Lapas attēli

displaying great order in laying out their village and defending go as high as one-half, out of this pulp flour can be made a it with walls and other devices.

bread mixed with potatoes, analagous to ordinary domestic Of their cannibalism there can be no doubt. Had they been bread, and very digestible by reason of the partial conversion slain and eaten by their enemies, their bones would not have of the starch into dextrine. been mingled with those of beasts, birds, and fishes, through- Parmentier, as well as the Chevalier Mustel, described a out the whole eight feet of accumulated débris.

century ago a means of using potatoes in the preparation of That the flesh of those bodies was eaten there can be no bread: but their process was everywhere abandoned because doubt, for no savage would go to the trouble of thus mutilat- it produced a sort of lumps in the bread. In what respect was ing the dead bodies of friend or foe, to the extent of separat- this process defective ? ing all the joints with a knife, chopping the bones three or four Because the starch of potatoes can be used in the paste of inches long, and splitting all those, and only those containing bread in a very small proportion only; otherwise it makes the marrow.

bread heavy, without contributing to it nitrogenous elements The diversity of the skeletons as indicated in their texture in sufficient quantity. Moreover, it takes too much time to and physiological configurations suggest to niy mind that the pick out the little lumps which are found in the dough. persons eaten were probably taken prisoners in battle, with pos- Still further, the starch contained in the soft part of bread, sibly some of their own number eaten as a sacrifice in their festi- not having been converted into dextrine, as in the crust, is not vals and orgies, of which they must have had many, as indicated completely assimilated, because it is changed into glucose by by the number of temple-like structures. Their social life must the action of the saliva only, and for that purpose mastication have been highly developed, too, to hold them together in one is always insufficient. For a long time past attempts have village, and to create such strong defenses as the walls indicate. been made to extract flour from potatoes by drying them, cut

There was probably some division of labor among them; into slices, in an oven a little cooled, after baking bread. They some making pots, others tilling the fields, others making omitted, however, to brown the potatoes and there has always tools of various sorts, while some perhaps followed the chase been too much water to be evaporated. for meat supplies.

The flour of torrefied pulp is naturally less pure than the Whatever led to cannibalism among them, fixed the habit so starch of commerce, since it contains a little parenchyma ; but permanently in their lives as to lead them to relish human this matter, although inert, is considered favorable to digestion flesh. Every part of the body seems to have been eaten, whichi on account of its mechanical action on the intestines, for the is not true of those cannibals that eat their enemies for same reason which gives bread its refreshing quality. revenge or in religious sacrifices.

From the explanations which have been made it will be seen The conclusion that their victims were taken in the chase that what distinguishes the flour of torrefied pulp from roasted or in war is confirnied by the very wide difference of anatomi- starch or the dextrine of commerce is, first, the mode of fabrical conformation between the bones in the garbage-heap and cation; and, second, the dfferent degree of heat by which the those burned in the burial-mounds adjacent to the village. torrefaction is produced. The bones indicate all ages from those of children of tender Not being intended to replace gum in industrial use, the years to those of aged men and wonien.

flour of torrefied pulp is less soluble than dextrine, but it is Such are the facts in confirmation of this habit having more 'soluble than the ordinary starches made from potatoes, existed among a people of a very higher order of barbarism. and this it is which constitutes its value by giving it a more


Consequently, the inventor hopes that the use of his torreLa Nature, Paris, November 5.

fied pulp and the yellowish flour it produces, will be found R. L. EUGENE MOULINE, of Vals-les-Bains, in the very advantageous from an economic point of view; and that

there will result therefrom an increase in the cultivation of potatoes by heat. The object of the inventor was to diminish potatoes sufficiently great, during years of dearth, to make up the expense of transporting a product which, like the potato, for a deficiency in the crops of cereals. contains seventy-five per cent, of water.

