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this leads us to the contemplation of the Initial Anarchist who EDUCATION, LITERATURE, ART. is the forerunner of the vulgar anarchist. The Initial Anarchist may be a despot who dominates the legislative and judicial
SHAKESPEARE. machinery of a nation, making it the agent of his personal will, instead of the servant of the people, and thus laying a sub
A BRIEF FOR THE DEFENDANT.* structure upon which it is impossible to build save to confu
EDWIN REED. sion. Governments so conducted must finally collapse. Hon
Arena, Boston, November, est laws and an untrammeled judiciary are the guarantees of
I. national contentment. Vicious legislation and a venal bench a
HE title of William Shakespeare, the actor, to the authorundermine the structure. But there are many other ways in which the disturber or
rests on two foundations, viz.: promoter of disorder may operate. He may unsettle values,
1. Contemporaneous testimony. precipitating the failure of merchants, the wreck of financial
II. The unique character of the works. institutions, and the ruin of thousands. He may create com
1. The testimony of his contemporaries, though not direct mercial and domestic confusion by forcing up the price of
or positive, is without a flaw. For more than twenty-five everyday commodities, make travel too costly for any but the
years, during which time these great productions were coming rich, send nearly all the gold out of the country, producing
out, William Shakespeare stood before the world their undispanic on the stock exchanges, and widespread bankruptcy. He
puted author. We hear not the slightest whisper of another may organize the familiar corner in stocks, or the crafty com
name connected with them. This unanimity of sentiment was
as absolute before 1598, while the published plays were anonybination in flour or coal. All these he may do either singly or by combination with others; and this he does, not from
mous, as it was after that date, when the title-pages almost need of money, but from an insatiable impulse to exercise the
invariably bore what purported to be the author's name. Even powers which wealth confers. The Initial Anarchist, secure
Shakespeare's death in 1616 had no effect on his literary in the protection of the law for his schemes, becomes a men
tenure. Old plays newly enlarged, new plays never before ace to national prosperity and good feeling, He is a luxury
heard of, some of them ranking among his best, continued to which, when multiplied to a certain point, no nation can afford
come from the press, still ascribed to him. Two of his fellowto indulge in. In the aggregate he is more costly than war. In
actors collected and published all his works, as a labor of love, many instances the process adopted by the plutocrat to accu
in one large volume in 1623, making no suggestion, and elicitmulate his wealth is so bold and conscienceless that it may be
ing none from the public, of any incongruity in the alleged regarded as a mere modern variation of that followed by the authorship. From first to last no rival claimant dared to list mediæval, border-raiding, feudal baron.
his head. Greene alone intimated a doubt concerning the There is another sort of anarchist, equally ardent in his
dramatist. Francis Meres, in 1598, ranked Shakespeare with devotion to the demolition of existing conditions, though hap
the greatest authors of antiquity, declaring that were the pily less insidious and less dangerous than the first. Yet he is
Muses to speak English they would speak with his tongue. after all only a blundering imitator, lacking the intelligence,
Here are two sets of facts requiring mutual adjustment: the finesse, the adroit manipulative skill of the other. He
1. A series of dramatic works covering a quarter of a century plays with incendiary proclamations and wild speeches, and
in one of the most intellectual ages of the world; popular, with bombs that make a noise, whereas the real past-master in
even more than now, with all classes of theatre-going people; the profession burrows deeply and silently. It has been said
giving its reputed author wealth and fame; striking every frequently of late, and said truly, that there is no room in this
chord of the human heart as never before ; published at first
without a name, then with one, the two syllables of which were country for anarchists. But the Initial Anarchist, by attacking the solid foundations of society and government, supplies
often separated with a hyphen; entered at Stationers' Hall the conditions favorable to the existence of the other with his
always by, and in behalf of, others; and continuing to appear advocacy of brute force as a remedy for social evils. James
with fresh and perfectly characteristic additions for thirteen Gordon Bennett, the elder, was the first to assert that the
years after the author's retirement from London, and for seven “cohesive power of public plunder” kept political parties
years after his death. together, and when the worker shall be fully educated to the
2. The uniform, unquestioned ascription of the authorship
by his contemporaries to William Shakespeare, the actor and appreciation of his opportunities, he will learn that the cohesive
theatrical manager. power of common interest is sufficient to weld his class, now disunited on politics, into one compact, organized body, strong
Between these two statements there is but one possible conenough numerically to carry out at the polls any changes its
necting link. The genius of William Shakespeare, the man, interests may demand, even to the extent of revolutionizing
must have been so commanding, his figure in the circle of his
friends and associates so conspicuous, his personality, as national, State, and local legislatures. In this way only can the Initial Anarchist be reached and legally deprived of his
stamped upon his works, so unmistakable, that neither his own
indifference to literary reputation, nor the curiosity, envy, and power to work evil. In the social regeneration, education will cease to be a mere
malice of others, could throw the slightest doubt on his title: training in the art of money-making. Success in life will be
while living, or put it in question for two hundred and thirtyshown to be something nobler, better, higher than the selfish ac
two years after his death. That is to say, circumstances cumulation of riches at the expense of all the qualities which
strongly invited suspicion; none existed ; consequently there make the individual a benefit to his fellow-men. This higher
was no cause for any. The very weakness of the environment
becomes an element of strength. The greater the pressure on education has already begun. The index-finger of time points to a not-distant day when Plutocracy, as exemplified in the
the capstone of an arch the firmer the arch itself. Initial Anarchist, will have become a by-word and a stigma of
Fortunately we are not altogether limited to negative testireproach.
