the one malefactor petitioned tomb of theology ; but His resurrection is at hand.

Christ for His help, he is threatened by the multitude with And what of the Church? Well, she will live if she become

still greater tortures. When at the hour of noon it becomes in reality what now she is but nominally—the Church of

so dark that many lamps were lighted, the Jews began to be Christ. At present she represents the religions of the past, afraid. The Lord, however, cries out: “My Strength, my and she is essentially anti-Christian in the importance she Strength, thou hast deserted me; and when He had said this attaches to “belief.” The fact is, “the world” has become

He was taken away.” The nails are drawn out of the hands of more Christian than the Church. The Church must get rid of

the Lord, and He is laid upon the ground, which violently what she now regards as fundamental. She must take a fresh

trembles. The Elders and Priests are filled with sorrow, and start from Christ. She must be born again. To go back to

they cry out: “Woe over our sins; near unto us have come the simple Christianity of Christ would be to get rid at once of

the judgments and the end of Jerusalem. I, Peter, however, all her corruption. Then true worship would begin—the wor

lamented together with my friends and were cast down in our ship of a Deity who is only good; while in every worshipper

minds, and we hid ourselves, and were hunted as malefactors, would be enkindled an enthusiasm for righteousness, a pas

and as those who would set fire to the Temple. But over all sionate resolve to “work together with God” for the elevation

this we fasted and sat sad and fasted and lamented day and and amelioration of the race,

night unto the Sabbath.” The petition of the Elders addressed It is we clergy who are the great obstacles in the way of such

to Pilate to have the grave guarded is based on the excited a change. The great majority of the clergy are so saturated

feeling of the populace, who, in view of the signs and wonwith the spirit of ecclesiasticism, so wedded to the religion of

ders that took place in connection with the Crucifixion, are the past, that theiç conversion seems almost hopeless. The Church will never be reformed until her clergy have learned

beginning to incline toward the Messiah. The name of the the lesson—which any “infidel” could teach—that righteous

Centurian to whom the watch was entrusted is Petronius, ness is man's first and only duty.

All those present assist in rolling the stone before the tomb,

which is sealed with seven seals. Beside the grave a tent is erected for the watchers. On the day before Easter the people flock to the grave to see and inspect the seven seals. In the following night, however, while the soldiers are watching, a mighty voice sounds from Heaven, which is opened, and two men descend from it in a great light. The stone rolls away of itself, and the men enter the opened grave. The Centurion and the Elders, who are present, are awakened. While the watchers are still engaged in telling the story they see three men come out of the grave. The two are supporting the third, and a cross follows them; the heads of the two reach to the heavens, but the hand in (here follow words that cannot be made out] it transcends the heavens, and they hear a voice (words that are dark, but are translated by Bouriant Tu as proclamé aux gens unis et somis). A voice is also heard from the Cross. While those present deliberate whether they should send word to Pilate, the heavens again open, and a man descends and enters the grave. Thereupon the watchers fee in dismay, and, in the presence of Pilate, confess their faith in Christ as the Son of God. The leaders of the Jews, indeed, see their great wrong, but because of this fear of the wrath of the Jews, ask that this fact of the Resurrection be kept a secret. The youth sitting at the grave says:

· Whom have ye come to seek save the One who was crucified ? He has arisen, and has gone away. But if this is not believed bend down and see the place where He had been laid, for He is no longer here. For He is risen, and departed whence He

Here the fragments end.

was sent.


auditors. At the last séance more than four hundred persons were unable to gain admittance.

The study of occult science is spreading step by step. It penetrates into all quarters, without any noise, but with slow certainty, by continuous absorption.

The multiplicity of investigations in our age of extreme criticism have given new and original solutions to questions of history, science, religion, and the origin of things. They are not yet accepted by science; tomorrow they will constitute official instruction—when we shall have lifted the sombre veil which hides our origin.

Having thus followed, with truthfulness and impartiality, the occult movement, putting aside completely the instruction received in the schools, I am ready to say with the great philosopher, Montaigne, “ What do I know?"

IV. I have a story to relate concerning the undefined forces of nature of which I have spoken :

A consul of France, starting for India, was presented in London to one of the principal dignitaries of the Theosophical Society of Adyar, India. After a long and interesting interview, our compatriot was invited to join the society. The consul, though greatly interested, declared his unbelief in occult power. The representative of the society promised that he should have satisfactory proof before the day was over.