The results obtained by Mr. Mouline appear the The process of Mr. Mouline may be thus described : The important, because by the new progress made in agriculture, potatoes are carefully washed and then grated or crushed by Mr. Aimé Girard, the celebrated Professor of Chemistry, has means of the apparatus employed in making cider. The paste,

grown from 600 to 800 quintals of potatoes on a hiectare of thus produced, is afterwards squeezed in a press. All the water land, and the proprietors do not know what to do with this which it is possible to extract from the paste passes into a mass of roots, since there is in their neighborhood neither receiver, in order that from it may be collected, after the water

starch factory nor distillery. is poured off, all the dregs which have been carried into the

HYPNOTISM AND SPIRITUALISM. receiver. Finally, the compressed pulp is separated into its component parts or divided by a root-cutter, and put in an

ALEXANDER HERRMANN. oven moderately warmed; there it is turned over at short

Cosmopolitan, New York, December. intervals until it is thoroughly dry, when it takes on a light BEGAN the study of hypnotism over twenty years ago, yellow tint.

The matter must be treated by a temperature because I saw in it one capable of producing the most sufficiently high to impart an agreeable flavor, without a com- wonderful mental illusions, and therefore one of the greatest plete transformation of the starch into dextrine. It is the benefit to me in my profession. I have given several private product of this process, very convenient to transport, that can exhibitions in tliis science both in Europe and America. I be kept an indefinite length of time without spoiling, and is as have never appeared in public as a hypnotist, because the yet unknown as an article of commerce, to which the inventor public is not yet prepared for such an exhibition. I am unwillhas given the name of torrefied pulp.

ing to expose the manifestations of such a science eithier to the If this torrefied pulp, in a raw state, is useful for fattening fear and credulity of the weak-minded or to the risk of being domestic animals only, it can be used for human food by con- ranked in the same Category of humbugs as Diss Debar and verting it, by boiling water, into a purée from which the bits of Blavatsky. skin can be eliminated by passing it through a cullender. You Hypnotism, despite the many theories since the days of can also grind the pulp, and make of it a light yellow flour, Mesmer, is but mental magnetism applied with an unseen batwhich can be bolted like any other flour.

tery and with unseen poles, and communicated between temperMingled with wheat or rye flour, in proportions which may aments diametrically opposed. This force cannot be exerted

M Department of Ardeche, mas invented as plan for drying



its apex.

to the extent of transfering thought or rendering mind-reading actual size of which any approximate estimate has been made. . possible. What is called mind-reading I have always found to But we have, through the spectroscope, indications of imporbe either muscle-reading or the results of the employment of a tant events in nature that are perpetually going on within each confederate. I can liken the essence of hiypnotism to nothing gaseous molecule, and probably on a very much smaller scale. better than a subtle fluid vibrating in the mind of the magne- For example, an easy calculation will show that the motion tizer, and which passes from him by means of his hands or within the molecules of sodium, to which the principal double otherwise into the subject, upon whom it produces effects line in its spectrum is due—a motion which is repeated more either corresponding to those felt by the principal or desired than five hundred millions of millions of times, every second, by him, and as a condition precedent it is absolutely necessary within each molecule—would need have a velocity several that the magnetizer should possess a higher degree of intelli- times greater than that of the earth in its orbit (19 miles per gence than the magnetized. While in this trance or magnetic second) is the range of these motions is the whole diameter sleep, the sleeper gives utterance to statements that in the we have attributed to the molecule. This consideration, light of subsequent events may prove clairvoyant or prophetic. though not decisive, is sufficient to base the expectation that, While in this condition the results obtained are less wonderful is ever we be able to ascertain the actual range of this motion, than natural. The physician has been able to diagnose his and others of a like kind, they will turn out out to be much patient's case from symptoms manifested in accordance with smaller than the ordinate of our gauge at a millimetre from his preconceived ideas and confirmed by his patient's actions. The detective has extracted the criminal's secret in accordance The gauge now proposed, although inadequate to the quanwith the clews he formed and the hypothesis he adopted of titative appreciation of such minute events, will, nevertheless, the crime. And this confirms the electric theory I have always it is hoped, help the scientific student to obtain a more conmaintained, which is opposed to the mind-reading theory. nected view of nature, by placing before him in somewhat clear The latter is supernatural in a measure, the former natural and evidence, the relation in which some of the larger molecular explanatory.