mony. Three of Shakespeare's personal friends can be called
as witnesses: [The Editor of the Social Economist, while publishing Mr. Sandi
John Heminge and Henry Condell have each three claims son's article, expresses entire disagreement with his views, and lays
our confidence. They were fellow-actors with Shakedown the axiom that every step towards the point where millionaires became possible, has been a step in which poverty has diminished and *The Plaintiff's brief is already in: See The LITERARY Digest, Vol. order increased.]
V., Nos. 12, 15, 16, 20, 25.
speare; they were benefici.ries under his will; and they edited even if the doubt were worth the trouble of solution, surely the first collective edition of his works. In the dedication of complete exidence is wanting, for Time has robbed us often of the folio of 1623 to the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, the pictorial expression where we have the word, as in Greek they say:
art or Hebrew; and sometimes we have pictorial evidence Since your L. L., have been pleased to think these trifles some- more abundant than literary, as in the artistic memorials of thing heretofore, and have prosecuted both them and their author,
extinct or barbaric races. Moreover, the modern mind, with living, with so much favor, we hope that. you will use the its immense inheritance of observation and its intricate mode of like indulgence toward them you have done unto their parent.
thought and introspective habits, is an unreliable critic in a We have but collected them, and done an office to the dead, to pro- question requiring so subtle an investigation, having an irresiscure his orphans guardians .. only to keep the memory of so tible tendency to read its own experience in all current records. worthy a friend and fellow alive, as was our Shakespeare, by humble This is notably to be observed in the matter of translation, for offer of his plays to your most noble patronage.
though a modern translator of, say classic poetry, may not In defense of the sincerity of these utterances, we have only emphasize the common saying by treachery-traduttori, trato add that Shakespeare, at his death seven years before, had ditori-yet he almost invariably will introduce some touch of left these old friends, as a token of his affection, $150 (present color, or twist of analogy, unwarranted by his author. value) “ to buy them rings.”
These two words, color and analogy, bring us at once into We next call Ben. Jonson. To be sure, he made contradic- the heart of the classic mode in the art of word-painting. One tory statements regarding the ease with which the plays were might venture to assert that all the finest descriptions of written, a discrepance not very extraordinary, considering the atmospheric effect or of landscape beauty are used, not number and variety of these works and the different circum- primarily for their own sake, but as analogies—“ magnificent stances under which they were produced. It is in tradition digressions” Macaulay calls them—to express in high poetic that one of them was forthcoming on demand in two weeks. fashion one mainly important theme, which is action. It Jonson's testimony, delivered in 1637, just before his death, is has been recently pointed out in an anonymous paper—to which as follows:
it might be safe to surmise the signature of Mr. Addington I remember the players have often mentioned it as an honor to Symonds—that in all literature which started by being addressed Shakespeare that in his writing, whatsoever he penned, he never to the ear, as the epics of Homer, the Scandinavian saga, blotted out a line. My answer hath been, Would he had blotted a the Border ballad, “the first quest and the last was ‘business.' thousand, which they thought a malevolent speech. . . I loved There was a story to tell. The poet gave the dramatic action the man, and do honor his memory (on this side idolatry) as much as and only named the place; if he did dash off a sketch of landany. He was, indeed, honest, and of an open and free nature; had scape it was in fewest words. Yet the artistic effect was of the an excellent fantasy; brave notions and gentle expressions, wherein finest. Every word of description seems not to delay, but to he flowed with that facility that sometimes it was necessary he should advance the story.” And this mode, the writer points out, conbe stopped. . His wit was in his own power; would the rule
tinued after the poena was intended for the eye, to be read not of it had been so too! ... But he redeemed his vices with his
heard, so that though the descriptions were more elaborate virtues. There was ever more in him to be praised than to be par.
