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and Ivanoff's fame was settled when the highly gisted, but fantastic N. F. Chomjäkoff, the father of Slavophilism, wrote in the Russkaja Besseda, that “ Ivanoff is a great soul, born from the depths of the Russian people's spirit, and full of a powerful religious consciousness. He is a great artist, who in this apostate age has created a true art and has reëmbodied the Christian ideals and dogmas, and thereby laid the foundation of Russian painting and a new world-art.”
In 1858 Ivanoff returned to St. Petersburg and was fêted everywhere. But he was very unhappy. Modern society stood in too great contrast to his ideas and mode of life. He was presented to the Emperor, who complimented him upon his work.
The Czarina promised to buy his painting for 10,000 rubles and give hin a yearly stipend of 2,000 rubles. Before the sale, Ivanoff died of cholera nostras, July 3, 1858. His painting was finally bought by the State for 15,000 rubles and sent to a museum in Moscow,
THREE CENTURIES OF OXFORD.
first place, with the cessation of the Wars of the Roses, and the diminution of the baronial households, a change gradually took place in the education of the English aristocracy. For a long time the old idea survived that the profession of arms was the only one becoming a gentleman who did not care to be a priest. But though the idea survived, the practice founded on it naturally began to die out when war ceased to be the almost constant occupation of the governing classes. A classical education instead of a military education now became the hall-mark of a gentleman.
The Reformation divided Oxford into religious parties. The Civil War made lier a political partisan. Two new interests were thus created; two new passions were kindled within the University, which it would be only natural to conclude must have interfered with that exclusive devotion to learning which had prevailed during her earlier days. When Oxford became a centre of political and religious agitation, literature had only half her love.
But it is a mistake to suppose that their laxity was what many people suppose it to have been who found their ideas upon the reports of Gibbon and Lord Eldon. One of the most interesting chapters in the volume is the vindication of Magdalen College from the aspersions cast on it by Gibbon. That Oxford was not the castle of indolence which those who know it only from the imperfect and prejudiced reports of one great man, and the obiter dictum of another, have been tempted to believe, is, we think, pretty certain.
What must have made a great difference in the life of Oxford in the last century was the number of men wlio continued to reside there after they had taken their degrees, constituting a kind of society wholly unknown in later times. Down to the middle of the present century, indeed, and still later, the oldfashioned Fellow, whose college was his home, and who spent his life within its walls, was not unknown. But a hundred and fisty years ago, men of much the same stamp were to be found among the resident Masters and Bachelors who were not Fellows. These, if they did not stay at Oxford all their lives, stayed often for a good many years, and lielped to give a character to the University, somewhat different from what we are accustomed to ourselves. Now Oxford is one gigantic school, composed entirely of pupils and teachers.
Macmillan's Magazine, London, October. HERE are some who remember Oxford best for the sake
of its aniusements and its social life, others as the scene of academic triumphs, and the patron of studies in which they still find their chief solace; while others again are more affected by the memory of that great religious movement of which Oxford was so long the centre, and of which the echoes have not yet died away. All alike, however, look back upon Oxford with a kind and a degree of interest inspired by no other spot and no other institution in the world. Reminiscences of Oxford can never pall upon them ; book after book and essay after essay may continue to be written on the subject through the coming years without the authors ever having to complain of a dearth of readers or a decline of sympathy.
The volume just published by the Oxford Historical Society, should therefore command a wide attention. It begins with reminiscenses of Sir Thomas Bodley, who matriculated in 1559, and ends with those of the present Lord Brabourne, who took his degree in 1851. It does not profess to present us with any original matter, the book being merely a collection of passages selected from the writings of Oxford men relating to their university careers; but, as bringing together within a small compass the experience of so large a number of competent witnesses differing so widely from each other in opinions, characters, and tastes, and covering the whole period of from the end of the Reformation in the 16th Century to the beginning of the great change, which has so materially affected the University of Oxford in the 19th, the book lias a value of its own quite apart from the elements of interest to which we have already referred.