Two hours later, the consul, who is my personal friend, was alone in his room with closed doors, writing letters preparatory to his departure on the morrow. Suddenly there appeared before him a Hindoo, dressed as a Bralımin. Saluting my friend by name, the unknown informed him, in English with a foreign acccent, that he had come from an Indian city to convince the consul of the occult powers possessed by members of his order.

“Just now," continued he, “I am at and have come to you in my astral body materialized to salute a brother of tomorrow. You are neither the victim of hallucination, nor of outside suggestion. My presence is real; here is the proof.”

He took from his throat a necklace of sandal-wood beads, which he laid on the table. “I will be waiting for you when you debark,” he said, “and you can then return my necklace,”

The visitor was gone, but the necklace lay upon the table, exhaling its pungent perfume. My friend was obliged to yield to the evidence. Some one had brought him the trinket. He noted in his diary the story of this mysterious visit, and showed it to me later as written in its place. The next day he embarked with the necklace in his valise.

As he approached his destination he directed his glass towards the shore. Among those waiting he saw the Brahmin who had visited him, dressed as before, and who, as soon as he had landed, approached and humbly requested the return of his necklace. Since that time the consul has been one of the most fervent adepts of the Theosophical Society.

As to the authenticity of this incident, I would say that it was related to me and supported by proofs, during one of my friend's leaves of absence in France.

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Condensed for The Literary Digest from a Paper (8 pp.) in
Arena, Boston, December.

HE Independent Group for Esoteric Study, formed by

adherent societies, either affiliated or represented, is the centre of the most important occult movement in Paris.

The following are some of the names of societies which are inscribed at headquarters: The Spiritualist Society of Paris, the Magnetic Society of France, the Psycomagnetic Society, the Sphinix, the Occult Fraternity, the True Cross, the Martinist Initiation Groups, the Masonic Groups for Initiatory Studies, etc. All these have their headquarters in Paris.

The Independent Group for Esoteric Study has a fourfold object: It makes known the principal data of occult science in all its branches. It instructs members, who are thus made ready to become Martinists, Masons, Theosophis, etc. It establishes lectures upon all branches of occultism, and finally it investigates the phenomena of spiritism, of magnetism, and of magic, lighted only by the torch of pure science,

Since the beginning of the present year the meetings of the groups have been held in the Rue de Trévise. in private quarters. Here are both open and closed meetings. The latter are reserved for the initiated alone, and are accompanied by psychic and spiritistic experiments, with ecstatic and mediumistic phenomena. On some days, I have seen more than one hundred and fifty auditors, composed principally of literary people and students from the schools of higher learning.

Many cultured women from the upper world of Paris, elegantly attired, attend without any eccentricity of dress or person. The members of an embassy from the north of Europe attend the closed lectures regularly. The late Lord Lytton, when living in Paris as English Ambassador, came frequently.

The open sessions, accessible upon the presentation of a personal card, are devoted to lectures of a general character, sometimes accompanied by experiments in materialization and hypnotics. On these days the hall is too small to contain the

* This paper was begun in The LITERARY Digest last week.

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JUNIUS Henri BROWNE. Condensed for The Literary Digest from a Paper (742 pp.) in Worthington's Illustrated Magazine, Hartford, January.

OW does a man feel under fire?” is a question of

interest to men who have had the experience, as well as to those who have not had it. We are all anxious to know what may be the mental impressions of any one of our fellows in circumstances generally supposed to be a test of bravery or courage, especially since most of us have had no such test. We Anglo-Saxons, as we call ourselves for want of a butter term, attach extraordinary consequence to our readiness to undergo exposure, in case of need, to danger and death.

During the Civil War, as war correspondent of the New



York Tribune, I learned to the full what it is to be in range of superior to place or pressure. Courage is quite consistent with balls and bullets of every calibre and variety.

physical timidity, being mainly mental, and susceptible of During the first eight or nine months of the war, I heard, in improvement and expansion. It is strongest wliere morality is divers reconnaissances and skirmishes in Missouri and Ken on its side, where conscience approves. Bravery may be tucky, and on the Mississippi, a great deal of martial music material, brutal; courage belongs to the highest organizations. performed by musket, rifle, and cannon, and even learned to Bravery is inborn and necessarily rare. Courage is evolved, distinguish the sound of different balls as they whizzed by, and may, with a given environment, reach the loftiest heroism. But I did not know what it was to be in a regular battle until

we were at Fort Donelson (February, 1862) where I received, I
may say, my baptism of fire.