yet they always seemed to move. In fact, word-painting was doned.
primarily a linear art in the classic mode, and the dramatic Here is the statement of one standing on the brink of the
literature of like aim, an art of emphatic and energetic silgrave, left in manuscript when he died, and published, as he
houette, to which chiaroscuro was added for effect; and such distinctly avows it was written, for the benefit of posterity.
surrounding given as explained the action, local scenery, attribThe friends of his youth, his compeers, his rivals, Bacon and
utes of personal adornment and use, and so forth. The absence Shakespeare among them, had long passed away. Whatever
of color coincides with this linear treatment. may have been his temptations in the past, lie had now no
Nothing more perfect in word-painting was ever done than conceivable motive to perpetuate a fraud.
the analogy of the dying Gorgythis, who, sinking, droops his Lastly, we summon the whole population of Stratford, en
head upon his breast, like full-blown poppies overcharged with Under the bust in the old church at Stratford, placed
rain, drooping to earth. there within seven years after Shakespeare's death, we read the
Dante has been charged by Macaulay with “indifference to following inscription :
Nature," but he has sailed to perceive the hints of a quite pecuIndicio Pylium, Genio Socratem, Arte Maronem.*
liar love of natural effects that here and there stir our hearts This is the voice of his native town, uttered in tones that
along the upward road from Hell to Paradise. I may instance have reverberated through three centuries.
a passage in the twenty-eighth canto of the “ Purgatorio,” in
which the special touch which marks the extraordinary tenderWORD-PAINTING.
ness of the poet's detail, has been translated literally by Long
A softly breathing air that no mutation
Had in itself, upon the forehead smote me:
No heavier blow than of a gentle wind, the literary faculty which, for want of better designation,
Whereat the branches, lightly tremulous, I call word-painting. It is a distinctly artistic faculty, this gift
Did all of them bow downward toward that side, of calling up before the mental vision, by means of words, the
Where its first shadow cast the Holy Mountain. image of a scene, whether of landscape or of dramatic actions,
Yet not from their upright direction swayed, with its pictorial and emotional significance; and as an art it
So that the little birds upon their tops has followed the general law, developing slowly from the
Should leave the practice of each art of theirs, simple into the complex, reflecting, in different countries, the
But, with full ravishment, the hour of prime, national characteristics, fluctuating variously, as the pendulum
Singing, rceeived they in the midst of leaves,
That even bore a burden to their rhyme. of taste swings to and fro, influencing and being influenced by the arts, plastic, pictorial, dramatic.
What word-painting is this! A picture of the finest and Writers of mark have found interesting matter for consider- most delicate drawing of the subtlest atmosphere and ästhetic ation and controversy in the open question whether Art or suggestion! A Tuscan masterpiece! Literature was first in the delineation of external nature. Yet
The delight in external nature for its own sake, revealed * In wisdom, a Nestor; in genius, a Socrates; in art, a Virgil. with inimitable touches in Shakespeare's dramas, was never lost
sight of thenceforward, but the heavier hand of his successors which experiment is throwing on the simple and fundamental suited best a rougher scene-painting, and a foreground filled type of mental activity, attention to the presentations of sense. by the tragic action. Sumptuous accessories are piled on. The Surely if there is one process which a teacher needs underpicture is all foreground, there is no perspective. Among the stand, it is the response of the mind to an external signal. How rural imagery of “ L'Allegro” and “Il Penseroso" Milton does rich in pedagogical suggestions is the fact brought to light in paint in words.