When Oxford was at the height of her reputation as a mediæval university, nobody dreamed of going there except for purposes of study. Students of all ages and countries flocked of their own accord to her famous lecture-rooms, inspired by literary curiosity, and not sent there for the sake of education and discipline. Such, we mean, was the general character of the place, and it is one which many have been anxious to revive. They have not liked to see in Oxford only a kind of upper public-school. But the changes they regret were brought about by causes which it would have been very difficult to counteract. It is necessary only to name the invention of printing, which, by reducing the value of oral teaching, naturally diminished the number of students who came to Oxford from abroad, or from the remote parts of Great Britain to listen to the famous teachers. But it seems to us that the transformation of Oxford University from its mediæval to its modern forni was only one part of the great social, religious, and political revolution which began with the Tudors. In the
THE WORTH OF A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. ANDREW P. PEABODY, OF THE CLASS OF 1826, HARVARD
perity, has always been regarded as tending to minimize the manhood of the operator. As Adam Smith says, the man who makes the tenth part of a pin is much less of a man than he who makes the whole pin. For good or evil, this system is now carried, and will be more thoroughly carried, into the liberal professions and into most of the departments of life that require generous culture and well-trained art or skill. Specialization is or will be tlie prevailing rule and habit wherever it is practicable. If I want a lawyer to look up a title, to make my will, to take care of a trust-fund, or to prosecute a trespasser, I shall not go, as I should formerly have gone, to the same man, but to a different man for each
My family physician no longer bas charge, as he would have had fifty years ago, of my teeth, my eyes, my ears, or even of my lungs, if they are seriously diseased. An ever larger proportion of the foremost men in every calling are becoming specialists, and it is the professions in which this is impossible that are least progressive.
To this trend of the world's life, the university must conform or else fall behind the age, Young men will no longer tread a
. Our food consists of plants: directly, under the
curriculum beaten by every foot; but in the vast range of pos SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. sible studies they will prefer those which look most directly to their destined positions or vocations. The elective system has thus become a necessity.
THE NITROGEN OF THE AIR AND PLANTS. Specialization has its perils, no less for the lawyer and the
CH. ER. GUIGNET. scientific man than for the pinmaker. The mere specialist
Le Magazin Pittoresque, Paris, Oetober 15. windles as a man, even though he become more skilled in
I. insight or in handicraft. Still more, even in his own department, if he improves as a manipulator he degenerates as a HE life of man is intimately connected with the life of knower and a thinker.
Now, a young man who begins very early his professional or form of grains or fleshy fruits, of leaves, or of roots; indirectly, technical training is confined to a single class of subjects, and when we employ vegetables to nourish the animals which we to the society of those whose limitations are like his own; and use for food. the more thoroughly he does his required work from day to Unless we live like the Esquimaux on fish, seal oil, and whale day, the less does he see, and learn, and know beyond it. oil, it is not apparent how we could get along without vege
The university student is, or ought to be, independent of these tables. narrowing influences. In the first place, his preparatory course Without the sun there would be no vegetation. It may be lays for him a foundation of such knowledge as he needs in said, then, that we are not only warmed, but nourished by the sun. each and all of the higher walks of life-a foundation perhaps That is why the worship of the sun represents the rational not so deep as in earlier time, but—what is of far greater religion of primitive peoples, to employ the judicious expression importance—very much broader, and destined before long vir of Mr. Berthelot, Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Scitually to include what used to be the studies of the Freshman ences. Under the influence of the sun, vegetation derives year. In the next place, the faithful student, while chiefly from the air a portion of its elements. occupied with but few of the large range of electives open to The air—which the ancients regarded as a simple or elehim, in part purposely, in still greater part unconsciously, mentary body-is a mixture of two gases, A hundred quarts becomes more or less conversant with many other topics within of air contain twenty-one quarts of oxygen, and seventy-nine that range, through intercourse with fellow-students, by uni quarts of nitrogen. The former promotes respiration and versity lectures which often draw large audiences, and from the combustion; it quickly relights a match which has no mark of atmosphere of the place, which is laden which the blended being a fire save a red point. Nitrogen possesses quite different aroma of divers and unlike cultures, and with which he
properties; at first sight it resembles air or oxygen, but it breathes in knowledge without knowing whence or how. Such extinguishes a lighted match, and no animal which inhales it acquisitions are indeed “a little learning," which, however, is can live. Hence the name of azote, which it formerly bore in not a “dangerous thing,” but eminently desirable when one is English, and still retains in French, derived from the Greek, aware that it is little, hopes to make it more, and has eye, ear, and meaning something inimical to life. and mind open to the opportunities of increasing it.