events stand to the dimensions of the snallest objects he can Of spiritualisnı, the less said the better. Hypnotism is a see with his microscope. strictly legitimate science, destined in the future to occupy a He should never forget that even the most minute of these large share of attention from the savants of the world ; microscopic objects, is an inmense army of molecules or semispiritualisni is humbuggery pure and simple. I do not believe molecules, crowded together, more numerous indeed than all there ever existed a medium in the popular sense of the word, the inhabitants of Europe. The individuals that constitute because such a being is supposed to be the victim of a super- the battalions are not seen, nor is there the least glimpse of natural agency. I have never seen a spiritualistic manisestation the active motions that are, without intermission going on that I could not reproduce through perfectly natural means. anong or within the individuals; nay more, waves of light are I have frequently gone hundreds of miles to see miracles and too coarse to supply our microscopes with information about miraculous cures, and on close examination I have found them the evolutions of the companies, regiments, and brigades of either gross exaggerations palmed off on the ignorant and this great army. It is only when the entire army shifts its. unsuspecting, or the results of perfectly natural causes. Mag- position that anything can be seen; and my object will be netic and miraculous cures differ not in their cause, just as the attained, if the contrivance I have proposed helps in any trance of the somnambulists is identical with that of the degree to bring about a better balance of thought relatively to religious enthusiast.

the cosmos in which we'find ourselves: it is so difficult to The roll-call of spiritualists is not a long one, and why they avoid making the small range of our senses a universal scale are spiritualists is not my province to decide. My apology for with which to measure all nature. Where, for instance, is the any hurt to their feelings cannot be better conveyed than in the justification for alleging that any visible speck of protoplasny language of Archbishop Whately, who said: “When people is undifferentiated? Are not subsequent events perpetually have resolved to shut their eyes or to look only on one side, it rebuking this rashness? is of little consequence how good their eyes may be.”


London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magasine,

London, November.

Homiletic Review, New York, December.
MAGINÉ a quadrant of the earth's meridian to be straight-

I Kings xviii.

T the outset, I desire to call your attention to two signifigauge.


cant facts: first, the worship of Baal was popular; second, the top of it draw the inclined plane to the other end. This this worship was promoted and protected by the King of completes the gauge. It is, in fact, a wedge with a slope of

Israel. one in ten millions. The last ten metres of this gauge next

1. Idolatry has always been, and is now, a popular form of its apex is the portion which I propose as a standard for the religion. The majority of the people of Christianized nations measurement of small quantities. Small quantities are to be

do not worship the Lord God Almighty; yet it is impossible measured by the ordinates of the gauge, that is by the little

to live without some kind of religion. The large majority of perpendicular distances from its base line to its sloping top.

the people of Christian nations, in that they trust in, believe The ordinate at ten nietres from the apex is a micron, or

in, and in a certain sense worship something other than God, thousandth part of a millimetre, equal to 1/25400th of an inch. are really idolaters. Idolatry has retained its popularity By way of illustration, I may say, that to get the ordinate corre- because, while in some degree it satisfies man's natural religious sponding to the red corpuscles of human blood, it would be instincts, i. e., presents something to worship, offers the assisnecessary to prolong the gauge to from 70 to 80 metres from tance of supernatural beings, provides a scheme by which man, its apex. The magnitude of a gaseous molecule is something self-condemned, may escape justly merited punishment, it at like the ordinate of our gauge at one millimetre from its apex. the same time permits him to satisfy the cravings of his sinful

The diameter of a gaseous molecule as above defined is the nature, and actually ministers to his depraved appetites and smallest reasurement for which the present gauge is suggested

passions. This is the necessary consequence of a religion as convenient, as it is also the smallest magnitude of the * A sermon at Prohibition Park, September 25, 1892.