these researches, that when the mind is beforehand poised or The current century has seen full-blown what may be called focused for a particular impression, the process of clear apprethe picturesque narrative style, in which Sir Walter Scott was hension is reduced to minimal limits of time. May not all facile princeps, and unsurpassable even by Dumas père, or Vic teaching be said to accomplish its purpose by exciting the tor Hugo, or George Sand, and, one might add, Macaulay. favorable attitude of expectancy, that alertness of mental pose The realists are drawn out when they labor to place before you which expedites the hearing of the exact word, the seizing the every object, incident, and accident that in any given spot of precise point of the question, and so forth ? How important God's earth serves as setting to their dramatis persona of the for pedagogic purposes it is to know that three repetitions moment. Yet one could not, for instance, take a short excerpt to-day reduce by one the number of repetitions required for from that marvelous description of the snow-bedecked cathe learning to-morrow. These are only a few of the many points dral portals that sivelter his forlorn heroine with which Zola at which psychology, as now studied, comes into close organic opens “ Le Rêve." The exquisite studies in neutral tint which contact with the problems of the educator. abound in the Breton stories of M. Loti also bear abridgment But to render the truths of psychology of practical value in badly. Or, again, the reflex of impressionist art that charac education, it must be systematically and intelligently applied. terizes much writing by authors of the United States has the A principle may be clear and definite enough in itself, yet stamp of brevity “nd of swift, exquisite suggestion.
before we can get any practical help írom it we may have to The modern writer is at great advantage. With an enriched take a good deal of trouble in thinking out its particular vocabulary, and an enlarged experience, he has all the imple applications. The real business of the teacher of pedagogy, is ments of his art ready to hand, and does indeed devote him to take principles from the psychologist, and to clothe them self to ever-increasing subtleties of choice workmanship. in concrete and practical illustrations. Whether literary style, especially in the department with Again it has been objected that psychology is at best a reawhich this humble contribution to its study has dealt, may not soned account of the common or typical mind. But there are like some over-cultivated exotic die of its own exuberance, not two sorts of mind, the general mind and the individual remains to be dreaded.
mind. A child is a particular embodiment and illustration of
the common characters and conimon laws of the human mind, THE SERVICE OF PSYCHOLOGY TO EDUCATION and the educator has always to think of the child primarily
and mainly under this aspect. JAMES SULLY.
Universal principles, valid for
all cases alike, without respect of person, are precisely what Educational Review, New York, November.
we need. T has been objected, and that, too, by trained psychologists, But, while a theory of education should be based on laws of
that psychological principles cannot be directly applied to mind, the practical duty of the teacher is to adapt its applicathe concrete, ever-varying problems of education; it is, how tion to the individual characteristics. Every individual child ever, my object in this paper to make clear that while it is ought to be made the subject of a profound, searching study, foolish to expect that a science so general and abstract as psy as thoroughly penetrating as that given by the savant to some chology can supply us offhand, after the manner of a logical new and priceless specimen on which he intends to write a machine, with the solution of any particular problem sub monogram. Now teachers of keen instinctive perceptions mitted to it, it is very far indeed from being a mere collection and ready sympathies, may achieve something in this direction, of useless commonplaces having no value as directly regulative but it is neither sufficient nor sufficiently exact. The advanof educational practice. Psychology undoubtedly supplies to tage of a scientific or analytic study of a child's mind is that it the teacher principles of a very high regulative value, though compels us to be exact, to count up the sun of forces which the application of them to the concrete problems of education confront us, and to measure one against another. requires a good deal of intelligence and skill. The laws of the
I fully agree with those who say that psychology by itself correlation of mind and body in their successive phases of will never make a person an intelligent teacher. Yet I do most development are of the very highest value, and indeed a mat certainly contend that, next to practical capabilities, including ter of supreme necessity to every teacher who wishes to avoid such familiar, yet all too rare qualities as common sense, tact, disastrous consequences to mind and body alike. Under the and sympathy with child-lise, the study of psychological newer biological conception of the child we are rapidly coming principles in their deductive application to the concrete probto see that the infant brings with it rudimentary traces of its lems of the schoolroom is the one thing needful. animal descent; that it is as yet merely a bundle of inherited potentialities of very unequal antiquity and corresponding
STERNE AT HOME. degree of stability, and that it is for its environment to determine which of these shall fail from disease, which shall be
Cornhill Magazine, London, November. developed, and to what degree of strength and completeness. TONSIDERING how interesting and piquant a personage Does it not invest the problemi of education with a new gravity Sterne was, it is surprising that so little is known of his to know that we are selecting what is best worth preserving curious and chequered life. An account of him, indeed, in two froni a multitude of mind rudiments, that we are singling out volumes, appeared nearly forty years ago, in which is found all what is precious, because luman, from its entourage of brute the information that was then available. Since then many instinct?
