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beginning of formal mentation that is, of conscious ratiocina- tions they dealt with in prehistoric times; times when they tion, as compared to instinctive consciousness and volition. were so united with intellect as to be fairly a part of it. Therefore, I have named this period of man's development, That these survivals are so potent still as to make the hands. both plıysically and mentally, the manual.

alone fairly infallible guides almost without the aid of mind No one has better defined the next stage of man's develop- (save, as it were, to give hypnotic suggestions to them), toward ment than our true-seeing teacher, Major Powell, when he the reconstruction of any work or activity, however complistates that the mental step or stage depends on the ascertain- cated, that was long persisted in during periods in the develment of truth; but man attained both to the perception and opment of our race; and that such experimentally reawakened formal ascertainment of truth, first through the use, and then hand-faculties work so perfectly and independently in the through the using of his hands. The survivals of this are as main that they form almost a sixth sense, a manual-mental striking as they are abundant.

method of true divination concerning the lost arts, I shall hope For example, there are no records of any wholly left-handed to show in another paper on the Interaction of Hand and Mind or even ambidextrous cribe or nation, nor is there any trace of in the Growth of Culture. them in art. Man, the savage, fenas for life principally with weapons of war

SOLAR SPOTS, and the chase, of offense and defense. His heart, the most

ARTHUR SCHUSTER, vulnerable part, is on the left side, which he would therefore, even emotionally, turn away from danger. More than this,

Revue Scientifique, Paris, October 15. his condition of life implies always the shield and the club. HE daily variation of the magnetic needle is due in great. He has naturally always carried the shield over his heart with his left hand and arm; the club, lance, or sword in the right probability that the daily variations of the barometer are hand. He has thus acted constantly with his right hand, car- naught but an electro-magnetic effect due to a real movement ried as constantly with the left. It is only natural then, that of that kind in our atmosphere. A favorite idea of Balfour in ritualistic talk the Zuni should have called the personified Stewart will probably prove true: The difference in daily variaright hand the “Taker,” the left hand, the “Holder,” going so tions at the periods of maximum and minimum of the solar far as to deify the left and right members of the sun-father, as spots will be ultimately explained by the fact that the atmosthe Elder and Younger God—Twins of War and Chance-one phere is a better conductor at the time when the solar spots the deliberate, the councellor, and maintainer, the other the are at a maximum.. impetuous, the proposer, and doer.

The attentive observation of celestial phenomena can proIn this already we liave an example of the agency of hand vide us with a key to many of the mysteries which astonish us usage in framing mind, or forming both mythic concepts and to-day. How long a time, for instance, would have been religious beliefs, along the line of which one might follow far required to establish the universality of the law of gravitation, the upward growth of culture in a special people.

if the observation of the planetary movements had not aided Qur decimal system of enumeration is more cumbersome philosophers? Does not the most superficial observation of than the duodecimal system, but we adopted the decimal sys- cosmic effects manifest how many of them are still unknown? tem because we have pentadactylic hands.

Whether we The enunciation of a problem may aid in solving it. Therewould or not, these hands have imposed on us both the names fore, I take leave to put some questions which, it seems to and the figures for our numbers and numberings.

me, are not impossible of solution by the human intellect: By combining a sense of manual aptitude with the etymol- 1. Is every large mass possessing a rotary movement a magogy of quantitative terms in, at least, the Zuni language, I will net? If yea, the Sun should be a powerful magnet, and the feel my way back, step by step, to the far ancient hand-concep- tails of comets, which the observation of eclipses shows to tion and birth of many such terms. I think it can thus be extend in all directions around our Sun, are in all probability shown that while the creator of such terms has been the human electric discharges. The action of a magnet on electric diswill, the father of them has been the right hand, the mother of charges being known, the attentive observation of the currents them the left hand; the numerals have been finger-made of the solar crown ought to furnish an answer to the question and sums hand-made; further, that single ternis or mono

which I put. phrastic words of many sorts have been single-hand made, and 2. Does there exist in interplanetary space a quantity of sentence-words or holophrastic terms, have as often been dou- matter sufficient to render it a conductor of electricity? I ble-hand or gesture-made.