ened out, and used as the base line of a wedge-shaped AT,

springing from a corrupt humanity. Every man-made relig bed of the politics of the nation, that I may do battle with this ion must of necessity recognize man's nature as the ideal of giant curse; my religion will not suffer thereby. You say, every virtue.

educate the children. I have been teaching the children of On the other hand, the religion of Jehovah is, in relation to Israel all my life; but as they grow up to young manhood and man's sins, a religion of restraint, of prohibition. Amid the young womanhood they are brought under the spell of this awful thunderings of Sinai, the natural man hears the mandate horrible evil; early teachings go for little in the face of the of the Law, “ Thou shalt not !” And, although a Calvary and terrible power which binds men and women with shackles of an Olivet have come into existence, they do not hush the rever steel, deadens conscience, drives away all holy aspirations, berations of that stern command. It is not strange, then, that plucks away the pure flowers of virtue, robs manhood of its the religion of Baal, with its freedom from restraint, with its glory, and throws the crown of womanhood in the dust. No! license for evil, was popular in Israel.

no! While the cause remains I cannot stay the swelling tide 2. Baal's worship was promoted and protected by the King. of awful results. One fact that moved me to make this a politAhab set up the altars of Baal in Israel. The man-made reli ical question is that the Government is in partnership with gions have, to a greater or less degree, relied for their success this abomination. This evil cannot be restrained. If you shut upon the power of Government and the might of arms. When up the smaller and more disreputable places, and give a monthe people and the Government favor, promote, and protect opoly to those who can afford to add to the idolatrous rites all any religion, it would seem that all the elements of growth and that delights and enchains, you are legalizing the evil, and it stability had been given to that religion. What more can it can never be legalized without sin. You thus make this worneed? Yet the history of the world tells us that popular ship respectable, while I wish it to be seen in all its loathsomeapproval and State endorsement could not save from utter ness, that the young may flee from it as the very abomination destruction religions and systems that were opposed to God's of wickedness. Though you could limit this evil to only one righteousness. On the other hand, a religion that is of God, priest and one altar, still the curse remains, God is defied, the a cause that makes for righteousness, a movement for the Nation is in league with sin, and the revenue is blood-money, reform of an evil, though at first contemned and reviled, wrung from broken hearts, blasted lives, damned souls." though it manifests none of the elements of strength as the Evidently Elijah had no patience with that high dignitary of world judges, though it lacks that which wins applause, will, by the Church who says “this evil cannot be prevented; it caters its inherent divine power, or by a force begotten of the princi to a natural appetite; it is not in itself a sin, but only sinful in ple of riglit, compel thrones to own it, the multitudes to accept its abuse;

if left alone, would regulate itself by the it; conquering not so much by the methods it uses as by the well-known law of supply and demand." The Word of God dynamic character of its own righteousness.

declares that the powers of the devil must be destroyed. The idolatry in Israel was evil. It arrayed itself against the There is only one way to deal with this abomination, and religion of Jehovalı, therefore neither its popularity nor the that is to drive it out of the land. You may pray about it, and powerful influence of the Government could save it. The legislate about it; and compromise with it; but your prayers people and the throne represented its strength, but its intrinsic will not be answered , your legislative acts will not avail : your evil was its weakness.

compromises will only aid the enemy. You must act-act One man, Elijah, undertook to fight this idolatry. One man against it. This was Elijah's way, and it is God's way. against the combined forces of Baal's priesthood, Baal’s popularity, and Baal's governmental protection.