It is necessary to remind my readers that the name gas Then, too, the methods of the university teach a student (from the word geist, spirit) is given to every body which how and where to look for the information that he needs, resembles air. All gases, however, can be reduced to a liquid, which is often of immeasurably more importance than a large and even a solid state, if they are sufficiently cooled and comyet circumscribed amount of exact knowledge which cannot pressed. This great discovery was made in 1877, by Mr. be increased at will.
Cailletet, Member of the Institute; and, a little while after, A university man has the added advantage of adequate through a different method, by Mr. Raoul Pietet. means for a due self-estimate. He can kuow, if he will, his Until recent years it was thought that nitrogen was an inert comparative standing with those of his own profession, and gas, which played no active part in vegetation ; but facts well-educated men in general. One who gains superior cul established by long scientific researches prove the contrary. ture in less direct ways is liable, on the one hand, to undue More than thirty years ago Mr. George Ville, an eminent self-conceit and self-glorification, and, on the other hand, Professor of the Museum, the ardent apostle of chemical fully as osten, to an injuriously low appreciation of his own manures in France, demonstrated that the nitrogen of the air is attainments, merits, and claims.
directly absorbed by plants. He was warmly opposed, howThe chief objection to university education is that it brings ever, by the distinguished agriculturist, Boussingault, who men too late into active life. The true way of meeting this brought over to his view the majority of savants and the best objection is to shorten the period of the preparatory course. instructed agriculturists. School-life is more thon ball wasted. Vacations and holidays By a long series of experiments, made with perfect precitake up a full third of it, while not play, but the serious busi sion, Mr. Berthelot (whose name is an authority in the worid ness that is made of play, usurps a large proportion of the of cliemistry) has absolutely confirmed what Mr. Ville declared remaining two-thirds. Fifty years ago, when three years, to be the result of his own labors. Several foreign chemists often shortened to two, sufficed to fit a boy for college, the and agriculturists—Messrs. Hellriegel, Wilforth, and othersamount of close, hard study-whether to the best purpose or have reached the same conclusion, not—was very much greater than is now spread over six years. To understand clearly the part played by atmospheric There was enough of play then, too; but it was play, not nitrogen in vegetation, it is necessary to understand what is work; mere recreation, not an organized system of inter meant by free nitrogen, arm moniacal nitrogen, nitric nitrogen, school contests, involving in its management fully as much and organic nitrogen. of thought and labor as is required in the schoolroom. Break Free nitrogen is that of the air, which is simply mixed with ing down from overwork was then seldom heard of,—very oxygen. It has, over the other two kinds of nitrogen, the much less frequent than severe, sometimes lifelong, and even enormous advantage of costing nothing. This advantage, fatal, injury from baseball or football. Not only the interests however, would amount to nothing, is the air were inert, which, of the university, but the permanent well-being and well-doing happily for us, it is not. of those who are to perform for society its most arduous and Ammoniacal nitrogen is nitrogen combined with hydrogen, precious work, demand that the acquisition of knowledge, and such as is found in ordinary ammonia. This ammonia is a still more of scholarly habits, become again, as it has almost base which is combined with acids : with sulphuric acid it yields ceased to be, the foremost occupation of the school-boy. sulphate of ammonia so much used as a manure and contain
ing twenty-one per cent. of ammoniacal nitrogen ; with carbolic
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND TRAINING. acid it gives carbonate of ammonia, and so on.