believe that everything indicates that this question should be The hand of man has been so intimately associated with the answered in the affirmative. The conductivity, however, must mind of man that has moulded intangible thoughts, no less be feeble, for otherwise the Earth would be gradually brought than the tangible products of his brain. So intimate indeed to effect its movement of rotation on itself around its magnetic was this association, during the very early manual period of pole. If we admit that the electric resistance of the interplanman's mental growth, that it may be affirmed to be, like so many etary space is sufficient to have produced any appreciable othier liereditary traits, still dormantly existent in the hands of change in the axis of the earth’s rotation within historic times, us all to a greater or less degree.

is it not possible that the currents induced, developed in interFor the hands have alike engendered and attended at the planetary space by the revolution of the Earth, may, by their birth of not only all primitive arts, but also many primi- electro-magnetic action, cause a variation in terrestrial magtive institutiors, and it is not too much to say that the arts' netism from century to century? It seems to me that here is and institutions of all early ages are, therefore, memorized by a question susceptible of a positive answer, and, so far as I can them. In other words, their acts and methods in the produc- judge, that answer must be in the affirmative. tion and working out of all these arts and institutions survive 3. What is a solar spot? It is generally admitted, I think, as impulses within them.

that a solar spot is something analogous to our cyclones. The It is chiefly through these survivals within the hands that general appearance of one of these spots does not show a the embryology of the arts themselves may be traced and marked rotary movement, although what we see is in reality studied.

determined by the distribution of the temperature and not by The method of retracing these lost steps in the growth of

the lines of the current. Yet if a certain number of cyclones the arts surviving in the hands of man is comprised in simply were united in a group like the solar spots, some of these turning these back to their former activities, by reëxperiencing cyclones would vary their positions in relation to others in a through them, in experiment with the materials and condi- definite manner, and it appears to me that attentive study of

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the relative positions of a group of spots ought to furnish a a position that their growing points are bent at a right anglo decisive argument for or against the theory of their cyclonic from the light. Now, as the ivy shoot develops, let us say perpennature.

diculary upwards, the tendrils make a continuous effort at hor4. Is the spots are not due to a cyclonic movement, is it not izontal development. This effort is realized where the tendril possible that the electric discharges radiating from the Sun is not influenced by the support, as for example, at the upper and artificially accelerating evaporation at the surface of this edge of a wall. It is lience clear that in consequence of the powerful star, cool the parts from which the discharges emanate tendency of the tendril to turn away from the light and develop and thus produce a solar spot? The effects of electric dis- horizontally, it must necessarily exert pressure on the support. charges on the aspect of the Sun have been well discussed by The tendril clings tenaciously to it, but in consequence of its Mr. Huggins.

upward development this would be of no service were it not 5. May not the periodicity of the solar spots and the con- that the plant possesses a wonderful organization to which it nection which exists between two phenomena so unlike as the

is indebted for its climbing powers. solar spots and magnetic action on the Earth, be due to an In consequence of the stimulus due to the pressure of the tenincrease, returning periodically, of the conductivity of the

dril on the support, the branch throws out near the leaf stipspace which surrounds the Sun, this increase being produced

ules numerous fine roots which are also sensitive to light, and by meteoric matter circulating around the Sun?

develop consequently on the shady side of the stalk only, that 6. What are the causes of the abnormal law of the rotation

is the side towards the support. These roots are conseof the solar photosphere? It has been long known that the quently clasp organs, which ramisy freely and, being shaded, groups of spots at the solar equator accomplish their revolu

attach themselves insidiously to the support. tion in less time than those situated at a higher latitude; but

Very remarkable is the behavior of the Capucin-cress (Trothe spots may have their own special movement. Moreover, pæolum minus), whose horizontal stipules embrace both the Duner has shown, by the change in the places of Frauenhofer's support and its own stalk, so as to hold the latter firmly lines, that the beds which produce these lines follow the same

against the former. The explanation of this phenomenon is abnormal law, the angular velocity, at the latitude of 75

that the leaves of the plant are sensitive to constant contact, degrees, being thirty per cent. inferior to that near the equa

and wind until contact ceases, as it must when each leaf, after tor. Now, all the causes acting in the Sun may very well

completing the loop, returns to its point of departure-the render the angular velocity of the Sun less at its equator than

axis-and thence develops in freedom. at any other latitude, but could not make the velocity greater at the equator. The only explanation possible, then, is the