curious things have come to light, with many letters. Letters Professor W. Preyer's now classical monograph gives us the of Sterne are scarce, and fetch from ten to twenty pounds results of his observations of the periods of appearance of new apiece in the market. mental acquisitions, such as movements of the eyes, hands, use As is known, Sterne was a Prebendary of York, and held a of words, etc. If now we come to those psychical exercises by small vicarage at Coxwold, some miles from that city. His which the normal growth of human minds takes place, we find house was a rustic-looking edifice, which he had dubbed that here, too, psychology can help us with definite laws. Let *Shandy Hall," high-roofed, and with gable ends. me, in this connection, remind the reader of the new light belongs to Sir George Wombwell, who has put it in repair and
has placed an inscription on it recording the tenancy of the and join in the genuine French festivity. The old inn, then former owner. Unluckily it has been thought good to divide the town museum, was thrown open, and you could wander it into laborers' cottages, but the regular outlire of the place through its chambers and pause in Sterne's room, still labeled is preserved, and on the entrance gate is to be read:
with his name. Behind it were fair gardens of great extent, Here dwelt Laurence Sterne, for many years incumbent of Cox- at the bottom of which stood the theatre, which formerly wold. Here he wrote ' Tristram Shandy’and the ‘Sentimental Jour belonged to the hotel. Now all has been pulled down and ney.' Died in London in 1768, aged 55 years."
leveled to the ground, and a huge communal school erected Here, too, he danced and “fiddled,"as he tells us, coming to on the ruins. York for his term of residence. He lived in rooms in Stonegate. Long after-some thirty years after the humorist's death
A SWISS AUTHOR. -a young and struggling actor—the first Charles Mathews
LAURA MARHOLM. found himself in York, a member of Tate Williams's company.
Samtiden, Berger, No. 8. With his wife, he was lodging in Stonegate, which was known to be the house which Sterne occupied when he came to stay
1. in York. The local tradition was that he had written his HAVE not yet found anything written about Gottfried “Tristram Shandy” here, but this, of course, was hardly likely. Keller, which does him justice. Keller wrote for his own It was difficult, however, to find a tenant for these quarters, as amusement and he lived so quietly that gossip and criticism they had the reputation of being haunted; but the actor and found it hard to get a hold on him. It is, therefore, difficult to wife, being very poor, could not afford to despise the accon- write about him. His books are his experiences, and some of modation, which was excellent and also cheap. On the first them are quite personal, but Keller has known how to choose night of their occupation, as the Minster clock tolled mid- such persons for his intimates as would not afterwards tell night, they were startled by three vivid knocks on the panel, tales. His instinct led him to shun what Nietzsche calls and this visitation continued every night, until they at last "literature-women,” and, as a sensible Swiss, who does not became quite accustomed to it. No examination, however trust himself implicitly to God and everybody, he did not give minute, could discover the cause ; it at last ceased, and, curi- himself fully to anybody. ously enough, simultaneously with the death of an old strolling Keller's poetry is life and play. As he tells us in “ Der grüne actor named Billy Leng, who lodged in the house. It turned out Heinrich,” he liked to experiment, and this liking stuck to him that this man, being bedridden, every night when he heard the through life, and led him to deal recklessly with his literary Minster clock, used to strike three blows with his crutch on the personalities. Keller often takes his otherwise respectable floor to summon his wife to attend on him.
characters and clearly defined descriptions and gives them a Sterne's patron and relative was Dr. Jaques Sterne, the Arch- turn in a fantastic dance and leaves them to us as literary deacon of York, a pushing, scheming clergyman, who obtained riddles and psychological enigmas. He has done that in “ Die preferment for his nephew as well as for himself. With this arme Baronin." The reason for that may be sought in his influential person the latter soon quarreled, because, as the Romanticism. The otherwise sober author has in the first nephew said, “ he would not write paragraphs in the papers- edition of his “ Der grüne Heinrich ” drawn a bathing-scene in dirty work,” he called it. “He became,” he adds,
the same style as the older authors of his generation, Spielest enemy."