JUSTUS GAULE. Nitric nitrogen is nitrogen combined with oxygen and not
Die Vation, Berlin, October, simply mingled with it, as in the air. The principal combina- N every one of us tive mental and physical characteristics are tion of nitrogen and oxygen is nitric acid. This acid is com- in great measure conditioned by training. Along with bined with bases and fornis nitrates: as the nitrate of potash mother-milk we have drunk in freely the milk of our step(known as nitre or saltpetre); nitrate of soda (known as salt- mother, habit, and no one of us can say how much he owes to petre of Chili), which is imported in enormous quantities, and heredity, and how much to the influences of post-natal environwhich is used in the manufacture of nitric acid and nitrates, ment. We may be credited with originality and personal for fertilizing land and the like.
opinions, but we all “ talk book" and are modeled on the same When nitrogen is employed as a manure, it nearly always type, like Queen Mandanbane in the “Triumph of Sensibility." under the form either of ammoniacal nitrogen or nitric nitro- Recent experiments in hypnotism have illustrated the facility gen. Under both forms it bears about the same value in the with which, under favorable conditions, the views of one permanure market. If you buy for manure 100 kilogrammes of son may be authoritatively impressed upon another as his own. pure sulphate of ammonia, that represents 21 kilogrammes of These conditions are actually realized in childhood, in the ammoniacal nitrogen. In 100 kilogrammes of pure nitrate of school. From our first entrance into the world. our opinions soda there are 16 kilogrammes of nitrogen. From these figures, are moulded by the conditions or environment. These are it is clear that, the price of both being equal, it is better to use sufficiently varied to tend to a measure of individuality, but the sulphate of ammonia for manure, since it is richer in passing through the mill of the school, we emerge alike in views nitrogen.
as in costunie.
To determine how much of individuality survives the procSERPENTS AND SPERM-WHALES.
ess would be interesting, but we are hardly yet in a position STANISLAS MEUNIER.
to undertake the investigation of the influence exercised by La Nouvelle Revue, Paris, October 15.
the mass upon the individual. There is, however a departURING the last three months some of the gentlemen con
ment of the subject in which we can pursue our investigations nected with the Museum of Natural History at Paris have
on safe grounds—the influence of special pursuits. given to the world interesting results of their observations.
Go to a parade-ground where a squad of raw recruits, fresh The learned Professor of Herpetology at the Museum, Léon
drafted from the agricultural districts are being drilled for the . Vaillant, describes the diet of a serpent, more than twenty
army. Note how they carry themselves, note the dullness of feet long, which has been on exhibition at the Jardin des
their expression, the slowness and ungainliness of their movePlantes since the month of August, 1885. Up to the end of 1891,
ments, their inability to stop together at the command “ Halt!” this reptile had eaten thirty-four times, that is, on an average,
and then contrast them with a similar body of men who have five times a year. The largest number of times in one year
been two years under drill. You will see that these latter have that the snake took food was in 1886, when he ate seven times.
the eye brighter, the skin clearer, the motions more prompt, Nearly always the food consisted of male and female goats of
the bearing more erect, the step more assured, the play of small size or yonng. Three times, however, the repast was
features more lively, the fingers more supple, and other groups composed of rabbits, and once of a goose.
of muscles more developed. The awkward young clodhopper The feeding of the serpent, which will eat nothing but what
has been transformed into the brisk citizen-soldier. And the is alive, offers an uncommon spectacle, and many persons
change is not merely in externals, there is a correspondingly request to have notice of the times when the creature seeds,
increased activity of wind, a wider mental horizon, and a formso as to witness the feeding. Yet the lightning-like rapidity
ation of new tastes. In appearance, and in fact, he is a new with which the replile seizes its prey produces a painful
And so in every other pursuit, physical or mental, the impression.