IRON IN ANCIENT EGYPT. intervention of exterior action, either in the form of an afflux

PROFESSOR DOCTOR HENRY BRUGSCH. of meteoric matter, as Lord Kelvin has pointed out, or in some

Biblia, Meriden, Conn., November. other form. If we admit, with Mr. Welsing, that the bright spots which are found below the photosphere change their

ONG before Homer, who gave the heavenly vault the qualiposition, whatever be their latitude, with a velocity which is

fication of iron, the same concept was familiar to the the same as that of the spots in the equatorial region of the

oldest Egyptian, sor on this score the text of the pyramids Sun, we shall have to search for a retarding cause acting on

leaves no room for doubt. Yea, they even go further, and the spots in a higher latitude rather than for an accelerating

ascribe this metal to the most powerful and strongest god, the cause acting on the spots in the region of the equator. The

Egyptian Typhon-Seth, thus agreeing with Greek tradition, exceptional interest attached to the solar surface appears to

according to which, on the banks of the Nile, iron is known me to deserve special attention on the part of plıysicists. Its

by the name of “Seth's bones." The idea of an iron sky preexplanation will probably furnish the explanation also of many

supposes an acquaintance with this hardest of all metals, and other phenomena.

thus the question is brought nearer, whether or not, contrary

to the usual notion, iron was known before copper or bronze, THE WINDING AND CLIMBING OF PLANTS.

or at least at the same time. The earliest Biblical reports con

cerning the occurrence and the working of iron (Gen. iv., 22, Der Stein der Weisen, Vienna, October.

where Tubal Cain is mentioned as the inventor of the art of HE phenomena of winding and clasping observed in climb- working in iron) presupposes for the remotest antiquity, the

ing plants is due to the combined action of the so-called use of iron as general and widely diffused. When the metals torsion and nutation. Torsion exhibits itself as a twisting of are enumerated in order, as they occasionally are in the Egypthe plant on its longitudinal axis in consequence of an inequal- tian monumental and papyrus inscriptions, this is the run of ity of growth between pith and bark, and variation in structure their succession : gold, silver, iron, bronze, copper, lead. In of the several tissues. Under nutation two forms of movement these lists, iron always precedes bronze and copper. As early are distinguished, the bilateral and the rotatory. In the first as the text of the pyramids, implements of iron in the shape of there is an unequal longitudinal growth preponderating now on hooks are mentioned, which were used in the religious cereone side, and now on the diametrically opposite side of an mony known as the opening of the mouth. In the sixteenth organ, thus determining a constant change of inclination from century B. C., iron pots are namied, and Pharaoh himself is side to side. In the second, these oscillations occur on all called the iron wall for the protection of Egypt. Even in sides, and the organ in its growth assumes a screw-shaped medicine, iron was employed just as it is in our own day; at motion upwards. In ordinary parlance, the distinction between least this is to be inferred from the medical papyrus in Berlin, winding and clasping, although very important, is generally according to which, a mixture of iron rust and Nile water is lost sight of. The bean winds, the ivy and the vine clasp. recomniended as a cooling application in sever. Nearly all winding plants follow a right to left spiral. Climb- The name and employment of this metal was evidently ing is not a spiral movement around a prop, but a simple extrer

remely familiar to the Egyptians from the earliest times, climbing up by means of a support. There is, however, another and there is no indication that, in Egypt, the age of iron necesand more essential distinction between the two habits. Wind- sarily followed upon that of bronze. ing is a mere consequence of growth, while clasping is a reflex Perhaps the opinion might be ventured, that in all the response of the organ to external stimulus.

instances cited there is reference only to meteoric iron, and Take, for example, the ivy. Two distinct sources of stimuli this seems to be all the more probable since the designation are here called into action-touch and light. The tendrils of for iron in the old Egyptian language was a composite word the ivy are very sensitive to light, and place themselves in such (bi-ni-pe) which signifies “wonderful thing," the wonderful gift

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of the heavens; but it must be borne in mind that in the times through the country under the direction of the highest heavenly of the Greeks and Romans, too, the very same expression was king, His father and lord, to advise and to warn, to overcome the common one for iron, and that in the language of the the hostile and to die for His chosen ones. The Apostles Christian Egyptians or Copts, the same word is used to desig- accompany Him as retainers and all Christians belong to His nate iron, regardless of its origin whether meteoric or telluric. host and are pledged to His service. These Christianized Ger

I have devoted especial attention to this example of the iron, mans rejoiced in their strength and valor, and were as far in order to prove the important significance which these texts removed from the Augustinian feeling of human nothingness, of the pyramids have for the universal history of civilization. wickedness, and depravity, as from the ascetic, primitive Upon all hands are the texts which press home the conviction Christian sentiment of renunciation of the world and the longthat, at the time they were written, old as they are, a vast ing for heaven. epoch of civilization has already run its course.