hagen in Reih und Glied,” and Johannes Scherr in “ DeutThe earliest editor of this journal, Mr. Thackeray, was scher Michel,” but his scene is completely beyond the possible inclined to take the severest view of the humorist's conduct to sphere of a Swiss milk-maid. Another reason may be sought his mother. In an unpublished letter which lately came into in the author's liking to write for himself alone and not for the the possession of the British Museum, Sterne has vindicated public. In his youth he had been much afraid of Providence, himself, and, it would seem, successfully. It was addressed to and had been a staunch knight fighting for God's existence, his uncle, who was only too glad to take up the mother's cause but in his maturer years it amused him to“ repair the mistakes with the view of annoying or harassing the nej ew. In this of Providence" and to correct the "wrongs of existence." As curious document the poor curate states his case with a force regards the public, who read this, he did not care. He thought and particularity which carry conviction, and gives the whole it should be grateful to him for being its educator. He only history of his relations with his troublesome parent. It is thought of his Swiss readers; and was indifferent as regards the dated April 5, 1771, nearly ten years before he became famous. rest of the world. He was and wanted to be a Swiss. He did It is strange to read of a son thus severely indicting his mother, not believe that the world outside Switzerland contained a but it must be considered that the unlucky curate was harassed larger field and more humanity than his home. He was not to death almost by this ceaseless persecution, and that the touched by Brandes-ism, believing that the ideal was to le defense was addressed to the most influential member of his sought abroad, nor was he influenced by “Young France," family.
under the leadership of the Anglo-maniac Paul Bourget. Nor was this the only instance in which Sterne's memory These traits represent the not-modern in Keller. All other has been defaced. It is notorious that if there was in the poets, native or foreign, long for the Outside, the Not-native. world anyone to whom he was attached it was to his daughter Another not-modern trait is this, that he does not hunt for Lydia. In all the whirl of his selfish pleasures he thought of problems, and that therefore he finds them by the bushel. her and her comforts, yet it seemed to have been the fashion His pages abound with problems; they lie scattered throughto circulate stories as to the general heartlessness and " unfeel- out his novels in reckless multitude and stick out in proing" behavior of “the man Sterne.”
voking indifference. Three problems of his alone might Calais, an interesting old town, always seems to be redolent inaugurate a new era in literature, if they were properly set of Sterne. Some twenty years ago its yellow walls were stand- forth.. Keller was never aware of the serious nature of his ing, the drawbridges down, and best of all, the old Dessin's material, nor did he ever, like the moderns, endeavor to Hotel, with its “Sterne's Room,” was still shown. It was a acquire a fixed "style.” He spurned everything modern in the pleasant, inviting place, having something of the air of a line of literature. He turned the soil like a plowinan, and country house, with its yellow archway and large courtyard, many “modern” birds might feed, and feed well, in the furrows round which ran the buildings. There were vines and general he made. greenery, and over the archway little roofed dormer windows. Still, there is one point in which this good and phlegmatic Of a summer's Sunday, when there was a fête going on in the Keller is more modern than the most modern, that is in his town, it was a pleasant thing to make an excursion over there knowledge of woman. Excepting Goethe, Keller is the first
opment, you must use as much as 572 or even 8 to 1o grammes of lithia to a quart.
This is the way to prepare the bath :
In a quart bottle, perfectly clean, put 700 cubic centimetres of distilled water. In that dissolve 120 grammes of sulphite of soda, 5 grammes of caustic lithia, and 5 grammes of yellow prussiate of potash. In order to make the whole dissolve more rapidly, the water should have been warmed in advance. When all is dissolved, fill the bottle full of water, and put in it 7 grammes of paramidophenol. This substance is slow in dissolving and you must shake the bottle from time to time in order to dissolve it completely. An essential point is to cork the bottle as soon as you have added the paramidophenol, for without that the bath oxydizes and immediately turns black. It is necessary, then, in order to keep this developer, to have a series of small bottles or phials, which will be always full, and which should not be opened until the moment of using the contents.
One bath will serve to develop several negatives, four or five, and even more; but as the substances employed in its composition do not cost much, it is better to change the bath oftener. It must be remarked, however, that paramidophenol takes up less bromine than other developers, when it is employed several times; and that, for this reason, it has less tendency to harden the negatives.
In the same series of products to which paramidophenol belongs may be placed another which is very efficacious in the development of negatives. This is amidin or chlorohydrate of dia niidophenol, the use of which Messrs. Lumière were the first to announce, in 1891.