RECENT EVIDENCE FOR THE AUTHENTICITY OF Let us suppose that in Elijah's day there were the kind of

THE GOSPELS: TATIAN'S DIATESSARON. people we have to-day-who are afraid to array themselves

MICHAEL MAHER. against a popular evil; who are willing to compromise with

Month, London, November. wrong; who propose all sorts of make-shifts; who profess to E hold that the recent discovery of Tatian's Diatessaron be on the side of God and right, while not fighting the enemies

has put us in possession of one of the most valuable of God and the right, but in many instances giving them aid monuments of Christian antiquity that has ever come to and comfort; who try to satisfy their consciences by remaining light. passive. One of these would ask Elijah why he was troubling When we state that the Diatessaron, published in the year Israel; wliy making so much fuss over a little thing when so 1888, is a complete harmony, or harmonized narrative, commany weiglitier questions were at issue. “Look,” he would say, piled out of our four canonical Gospels, and that Tatian was " at the relations of Israel with other natious; and at the great born between the years A. D. 110-120, the reader will perceive, issue of the day, protection of our biome industries.” Another the bearing of this new piece of evidence on the rationalistic argues that the financial question is paramount, while a third theories which would fix the origin of the Gospels late in the tells the Prophet that a proper adjustment of labor and capi second century. tal demands the first thoughts of all patriots and publicists; A Harmony implies that the harmonized narratives must and so on, ad infinitum, all kinds of questions are pressed to have existed for a considerable time, and possessed a the fore to direct attention from the great issue.

considerable amount of popularity. But Tatian s HarElijah had but one answer: So long as the idolatry of Baal mony in:plies a great deal more. It


in the most remains, I will keep it in the forefront as the one supreme conclusive manner that in Tatian's day, and earlier still issue. I propose, God helping me, to prohibit this idolatry, to our present four canonical Gospels, severally and collecoutlaw it. He will use me as His instrument in the overthrow lively, even their briefest texts and single words, comof this abomination.”

manded the deepest veneration throughout the Universal Politicians urge him to confine himself to a religious crusade Church. The oft-repeated assertion that during the first two against the evil-to trust in the power of prayer. Church centuries our Gospels were ranked merely on the same level as members and ministers urge plaintively that he is placing in a many apocryphal works which have long since sunk into obscurcompromising position all those in the Church who do not ity, is now completely refuted. Even so keen a critic as Proaccept his radical views—that they are praying earnestly for fessor Harnack is now compelled to admit that “we learn from the destruction of the evil, but cannot for prudential reasons thie Diatessaron that about A. D. 160 our four Gospels had take active part in the campaign against it. Others said the already taken a place of prominence in the Church, and that question belonged strictly to the domain of ethics and religion, no others liad done so; that in particular the Fourth Gospel and should not be taken into politics.

had taken a fixed place alongside of the three Synoptics.” But Elijah said, “I will take iny religion into the very hot Besides proving the antiquity and authenticity of our four


canonical Gospels, and the profound reverence in which they only copies, and we are led to the conclusion, that we have were held from the earliest times, the Diatessaron is of the retained only a portion of the literary work done in this line highest value in establishing their integrity, their completeness before Luther gave his magnificent version. The calculations and freedom from corruption.

of Walther himself in this respect are exceedingly problematiThe earliest notice of the Diatessaron, formerly known to cal, especially in regard to the number of manuscript translastudents, is contained in a paragraph of Eusebius's Ecclesiasti- tions which must have been lost. He argues that of the cal History, written about A. D. 325. He there tells us :

printed versions of that age only about 6 per cent. have been The former leader of the Encratites, Tatian, composed somehow a preserved in our libraries, and 94 per cent. have been destroyed. sort of connection and combination of the Gospels, and called it the

In the same ratio, he thinks the total number of manuDiatessaron; and this work is circulated in some quarters, even to the scripts of German Bibles, entire or in parts, must have been present day.

at least 3,600. Theoderet, A. D. 420—457, in his treatise on Heresies, says: However, some other considerations must not be overlooked He [Tatian]composed the Gospel called the Diatessaron.


in order properly to estimate the value and bearings of these myself found more than two hundred such copies in reverential use in new data. Let us note only the following facts. Of the Latin the churches of our district. All these I collected and removed,