Still there were not wanting points of contact between the

feeling and thought of the early Germans and the new faith. CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHS AND THEIR MEASURE- They had strong sentiments of loyalty for their leaders, and MENT.

they looked on Christ, first of all, as a man struggling and

suffering in a human way, and sacrificing Himself for the salVICTOR NIELSEN.

vation of His chosen ones. Although Christ did not die in the Naturen og Mennesket, Copenhagen, August.

battle-field, in the thick of combat, still His death could be easily YELESTIAL photography las now been so developed that conceived of as the self-sacrificing death of a warring hero, more

an astronomer may sit in his study and with a microm- especially since the Church had long ago designated the demoeter examine a plotographic plate, thereby securing an exact- niacal realm of the worldly prince, 1.6., Satan, as the real opponess of detail unattainable by direct telescopic observations. nent of Christ, and had regarded the human enemies to whom Half of the astronomical observations will henceforth be done He succunibed as instruments of Satan:- A superhuman hero without looking at the heavens.

contending with superhuman enemies—the magical powers of Photographic lenses can be used in ordinary telescopes. In hell—and at first succumbing in this struggle, though to the the Danish University Observatory there is a measuring appar- advantage of His chosen ones, whom He rescues from the atus upon the correction of which two years' labor has been spent. blighting spell of magic, and afterwards, as a Divine Conqueror, It is now ready, and Denmark is the only country which pos- leading them to battle and victory. This whole series of consesses an adjusted apparatus. Professor Thiele, who is in charge, ceptions lay so exactly in the trend of the early German faith enjoys, since his work in the Paris Congress, 1887, a universal that the transition to the Christian belief in salvation was reputation for measurements on photographic plates. I am attended with no great difficulty. Hero-worship was a sentiat present engaged in measuring and mapping the great Orion ment natural to them, and not less so, intense admiration for nebula after negatives exposed 5, 15, 45, 90, and 240 minutes death heroically met. They considered such an end a volunin the Herényi Observatory. It will take about ten months to tary and salutary sacrifice, in accordance with the decision of finish the work.

deity, and to be rewarded by admission to the blessed company Much can be done by ordinary photographic glasses. A of the gods. This was the common, essential idea, running plate 90 x 65 mm. covers on the equator about 300 degrees. In ten through all phases of German belief, heathen as well as Chrisminutes the plate shows more stars than Uranometria Nova, tian. and shows stars of 3d and 4th magnitude. The most recent Whether this thought was hidden beneath the veil of myth, discoveries are those by Dr. Max Wolf in Heidelberg, who by or whether the struggle between Christ and Satan, around means of a five-inch wide aplanat, an ordinary photographic which the Christian drama of salvation turns, appeared only as glass for an astronomical telescope, discovered five new a higher form of the mythical conibats of gods and heroes, planetoids in a few months, besides a great many nebulæ. there always lay concealed, under the mythical form, an elePlanetoids show themselves as small streaks on the plate, and vated moral idealism, no other than that cardinal ethical truth the length of the streak represents their course during the which, from the beginning up to the present day, forms the time of exposure.

unchanging kernel of evangelical truth-namely, that universal salvation is bought with the deeds and sacrifices of heroic

love and faithful devotion. The Greek Church had made RELIGIOUS.

Christianity a transcendental metaphysics, the Roman Church

had changed it into a theocracy, resting upon the sacramental, THE NATIONAL TRAITS OF THE GERMANS AS

wonder-working power of the priests; the German, on the SEEN IN THEIR RELIGION.

other hand, brought to Christianity uncorrupt vigor and purity OTTO PFLEIDERER.

of heart, active personal self-esteen, and strong nioral sympa

thy. On this soil the Christian mission of salvation could International Journal of Ethics, Philadelphia, October.

develop its inexhaustible wealth of bliss-giving seeds, and II.

could sow, for mankind to reap, the changeless truth of its HE Germanic peoples who made inroads into the Roman ethical idealism.