The morning of the second day of the siege, I was wander-

Condensed for The Literary Digest from a Paper (3 pp.) in ing on foot through a wood, trying to see how the battle was

Hardwicke's Science-Gossip, London, December. going. There was continuous firing to the left, and the fre HE kangaroo has always been a great nuisance to the Ausquent whizzing of bullets over our heads. Abruptly the Con tralian squatters, for, on an average, these animals confederates opened on us from an adjacent battery with grape sume as much grass as a sheep. It is said that on a sheepand canister. The shot rattled all round us, cutting down the run of 60,000 to 80,000 acres, 10,000 kangaroos were killed bare twigs and boughs above, and ploughing up the ground in annually for six consecutive years, and yet their number our immediate vicinity. It was so abrupt, and the source was remained very formidable in the locality. In the colony of so invisible, that I was fairly startled at first, but I was South Australia hundreds of thousands of kangaroos are exhilarated also. It seemed like real war. The sensation was

slauglitered annually for their skins and the bonus offered by genuine and not unpleasurable, because, perhaps, I saw nobody the authorities. The number of these marsupials in New South struck.

Wales, in 1889, was estimated to be over 4,000,000, and yet It makes a deal of difference with one's feelings, under fire, about half a million kangaroos, and 650,000 wallabies were when one is an eye-witness of casualties in the immediate destroyed in the colony in that year. neighborhood. The sense of danger is greatly increased as The number of kangaroo skins shipped from Melbourne in well as the likelihood of death, if men are falling around one the last fourteen years exceeded 1,000,000 ; besides the large is somebody at one's side receives a glastly or a mortal wound. numher used up in the local tanneries, where they realize about Wounds and death in the concrete appear very different from 35. a skin. At the public leather-sales in London, on one day what they do in the abstract. Time and experience are needed in May last year, nearly 3,000 kangaroo skins were sold. The not to be deeply moved by the inevitable horrors of war. Usage wallabies are a smaller species of marsupial than the kangaroo, makes us to a certain extent callous to our surroundings, how and belong to two distinct genera, Halmaturus and Petrogale. ever painful.

Some 60,000 or 70,000 of these are annually shipped from AusIn battle, every soldier is under obligation to be firm, to obey tralia as furs. The skins of the Australian opossum are very orders, to be faithful to his cause. If he falters or flies, he is handsome, and their thick, soft sur affords a valuable article of disgraced, punished, irrevocably ruined. On the other hand, commerce, being enployed, like hare skins, for chest protectors, if he does what he should do, he is esteemed, honored, pro and lately for making gloves. About 2,000,000 opossum skins moted. As a matter of policy, of self-interest, therefore, is it are exported annually from Australia. not strange that any soldier should shirk or flinch under any When rabbits were first introduced into Australia no one circumstances ?

seems to have thought of the nuisance they might eventually A soldier in his first engagement is inclined to a presenti become, and of the large expenditure which would be necesment of death, and is often surprised when it is over to find sary in order to keep down their numbers. There are now few that he is still alive. In his twentieth or tenth engagement his parts of the settled districts which are not infested with them, presentiments have disappeared with his nervousness, and he and it is found that if the exterminating efforts are relaxed is cool in the presence of peril.

they soon become as numerous as ever. After placing over What is known as courage is, in ninety-nine cases out of a 75,000 miles of telegraph-wire across the length and breadth hundred, a matter of discipline. A man is alarmed at danger of Australia for the benefit of commerce, the different governin the beginning, not so much because he is timid as because ments little contemplated having to furnish hundreds of miles danger is new to him. The trite proverb that familiarity of wire-netting to keep out the rabbit plague, besides large breeds contempt is measurably true of war. The coward of sums for supervision and destruction. A fence of wire-netting, to-day may be the hero of to-morrow. The nerves that trem

extending a distance of 150 geographical miles, has been

erected by the Victorian Government, with the view of keepble at the outset may be strong as steel at the termination.

ing the rabbits and wild dogs on the border from crossing, and Everything comes by education, intrepidity included. Raw the South Australian Government is doing the same. In the troops are always untrustworthy, simply because of their raw last ten years the Victorian Government has paid out £177,The same troops as veterans do not blanch in the face ooo sterling for rabbit-extermination.