Vulgate, no fewer than ninety-eight complete editions are replacing them by the Gospels of the four Evangelists.

known to have appeared before the year 1500. Compared with Theoderet tells us that he removed the book from general

this number, the twelve German editions cut rather a small use in the churches because it omitted the genealogies and

figure. One of the favorite hand-books for the clergy, the Possome other passages, rather vaguely described as showing the

tilla Guillermi, had appeared in seventy-five editions down to Davidic descent of our Lord. We feel convinced that the rea

the year 1500. Similar data exist in regard to other books. son suggested was not the true motive for the expulsion of the

Comparatively, then, the German Bible was, even with the surbook, and agree with Zahn and Martin, that it was not con

prising figures given by Walther, rather sparingly used. This demned because of any grave error or imperfection. Neither

becomes all the plainer when we compare the figures with those

of Luther's translation a few years later. Iraneus, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, Eusebius, nor

Between 1466 and Epiphanius include the heresy of the denial of the Davidic

1522, only eighteen German Bible Editions appeared. In the descent of our Lord among the false doctrines they ascribe to

twelve years from 1522 to 1533, no fewer than eighty-five ediTatian; and the fact that the Harmony had been long previ

tions of Luther's version of the New Testament left the press. ously in approved use in the Orthodox Catholic churches in

In this connection the question of the cost of a Bible in place of the canonical Gospels, shows conclusively that it can

those days is interesting. From a remark written in one of the not have been marked by heretical features. Theoderet's

Bibles printed in the year 1489, we learn that the book at that predecessors in the See of Cyrrhus, of unquestionable ortho

time was sold for nine florins. As the market price of a fat ox doxy, would not have permitted such an abuse.

at that period was three florins, the comparative value of a Bible The evidence adduced would seem sufficient to convince any

is apparent. but the most prejudiced and unreasonable of men that Tatian

One of the most remarkable features brought to light by did write the Diatessaron. Yet that evidence was rejected by

these researches is the fact that in most cases these translators the critics of the Tübingen school. Rationalists committed

worked entirely independently of each other. The movement to the doctrine that our canonical Gospels, and especially that

to give the Bible to the people was evidently not organized, of St. John, are apocryphal documents dating from late in the

but showed itself in many quarters at the same time. Again,

it has now been made clear that these German Bibles did not second century, clearly perceived that the admission of the Harmony of these four Gospels by Tatian would be fatal to

emanate from Waldensian sources, as was maintained some their theory. They whittled down, explained away, or obscured

years ago. This, too, has been made clear, that these versions did the historical evidence for the Diatessaron. The witnesses

not come from the official circles of the Church. The Church were discredited. The slightest confusion of statement was

merely tolerated them, because she could not forbid them. exaggerated. The actual meaning of many passages was dis

The versions all date from a period after 1340, and flourished torted.

in a period when the Papal power was rapidly decaying. In Fortunately for the interest of truth, the “higher criticism

not a single case can it be shown that a Roman Catholic does not constitute a final court of appeal in questions of

ecclesiastic had anything to do with the printing of any one

of these translations. Scripture evidence. There is always the possibility of its judgments being upset by some new fact coming to light. Indeed, the only thing that is remarkable in the present case, is what

MISCELLANEOUS. we may call the prodigality with which, in the space of less than a score of years, evidence has poured in on us with respect

PHYSICAL PROWESS. to the Diatessaron.


Munsey's Magazine, New York, November.