At first there was no thought of criticising the ecclesiastical embrace Christianity in its Catholic form, but in the heretical forms of dogma and hierarchy which they had received simshape of Arianism. The reason for this lay, not alone in the ply as an inheritance from the superior antique culture; still accidental circumstance that they became aquainted with they soon put into these inherited forms a deeper meaning, Christianity first througlı Arian missionaries, but also in the more expressive of inward feeling. This process, growing in fact that the Arian conception of Christ as a half-divine Mes- strength, was, in time, to burst the old forms asunder, and to senger and Vassal of God, in strict subordination to His Master, create a purer development of the Christian idea. They did appealed to them more strongly, and was more intelligible not seek for Christianity in the depths of metaphysical specuthan tlie complicated doctrine of the Trinity. Even much lation, like the Greeks, nor in outward ecclesiastico-political later, when all the connected tribes in the kingdom of the organization, like the Romans, but they perceived it in a fashion Franks had been for a long time converts to the Catholic calculated to touch their emotions directly, namely as the vicfaith through the Frankislı royal power, we find the “ Heiland" torious contest of the divinely good principle with the godless Christ described in the Saxon Harmony of Gospels,” very

powers of evil. much after the manner of a German tribal king. He travels In this fight, the divine hero, Christ, through his sacrificing

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death, became the leader and bondsman of struggling man- with historical situation, with anything that throws light on kind, which is pledged to follow him faithfully and to continue the problem of how, when, and by whom the books of the the warsare for his Kingdom, until victory shall reward them. Bible were composed... The Higher or Literary critiA brave, warlike spirit, a ready, death-defying courage, and a cism deals only with the literary form of the Bible.” steadfast fidelity in the service of the leader—these are the Here, again, while higher criticism is by name distinguished characteristic qualities which the Germans brought to Chris- from literary criticism, by all its aim and sphere it is made tianity. By means of them they were able to grasp more synonymous with literary or historical criticism, and at last it deeply, and to assimilate more completely, than other nations, is called higher or literary criticism. Dr. Brown is an excelthe ethical significance of Christianity. Through these quali- lent scholar, and usually writes simply, clearly, and to the ties they were finally enabled to free Christianity from the point. But all his acumen is not sufficient to make a distincbonds of dogma and ecclesiasticism which held it for the first tion between higher and literary criticism that will bear the fifteen hundred years of its existence, and to make it a part of slightest scrutiny or that he himself can preserve. the real life of mankind.

A century of intense activity of criticism of all literatures And if there were strong points of contact between German- has brought forth new worlds of thought, and introduced ism and Christianity, it stood from the first in decided opposi- severer and more accurate methods of proof; it has destroyed tion to ascetic renunciation of the world and ecclesiastical many illusions and restored many defaced portraits. We canhierarchy.

not be too thankful for all the real gains it has brought, and In contradistinction to the Church which had separated God the surer paths it has pointed out. But the history of criticism and the world by a chasm, the Germans, by their mouthpiece, of literature has proved that nothing is more illusive than the Master Eckart, of Strasburg, declared that in the soul of man attempted divisions of criticism into certain spheres, and the a divine spark exists, which makes it capable of legitimate names given to these divisions. Every leading German critic union with God.

makes his own divisions and appellations, but fails in getting Thus German mysticism, breaking down the barrier between others to agree with him. Germany has been the niost fertile God and the world, struck a blow at the ascetic, hierarchical in these attempted and rejected divisions and definitions. views of Church and world in the Middle Ages, and prepared France and Holland, whose criticism has borne some of the the way for freedom in religion and for individualism in best fruit, have steadily resisted the allurements of these morals.

shadowy divisions, and have been content to place all their

work simply under the comprehensive term, criticism. Of all THE HISTORY AND DEFINITION OF HIGHER

the attempted divisions of criticism, the most unscientific and

meaningless, is that of higher criticism. Its emptiness becomes CRITICISM.

more plain with every attempted definition.
THE REVEREND HOWARD OSGOOD, D.D.
Bibliotheca Sacra, Oberlin, O., October.