In three years, under favorable circumstances, two pairs of of death.

rabbits, if undisturbed in any way and sufficient food abounded, It may be hard to count on a man's courage, but it would be would increase to the enormous number of 5,000,000. This madness to count on his cowardice. Almost any human being statement fully shows the necessity for continuous and vigorwill be fearless with certain provocations, from certain motives.

ous action to destroy them. The extent of the evil may be Much depends on the cause and his attachment to it. He may

imagined from the fact that 15,000,000 rabbit skins have been

exported from New South Wales in one year; and that in the be craven in one thing and dauntless in another. Men feel

thirteen years ending with 1889, 39,000,000 rabbit skins were very differently under fire at first, but much alike at last. They exported from Victoria, to say nothing of the other Australian can all be made to endure it becomingly, creditably, after colonies. Twenty years ago there was not a single rabbit repeated trials. The incurable coward is almost as exceptional

throughout the length and breadth of New Zealand. Since

then more than 106,000,000 rabbit skins have been exported as the congenital idiot.

from those islands. The property destroyed by the rabbits is In speaking of prowess we must distinguish between bravery estimated by millions. On the average 12,000,000 skins arc and courage. Bravery is, in a strict sense, constitutional exported from New Zealand yearly. They increase so rapidly absence of fear: courage may fear greatly and still be capable,

and the destruction wrought by them is of such a character,

that in some districts it has become a question whether the by strength of will and determination, of overcoming or at

colonists with their flocks and herds should vacate the country, least resisting, fear. Bravery if it sees the danger does not

or whether systematic efforts should be made to extirpate the feel it; advances in its teeth without pause or tremor: it is pest.



in a judicial decision. As the North grew faster than the South, as freedom was stronger than slavery, it was the only lenable theory on which slavery could be extended. It is a striking historical fact that in but thirteen years of our history, from 1847 to 1860, could such an opinion have been delivered from the Supreme Court. Only on the conviction that slavery was being pushed to the wall, in conjunction with subtle reasoning like that of Calhoun, who tried to obstruct the onward march of the century by a fine-spun theory, could a sentiment have been created which found expression in the opinion of Taney, outraging, as it did, precedent, history, and justice.

That Taney committed a grievous fault is certain. He is not to be blamed for embracing the political notions of John C. Calhoun, his environment gave that shape to his thoughts; but he does deserve censure because he allowed himself to make a politcal argument, when only a judicial decision was called for. The history of the case shows that there was no necessity of passing on the two questions the Chief Justice undertook to decide. These were: (1) Could a negro whose ancestors had been sold as slaves become a citizen of one of the States of the Union ? (2) Was the Missouri Compromise constitutional? Nothing but an imperative need should have led judges, by their training and position presumably conservative, to unsettle a ques. tion that had so long been acquiesced in. The strength of a constitutional government lies in the respect paid to settled questions. For the judiciary to undermine that respect undermines the very foundations of the State. As Douglas sinned as a statesman, so Taney sinned as judge ; and while patriotism and not self-seeking impelled him, the higher motive does not excuse the Chief Justice; for much is demanded from the man who fills that high office. Posterity must condemn Taney as unqualifiedly as Douglas.


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PROMISE OF 1850. By James Ford Rhodes. 2 Volumes, 8vo. Vol. I., pp. 506, 1850–1854; Vol. II., pp. 541, 1854-1860. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1893. [If Mr. Rhodes lives to complete this history according to the programme he has laid down and on the same scale as the two volumes here given to the world, it will be a voluminous work, the result of great labor. The author proposes to continue the history to the inauguration of President Cleveland in 1885. The events of ten years occupy two octavos, containing a thousand pages. At the same sate, to narrate the events of the succeeding twenty-five years, will require five more volumes of the same size, even if the events of the Civil War can he got into a single volume, which seems hardly possible. If, however, the remaining portions of the history are as entertaining and vivaciously written as this instalment, the work will be none too long. Mr. Rhodes has evidently taken great pains to weigh fairly the men and incidents which figure in his narrative. In a long and carefully written chapter on Slavery he puts in bold relief the worst features of that institution and its baneful effects on the slave-owners, yet does not hesitate to admit the virtues of the social system of the South before the War, as will be seen from the extract below. The historian's pen-portraits of the chief actors in the stirring political contest before 1860 are elaborate and many-sided. In them, also, he endeavors to be fair. As to whether he has always succeeded in his endeavor, sume opinion may be formed from the characterization of Chief Justice Taney, a portion of which will be found hereunder, Besides we reproduce the estimate of John Brown.) N