AN, we know, is a creature a little lower than the angels; REFORMATION.

the end and aim of terrestrial evolution; a being whose PROFESSOR G. KAWERAU.

marvelous past, and yet grander future are the philosopher's Theologisches Literaturblatt, Leipzig, No. 33.

inspiring theme. But man is also an animal, genus and species, HE recent researches of Professor Walther into the history homo sapiens, belonging to the sub-kingdom, vertebrata, class

of German Bible Versions before the days of Luther have mammalia. Reform his mental nature, strenthen his intellectbrought forth most surprising and even astounding results. ual power as you will, the basis of his existence will always be He has found no fewer than eighteen complete editions of the animal structure, whose formation is his begetting, and whose Bible in German, also one in Dutch, and thirty-one editions of dissolution is his death. portions of the Bible. In addition to these he has discovered two Physical beauty and physical strength-the love of them has hundred and two manuscripts, and in these has unearthed thirty- run through all the ages of man's history. It is the common two different versions of the Psalter and forty translations of ground on which past and present meet. To the old Greek, larger or smaller portions of the Scriptures. What makes the strength and beauty were the motives of his heart, the ideals matter more remarkable is the fact that many of these manu- of his religion, the mainsprings of his life. Proud, indeed, scripts do not contain original and new translations, but are was the State that could cl iim an Olympic victor among her




citizens. On his return home he would be greeted with great Bible stories are of David's fight with the Philistine giant and public rejoicings, and led to his home in triumph through a the muscular exploits of Samson; they go to school to be breach made in the city walls—in token that a city who pos- taught to venerate the classic deeds of the fleet-footed Achilles. sessed sons of such prowess had no need of walls. So long as and the masterful Herakles, and to regard as the modern suche lived he was free from taxes, and the first seat at public cessor of those ancient heroes the youth who, among his celebrations was his. Rich Athens paid him five hundred schoolmates has the quickest eye and the most powerful drachmæ from her treasury; and warlike Sparta gave him the biceps. How can we ever forget that “ 'Tis excellent to have a coveted privilege of fighting at the king's right hand in battle. giant's strength when we are reminded of the truth of the

The other races of early civilization were hardly behind the adage at almost every turn of our daily lives? Greeks in their love of physical prowess. In Hebrew story, for example, Sampson plays a part comparable to the Herakles THE “MONTEZUMA” OF THE PUEBLO INDIANS. of Hellenic legend. At Rome the very names of the city and

ADOLF F. BANDELIER. its mythical sounder were derived from a root that signifies American Anthropologist, Washington, October. “strength.” Roman skill and success in war went hand in hand

HERE is no need of proving that the name of the Mexican with Roman delight in gymnastics. Very instructive is the Chief of Men (Flaca-tecuhtli) who perished while in degradation of sport that accompanied the decline of national the custody of the Spaniards under Hernando Cortes in 1520, character and the loss of liberty. The degradation of the was Mo-teculzoma, literally “ Our Worthy Chieftain." Bernal Roman games marked the degradation of the race.

Diez del Castillo, an eye-witness and the much prejudiced Through the dark ages athletic prowess was little sought or author of the True History" of the Conquest, is responsible prized, save as it shone in war, or the mimic war of the for the corruption into Montezuma, which has since become mediæval tourney, where knights, mounted and armored, popular and most widely known. It is interesting how the battled with spears for the applause of a watching court, or the misspelling has taken hold of the public mind, how it has comfavor of some fair lady. Athleticism is a modern revival, in the pletely supplanted the original true orthography and meaning. development of which the Anglo-Saxon race prides itself on Meaning even is out of place here, for, while Motecuhzoma is having taken the lead.

a legitimate Nahuatl with a very plain signification, and also That development may be said to have had its first real

a typical Indian personal name, Montezuma has no significabeginning about a century ago. In those days the present tion whatever; and yet in Mexico, even the Nahuatl Indians machinery of athletics—the great clubs, the championship —those who speak the Nahuatl language daily-know only meetings, the multiplicity of contests, the valuable prizes—was Montezuma and would hardly recognize the original name as unknown. Cricket was first becoming recognized as a game applicable to him, whom they have been taught to call an whereat men played in tall hats and swallowtail coats. Foot