THE RELIGION OF WHITTIER.
IN the United States for the past ten years higher criticism

S. M. CROTHERS. has beer more talked about than it ever has been in Europe. Higher criticism is said to be a science, having proved

Literary Northwest, St. Paul, Minn., October. its claim to that distinction by its results.

THEN I think of Whittier, I think of a phrase of Paul, The attachment to, and defense of, the term, higher critic

The hidden man of the heart." There is an outward ism, in America has been largely due to the vehement advocacy

man, a man whom we know, or think we know. This man of Dr. Briggs and some younger scholars, who would make has his theology as he has his politics; apart from himself, he this term stand for all progress in Biblical criticism. But the is the creature of circumstances; he speaks the word of the fact that Dr. Briggs traces the genesis of the higher criticism passing day, and is content. But, beneath that outward man, to Du Pin and Bentley, who wrote a century before Eichorn,

there is a man hidden and unknown. And beneath the formal who invented it, is destructive of his whole labored evolution

statements which have expressed what the outward man would of the so-called science, for both of these proceeded on the

have other men think he believes there is the thought, passion, plain, simple, common-sense principles of general criticism, faith of this hidden man of the heart. There has always been both of text and contents. This endeavor to give form and beautiful and simple living in the world, for the hidden man feature and laws of life to the unscientific, and elusive higher of the heart has gone on his way unmindful of all the fluctuacriticism, the invisible, fateful Lorelei of a German stream

tions of the world's fashion. of thought has not the merit of the first demand of science, an We are indebted to Whittier, not for any new thought, but for induction from and correspondence with all the known facts a greater trust in the pure instincts of humanity. In him the in the case, accuracy of definition, and cohesiveness of state- faith of the hidden man is revealed, and people of every creed ment. It utterly reverses the dictum of Eichorn, for Dr. Briggs say

“this is our religion.” makes textual precede higher criticism, while Eichorn makes No man has expressed more tenderly his appreciation of the higher precede and give laws to textual criticism. The Christianity. But it is always the Christianity of the spirit only effect this advocacy of an unscientific definition can have rather than of the letter; the Christianity of Thomas á Kemis to lead some whose logical powers are weak, and others who pis and Tauler and Fenelon rather than that of ambitious have no time for investigation, to believe that a balloon or a churchmen. His love of the past never blinded him to the parachute is the symbol of all true progress, and that the man needs of the present. The inner light which he trusted was who prefers the limited express for land, and the best steam- one that illumined the onward path. ship for sea, is an enemy of all true progress, a stubborn

I know how well the fathers taught, traditionalist, and a "dogmatician.” Professor Francis Brown,

What work the later schoolmen wrought in the Homiletic Review, April, 1892, says: “Higher criticism

I reverence old-time faith and men, deals with the human element in the Bible, and with that

But God is near us now as then. under certain aspects only. It has to do simply and only with the literary problems furnished in the Bible. It aims to learn

And still the measure of our needs the structure and authorship of the different books, to study

Outgrows the cramping bond of creeds. the literary form of the Bible as distinguished from other biblical niatters. . . It is concerned with literary phenomena, And the religion which he believed in was one which

IN

WHE

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faced with absolute freedom the new thought of the new

MISCELLANEOUS. world.

The power is lost to self deceive
With shallow forms of make-believe,

WRITERS' CRAMP.
We walk at high noon and the bells

C. FALKENHORST.
Call to a thousand oracles.
But the sound deafens, and the light

Gartenlaube, Leipzig, October.
Is stronger than our dazzled sight.

S man is endowed with a higher measure of the supreme
The letters of the sacred Book

gift, intelligence, than any other animal, so also he enjoys, Glimmer and swim beneath our look;

in his hand, the noblest specimen of nature's workmanship. Still struggles in the aged breast

Think only of the various bodies which man is capable of With deepening agony of quest

grasping from the largest requiring both hands, to the smallest The old entreaty-Art Thou He,

seed or the finest hair, and in each case it will be seen to subserve Or look we for a Christ to be ?

its purpose so effectively that one might suppose it had been To Whittier both answers were true. In Jesus of Nazareth designed for that especial task only. Such were the views of he saw a great spiritual power. But his habitual attitude was