exhausted the subject of the virtues of her social system. The little aristocracy, whose nucleus was less than eight thousand large slave-holders, had another excellence that deserves high esteem. While in the North their manners were often aggressive, in their own homes they displayed good breeding, refined manners, and dignified deportment. And these were more than outside show; the Southern gentleman was to the manner born. In society and conversation, he appeared to the best advantage. He had self-assurance, an easy bearing, and to woman a chivalrous courtesy; he was stately but conde. scending, haughty but jovial.” Underneath all were physical courage, a habit of command, a keen sense of honor, and a generous disposition. The Southerners were fast friends, and they dispensed hospitality with an open hand. They fitted themselves for society, and looked upon conversation as an art. They knew how to draw out the best from their guests; and with all their high self-appreciation at home, they did not often indulge in distasteful egotism. They amused themselves with literature, art, and science; for such knowledge they deemed indispensable for prolonging an interesting conversation. They were cultured, educated men of the world, who would meet their visitors on their own favorite ground.

If we reckon by numbers, there were certainly more well-bred people at the North than at the South ; but when we compare the cream of society in both sections, the palm must be awarded to the slave-holding community. The testimony of English gentlemen and ladies, few of whom have any sympathy with slavery, is almost unanimous in this respect. They bear witness to the aristocratic bearing of their generous hosts. Between the titled English visitors and the Southern gentlemen there was, indeed, a fellow-feeling, which grew up between the two aristocracies separated by the sea. There was the concord of sentiments. The Southern lord, like his English prototype, believed that the cultivation of the soil was the finest and noblest pursuit. But nearly all educated Englishmen, whether belonging to the aristocracy or not, enjoyed their intercourse with Southerners more than they did the contact with the best society of the North, on account of the high value which they placed on good manners. The men and women who composed the Brook Farm Community, and the choice spirits whom they attracted, were certainly more interesting and admirable than any set of people one could meet in Richmond, Charleston, or New Orleans; but society, properly so called, is not made up of women with missions and men who aim to reform the world. The little knot of literary people who lived in Boston, Cambridge, and vicinity were a fellowship by whom it was an honor to be received ; but these were men of learning and wisdom ; they were “ inaccessible, solitary, impatient of interruptions, fenced by etiquette”; and sew of them had the desire, leisure, or money to take part in the festive entertainments which are a necessary accompaniment of society.

When John Brown's attack on Harper's Ferry ended in arrest and imprisonment, his dream of many years had been shattered. The result was what any man of judgment would have foreseen. In the light of common-sense, the plan was folly; from a military point of view it was absurd. The natural configuration of the ground, the accessibility of Harper's Ferry to Washington and Baltimore, doomed him in any event to destruction. To attack with eighteen men a village of fourteen hundred people, the State of Virginia, and the United States Government seems the work of a inadman. Only by taking into account his unquestioning faith in the literal truth of the Bible can any explanation of his actions be suggested, for Brown was in ordinary affairs as sane a man as ever lived, and of no mean ability as a leader in guerilla war.

To Emerson he seemed transparent,” a pure idealist." Gerrit Smith thought of all men in the world John Brown was most truly a Chri an," and that he did not doubt the truth of one line of the Bible.” 'Like the Puritans of two centuries before, he drew his most impressive lessons from the Old Testament; he loved to dwell upon the wonders God had wrought for Joshua and for Gideon. His plan seemed no greater folly than was the attempt of Joshua to take a walled city by the blowing of trumpets, and by shouts of the people; nor was he more foolish than Gideon, who went out to encounter a great army with three hundred men, bearing only trumpets and lamps and pitchers. Yet the walls of Jericho had fallen flat at noise, and Gideon had put to fight, amidst great confusion, Midianites and Amalekites, who were lik the grasshoppers for multitude. As the old Puritan was doing God's work, he felt that God would not forsake him.