“ emperor.” ball existed only in a primitive state; of base-ball and other Still, it is not so strange when we consider that at Cozcatlan, modern favorites, there were only rudimentary beginnings. The in the State of Pueblo, at least two hundred miles from the first Oxford and Cambridge boat race was rowed thirty years City of Mexico, the Indians gravely tell the traveler that the later. But the noble art of boxing was attracting an increasing ruins of an ancient Indian town in that vicinity are those of circle of devotees, and its professional champions were the “ Palace of Montezuma,” where that emperor” was beginning to take rank among the celebrities of the hour. ' born,” and whence he started out to

'conquer the City of Boxing led the development of modern athletic sports. It Mexico.” It cannot surprise us to hear of perversions of names is the one that appeals more directly to man's ineradicable only. The folk-tale of the Indians of Cozcatlan (a modern tale, admiration of physical prowess, and its champions attract the of course) shows how easily facts are distorted in the minds of homage of the masses to an extent that is to-day simply mar- primitive people when they do not originally belong to the

circle of their own historical tradition. velous. That was an extraordinary and a significant sight in

No mention is made of Montezuma in Spanish documents New York a few weeks ago, when Madison Square Garden was

on the Southwest of an earlier date than 1664, when, speaking thronged by the thousands who assembled to greet the man of the (then recently discovered) ruins of Casas Grandes, in who had a few days before lost the pugilistic laurel wreath. northwestern Chihuahua, Francisco de Gorraez Beaumont and The scene was one of uproarious enthusiasm such as political

Antonio de Oca Sarmiento speak of those buildings as the old

“houses of Montezuma.” Such an utterance, coming from excitement never inspired. The pliilosopher may have smiled

Spanish officers of high rank, shows that even then the with perhaps a trace of cynicism in his smile to see men push- name Montezuma had become, in the minds of the Spaniards ing and yelling, fighting and scrambling for the privilege of themselves, confounded with migration-tales of Indian tribes touching the outermost hem of their hero's garment; but the

of a very ancient date, and that those tales apply, not to the

unfortunate war-chief of the time of Cortes, but to one of his spectacle revealed a phase of human nature that he may dis

predecessors in office, Moteculizoma Ilhuicamina, who comapprove but cannot ignore.

manded the forces of the Mexicans in the early part of the You cannot indict a nation as Burke said ; but if it is wrong- 15th Century, according to the still doubtful chronology of ful to take an interest in pugilism, then what a nation of sinners

the ancient Mexicans. The confusion between those two perwe were not long ago, when the fistic championship was at

sonages had already been procreative of a mythical Montezuma

in the minds of the educated people. Is it to be wondered at issue between Sullivan and Corbett! It would indeed, with

if that mythical figure took a still stronger hold on the connineteen men out of twenty, be sheer affectation to pretend ceptions of the simple Indian? indifference to the dramatic combat in which the science and Every Spanish expedition that penetrated to the northward

had in its company Indian followers as servants, and somieagility of the younger combatant ended the supremacy of a

times as interpreters, since dialects of the Nahuatl tongue preman, who, considering solely his physical development, was

vailed as far north along the Pacific coast as Sinaloa. Among undoubtedly, in his prime, one of the most perfect specimens natives from the interior of Mexico the name Montezuma was, of muscular manhood that ever was seen.

of course, a household word already in the second generation, Men of peace ! No we are nothing of the sort. The modern

for the fame of the war chies, and of his tragical end, increased Anglo-Saxon is a fighter as his savage ancestors were. He

in proportion to the distance from the time as well as from the

scene of his career. In that second generation Moteculizoma goes into war with a zest as keen as any other nation's and a

was already practically forgotten, and Montezuma remained in pluck which is—or at least he thinks it is—a little better than the mouths of the people as a hero. An Indian hero very soon any. Between his wars he fights the lesser battles of the foot

becomes a mythical personage, and what with confused ball field, the pugilistic ring, the base-ball diamond, or looks

reports of old traditions and folk-tales current among nearly

every tribe, Montezuma could not fail to become a figure on and shouts approval while others fight. His boys learn to

which, in course of tinie, shone among the folk-lore of nearly double their fists almost as soon as to walk; their favorite

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every tribe.

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