The product which is sold at the present time under the name amidin is a crystalline silver-gray powder, reminding one of magnesium in file dust. It is easily soluble in water. A colorless solution can easily be made by putting a quantity in nine times as much water. After a while it turns red and is then unfit for use.
The advantage of this developer is that it produces strong and brilliant pictures without the addition of a large quantity of an alkaline substance.
A good formula for instantaneous negatives is this: 1,000 cubic centimetres of water, 100 grammes of sulphite of soda, 10 grammes of amidin.
This is the normal bath for instantaneous pictures, taken with the utmost quickness. For negatives taken not quite so quickly you may diminish the quantity of sulphite and of amidin by one-half.
It is well not to prepare too much of these solutions in advance, for they do not keep very long. It is also well to use always some alkaline sulphite, for it is only by virtue of the small quantity of caustic soda contained in all the sulphites of commerce that the formulas I have given produce good results.
MANUAL CONCEPTS: A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF HAND-USAGE ON CULTURE-GROWTH.
FRANK HAMILTON CUSHING.
American Anthropologist, Washington, October. F we assume that there have been three great steps in the
and last and only one of all German authors, who thoroughly understood woñan. Not that he knows all of her nature, but he has not lied about her.
Keller is not to be approached intellectually nor in pure immediateness. He is too exclusive to let God and everybody enter too easily. One must be of his “set," an initiate to his method of living, in order to comprehend him, and but few of the moderns live as he did. Modern civilization is a barrier between them. Keller is a man of the open air, a freshair poet." He is, therefore, not popular in the towns.
His writings have the odor of the forest and the meadow, and they must be read while one is at ease and free from the burdens of civilization. An understanding of him is a matter of growth and quiet. But Keller is no author for the summer tourist. One must be used to live out-doors in order to become fully acquainted with him and enter into his life and his ideas. He delineates the life of out-door people, and does it for out-door people. For instance, he never describes a "lady” if he can help it. If he must, he criticises her mercilessly, as, for instance, Lucie in “ · Pankraz der Schmoller." When he writes about a lady in sympathy, he places her away back in time and “out of doors ” as, for instance, in “ Der Landvogt von Greifenser."
SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY,
NEW METHODS OF DEVELOPING PHOTOGRAPHIC
La Nature, Paris, October 22.
employing paramidophenol for developing photographic negatives. The employment of this new product is due to Messrs. Lumière fils, and its use may be considered as marking a great progress in photography. It was only after a long series of experiments on the aromatic class of substances that skillful practitioners came to choose paramidophenol, which appeared to act more energetically than all the others. It reveals the latent image of gelatine-bromide plates in the most perfect manner.
This developer had already been proposed by Dr. Anderson, who used a chlorohydrate of it, while Messrs. Lumière employed it uncombined with anything else. With it I have obtained very fine pictures and that in an absolutely simple fashion. In view of its great energy, I should advise its use especially in instantaneous pictures. The image develops very quickly, and it is necessary for this reason to cover the plate with the developer all at once, otherwise the picture will be spotted. It is well, too, not to be troubled by the uniform gray tint which the negative takes at the beginning of the development, for the image increases in intensity gradually, and there is ample time to stop the development at any instant.
· Mr. Maurice has been good enough to give me the formula he uses to obtain the beautiful pictures which are so well known, and as I have obtained equally excellent results by operating in the same manner, I will describe how to prepare the developing bath according to the method of that clever operator.
With this formula, the intensity of the development depends almost entirely on the quantity of alkaline substance (caustic lithia), which is put in the developing bath; thus, for example, by using 1/2 to 2 grammes of lithia to a quart, you wili get a very good bath for portraits and one which will give very transparent and soft pictures. That quantity of lithia will serve equally well for instantaneous photographs not taken with the greatest rapidity. For instantaneous pictures, taken with the utmost rapidity, or if you desire a more intense devel
intellectual development of man, the biotic, the manual, and the mental, then, during his biotic development, man, a genus of animal species merely, had progressed so far as to have free hands. Though these may have developed in climbing, he could now fend and defend freely with them.
It was then that man began to develop extra-naturally, no longer like the mere animal by coercion of the direct forces of natural environment, but rather by making an environment of his own, and this, first, by means of his hands—that is to say, this experience in warding off the blows of nature with his hands, gave rise to devising, in which is to be sought the