A century may pass, perchance, before an historical estimate acceptable to all lovers of liberty and justice can be made of John Brown. What infinite variety of opinions must exist of a man who, on the one hand, is compared to Socrates and Christ, and, on the other hand, to Orsini and Wilkes Booth! The likeness drawn between the old Puri. tan and these men who did the work of assassination revolts the muse of history; yet the comparison to Socrates and Christ strikes a discordant note. The apostle of truth and the Apostle of Peace are immeasurably remote from the man whose work of reform consisted in shedding blood; the Teacher who gave the injunction, “ Render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's,” and the philosopher whose long life was one of strict obedience to the laws, are a silent rebuke to the man whose renown was gained by the breach of laws deemed 'sacred by his country. As time went on, Emerson modified his first exuberant judgment, and, when printing, ten years later, his lecture on “Courage,” omitted the expressions here cited as his opinion of the old Puritan.

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Cassell Publishing Company. 1892. [The “ Playthings” are a series of light sketches, suggestive of a humorist in moralizing mood. They tall under the general heads, " The Secular Confessional," “Sketches in London,” and “Home Pers," the last named including Boys, Girls, Reciters, Fancy Pens, Personal Friends, Dukes, Babies, Piano-Tuners, etc. The “Parodies" are both in prose and verse. We append a few introductory samples.]

MR. RUDYARD KIPLING. 'HIS is not a tale. It is a conversation which I had with a com

plete stranger. If you asked me why I talked to him, I have no very good reason to give. I would simply tell you to spend three hours of solitude in that same compartment on that same line. You may not know the line, which is neither your loss nor the company's gain. I do, and I had spent three hours alone on it. And at the end of three hours I longed for human converse. I was prepared to talk Persian poetry to an assistant commissioner; I was ready to talk to anyone about anything; I would have talked to a pariah dog; talked kindly, too.

MR. JOHN RUSKIN. Eat! Nay, you do not eat. I do not know why any man of us under heaven should talk about eating. We spend our money—the money of a great nation-on filthy fossils and bestial pictures; on party journals and humiliating charities, on foolish books and gas-lit churches. And on solid, honest beef we will spend nothing unless we are driven by necessity; and even then there are some who content them with frozen mutton, the fat of which is base and inferior. I do not think there is any sadder sight in the world than a nation without appetite.

COUNT LYON VON TOLSTOI. Donovich uttered two sighs, and for some time remained silent. His face had become longer and there was more of his mouth. His ears twitched. It was frightful. Two passengers who had been going on to Liverpool Street got out at Charing Cross. One of them was a young woman; she wore a green hat. It has nothing to do with the story or anything else, and that is why I mention it.

I am a Russian realist and in a fair way of business. Admire and pass on.


GENERAL TAYLOR. By Oliver Otis Howard, Major-General

U. S. Army. With portrait and maps, 12mo, pp. 386. New York: D. Appleton & Company. 1892. [In this second of the Appleton Series of Great Commanders we are afforded an insight into the political and military history of the United States over all the period extending from the opening of the War of 1812 down to the outbreak of the Civil War, The sketch primarily biographical, but it is the biography of a man conspicuous throughout the whole course of a career in which, by distinction in arms, and wisdom in council, he attained the dignity of the Presidential Chair.) OLONEL RICHARD TAYLOR, the father of our subject, won

his laurels in the War of the Revolution, and then, like Cincinnatus, retired to his farm ; first to Orange County, Virginia, where Zachary, the subject of our sketch, was born. But before Zachary was a year old the family made the long, hard march to the banks of the Ohio, and settled in what is now Louisville, Ky. Here in a thinly peopled neighborhood where the settlers were often engaged in offensive or defensive skirmishes with the Indians, Zachary passed his boyhood. Colonel Taylor prepared his eldest William, for the army, but designed Zachary for the farm. The boy had, however, received a good education under a private tutor, and it is said that he was an alumnus of William and Mary College. His tastes inclined him strongly to an army life, and perhaps the influence of James Madison and other friends would have secured the father's sanction in any case ; but while they were pressing Zachary's claims, the elder brother, William, who

second lieutenant of artillery, died ; and so, it is said, without further objection, President Jefferson commissioned him a first lieutenant in the Seventh Infantry. His commission was dated May 3, 1808, and two years later, June 18, 1810, he was married to Miss Margaret Smith, of Maryland. In the fall of the same year his friend, James Madison, was made President; but there was nothing phenomenal about young Taylor's promotion. He did his duty nobly in the Indian campaigns of the day and retired with the rank of Major at the peace of 1815. A year later he reëntered the service; and when the Mexican war commenced, he held the rank of brigadier-general. His sterling qualities were now recalled and published, and a fair field offered for their display. His aptitude for war, which had steadily developed in remote places, like that of Von Moltke, began to manifest itself in Texas, and was more apparent as soon as he reached the Rio Grande. The battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, and Buena Vista surprised his countrymen, and much more so his enemies. He was uniformly victorious over the Mexican forces, although they exceeded his own in numbers and were well commanded.