Galen, who regarded the hand as only a piece of mechanism, not that of one who looked only backwerd. He believed also and modern investigators have raised it to the rank of an in the “ Christ to be.” To him Christ was a growing ideal of

organ of sense. And how great indeed are the powers of the excellence. Christianity, as he interpreted it, became the relig

hand! How quickly can the fingers move. A trained pianist ion of humanity. All doctrines that in any way limited the

can bend and contract the fingers six times in a second, and a divine love or the human hope, fell away from his mind. A violinist can move the middle finger ten times in a second, believer in immortality, he accepted it as a law of nature.

and each of these several movements is adapted to a prescribed Eternal life was a manifestation of eternal love.

purpose. How rapidly the hand of a trained writer glides

over the paper? How many distinct movements must the Therefore well may nature keep

several muscles or the fingers, the hand, and the fore-arm Equal faith with all who sleep;

execute in forming the letters of a word! Is it strange that Sits her watch of hills around

the hand wearies of the task and that, under certain circumChristian grave and heathen mound.

stances, the continuous strain becoming more than it can

endure, it finally breaks down? Who has not heard of the Though he loved contemplation rather than controversy, he

dreaded malady known as writers' cramp? felt the influence of the intellectual unrest of our times. He

Sometimes the malady advances almost imperceptibly, acknowledged frankly the limitations of thought, and the

attended with occasional, pricking pains, and twichings of darkness around us, and yet amid the darkness he walked

sometimes one finger and sometimes of the whole hand; courageously. He had one clue—the love of God which grew

sometimes there is a trembling, with uncertainty in writing, out of the love of goodness. I cannot better express his atti

and the pain extends to the whole arm. Sometimes it assails tude of mingled doubt and faith, or rather of that faith which

the rapid writer suddenly, without any preliminary forebe found beyond his doubts, than in his own words

warning, The steps of faith fall on the seeming void and find the rock “One writes," says Julius Wolff, the distinguished specialist beneath.

in this department “boldly, and apparently with perfect free

dom. Suddenly there is a sharp twinge in one finger, or a This was a manly faith that dared follow a path that to others

contraction of the whole hand, and pricking and twitching seemed to lead to the void of unbelief, but he ever found the

makes itself felt, the pen is dropped or flung away, pain is rock beneath.

experienced in the whole arm, the hand moves involuntarily, Have I not voyaged, friend beloved, with thee

now right, now left, the fore-arm is raised, the fingers are no On the great waters of the unsounded sea,

longer under the control of the will. They bend and contract Momently listening with suspended ear

convulsively, all heedless of the messages which the anxious For the low note of waves upon a shore

brain transmits to them through the channels of the nerves. Changeless as heaven?

How terribly such loss of power reacts upon the mind is inde

scribable.” Thou knowest how vain our quest, how soon or late,

This painful malady is not, however, confined to people who The baffling tides and circles of debate

write continuously; everyone who has to earn his living by Swept back our bark unto its starting place.

handicraft is liable to it. Sewing and knitting, piano and Where looking forth upon the blank, gray space

violin-playing, telegraphing, stenographing, drawing, painting. And 'round about us, seeing with sad eyes

and even milking have furnished victims of the dread malady, The same old difficult hills and cloud-cold skies

“ neurosis of the hand.” We said: This outward search availeth not

It is true, writers' cramp is not a dangerous malady in the To find Him. He is farther than we thought

medical sense of the term. It does not imperil life, but in a Or haply nearer.

social sense it is a very severe infliction, incapacitating man

for further labor, or at least for a continuance of his previous It was the in-dwelling God he found and worshiped, and the

occupation. Some victims of the disease, deprived of the use revelation was in his own heart.

of the right hand, resort to the left, but the disease is insidi

ous, and soon shows itself the other hand.
The riddle of the world is understood
Only by him who feels that God is good,

And what, until recently, rendered the affliction still more

terrible was that science stood helpless in its presence. And only he can feel who makes his love The ladder of his faith.

Sometimes a measure of relief was indeed afforded ; a cure

*

*

*

*

*

never.

Here is the religion of Whittier. It is not this or that dogma accepted, but a certain life accepted, a certain attitude of the hidden man of the heart, not toward God alone but toward human life, toward nature, toward all that is.

The first advances were made by the recognition of several varieties of the disease. It was known that it might originate in disturbances in the brain and spinal marrow, and it was soon found that the disease traceable to these sources was

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