The parodies of the poets are limited to two themes-" Ride a Cock-Horse to Banbury Cross,”' treated variously by Spenser, Swift, and Walter Scoil, and The Poets at Tea," at which Macaulay (who brewed it), Tennyson, Swinburne, Cowper, Browning, Poe, Rosetti, Burns, and Walt Whitman, all found inspiration. We let Macaulay stand for a sample of the author's imitative capacity:

Pour, varlet, pour the water.
The water steaming hot !
A spoonful for each man of us,
Another for the pot!
We shall not drink from amber,
No Capuan slave shall mix
For us the snows of Athos
With port at thirty-six.
Whiter than snow the crystals
Grown sweet 'neath tropic fires,
More rich the herb of China's fields,
The pasture-lands inore fragrance yield ;
Forever let Britannia wield
The teapot of her sires.



CAN WINTER-RESORTS; for Tourists and Invalids, with Map, Illustrations, and Table of Railway Fares. Revised to Date of Issue. Pp. 168. New York. D. Appleton & Co. 'UIDE-BOOKS now-a-days afford a medium for a high class of

descriptive literature, and the volume under notice, edited by Mr. Marcus Benjamin, comes fully up to the standard in this respect. As a practical guide-book it covers all the usual winter-resorts in the United States, Mexico, West Indies, the Bermudas, Hawaiian Islands, etc., and, quite apart from its utility in this direction, it contains a mass of desirable information concerning the physical features, rocks, scenery, climate, and general characteristics of the places named, along with a history of every place that has a history. Indeed it may be regarded as a general compendium of useful knowledge for the Western Hemisphere. ESSAYS, NEW AND OLD. By J. B. G. (Julia Goddard).

London and New York: Longmans, Green, & Co. 1892. EADERS of THE LITERARY Digest will, perhaps, remember our


Towards the close of the war he was asked if he would allow himself to be nominated for President and replied, “that, even if an aspirant for the Presidential office (which is not the case), I could not, while the country is involved in war, and while my duty calls me to take part in the operations against the enemy, acknowledge any ambition beyond that of bestowing all my best exertions towards obtaining an adjustment of our difficulties with Mexico."

This was in April, 1847. The following December he had joined his family at Baton Rouge, La., and saw himself marked out as the man of the hour. General Taylor felt that submission to the will of the nation was his highest duty, but Mrs. Taylor, like other unambitious army women, had been looking forward to a happy period of rest for herself and husband after years of almost unending change, and she frankly warned him to keep out of political life. She regarded the proposal as a dark conspiracy to carry them into new and untried ways of thinking and living, for which they had not been fitted by education and previous habits. But, seeing that his country's wishes were dearer to him than life, the noble woman gave up her own objection, and carried out his wishes with no substantial show of opposition. He died in office, and the following tribute to his character, pronounced by his political rival, Daniel Webster, will afford a reliable estimate of his sterling worth:

I suppose that no case ever happened in the very best days of the Roman Republic when a man found himself clothed with the highest authority in the State, under circumstances more repelling all suspicion of personal application, of pursuing any crooked path in politics, or of having been actuated by sinister views and purposes, than in the case of this worthy, and distinguished, and good

By General Taylor's integrity and unswerving patriotism, the great conflict which was to afflict, winnow, and purify the whole people was postponed for more than a decade. When be became President, had the rebellion come, and he been leading it, the Republic would probably have perished. The Lord be praised that he was incorruptible, that he was a generous friend of the American Union! All honor under a guiding Providence to the memory of the genuine American nobleman, ZACHARY TAYLOR.

notice of “ Fairy Tales from Other Lands” by the same writer.* In the present volume the essays are devoted to Popular songs, Klopstock and Quedlinburg, Grail Myths and the German Gral-saga, Manfred, and Some Plain Thoughts on the Athanasian Creed.

In all, the subjects are well chosen, and the literary style good. “ Manfred” is a very fine piece of dramatic criticism, and a fine poetic vein runs through Popular Songs” and “Grail Myths.” The “ Plain Thoughts on the Athanasian Creed” are thoughts to which the anthor was presumably constrained to give “plain utterance.

* Vol. V., No. 20, P. 551.


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