necessary training induces types of men all modified in conA propos of the volume which can, by means of distention,
formity with their pursuits. Even national types may be enter the stomach of serpents, Professor Vaillant relates what
equally ascribed to influences of environment, the most powerfollows:
ful of which is, of course, the already established type. There A French viper was put in the same cage with a horned
must, nevertheless, be a limit to the moulding power of these viper. As these individuals, although belonging to different
influences. We can hardly ascribe to them the blonde hair, species, were of the same size, the French viper having been
the blue eyes, and long heads so essentially characteristic of perlaps a trifle the stronger, it was supposed that these rep
the Germanic race. There must be some constitutional factors tiles would live amicably side by side. Nevertheless the horned
in man, impervious to the influences of environment, The viper, during the following night, swallowed his companion in
problem has been much discussed in recent times, but no satiscaptivity, and in order to acconiodate this prey so dispropor- factory solution has been offered. My object in the present tionate to itself, its body was distended to such a degree that
paper is to endeavor to contribute something to its solution. the scales, instead of touching each other laterally and even
The first perceptible change induced by practice in the overlapping each other a little, as in its normal condition,
gymnasium is enlargement of the muscles. The old fibres oí were separated, leaving between the longitudinal rows of them
which it was composed are enlarged and strengthened, and a space equal to their own breadth. All the same, digestion
new ones are added to it. This in turn is due to the fact that proceeded regularly and the viper did not appear to have suf
the blood from which they derive time ir nourishment flows into fered in the least. Talking of digestion, it may be noticed that the bits of mat
them in proportion to the activity of their function. The more ter so much sought after by makers of perfumery under the blood is used up in building up the muscles, the keener is the name of ambergris, are, it is now agreed by scientific men, the appetite, the more energetic the performance of the function residue of digestion or rather calculus formed in the extreme
of digestion, and conversion of the nutritive matter into food, part of the intestines of sperm-whales. Professor George Pouchett has received for the Museum a very precious collec
and the greater the capacity of the muscles for renewed activtion of this singular substance, of which he has made a ity. Again the more actively the muscles are exercised, the thorough study. The result of his observations shows, that more freely are the waste products of combustion got rid of. despite the sometimes considerable difference in the appear- But while every group of muscles in the body is capable of ance of different specimens, they are always constituted alike.
being thus developed by a systematic course of training which They result from the juxtaposition of very fine crystals, clearly revealed by polarized light, which enables us always to dis
shall call them all into activity, the capacity of any one set of tinguish true amber from its numberless imitations,
them to undergo exceptional development by exercise while
other sets receive merely sufficient nourishment to maintain
INEBRIETY IN ITS SEVERAL ASPECTS. them in statu quo, suggests at once immense possibilities of
T. L. WRIGHT, M.D. changes induced by habit, especially by those habits necessitated by the various pursuits of life by which the muscles
Quarterly Journal of Inebriety, Hartford, October. employed are not merely enlarged and strengthened, but IPSOMANIA is a disease of the mind, showing intermitacquire a special aptitude which in time becomes almost tent periods of late and vity—the patient, as. a automatic.
rule, resuming, in the intervals of his attacks, his normal This development of physical capacities, due immediately sobriety, regretting his excesses, and being filled with good resoto exercise, and the consequent inflow of an enhanced measure lutions and excellent intentions. During the reign of the dipsoof nutriment, may be ascribed with a certain measure of justice maniacal access, however, the insane desire is to achieve to the nutritive food taken. But that alone does not satisfac intoxication. Nothing can overcome or dissuade. “ Thefte torily account for development and enhanced capacity. The prostitution even, will not stand in the way of one in the insane plıysiologist wants to know in what form the enhanced capac pursuit of drink. It is in cases such as this that the father ity presents itself. He wants to know what gives the muscle takes the last piece of property to the dramshop, or else it is power to draw nutriment from the blood. In the process of the mother who, forgetful of her honor, throws aside all shame muscular development there is an important change in the and makes a harlot of herself for a few glasses of brandy." inter-relations of many of the complex organic molecules. The It is customary to impute guilt to any one who voluntarily muscles become richer in these molecules by training. This is gives the rein to his passions and appetites, knowing the not due to the nutriment—not to the blood—but to that which recompense to be the loss of honor and the neglect of duty. sets the muscles in action—the nerves. The muscle has no But in the case of the dipsomaniac, it may be presumed, that as innate capacity of originating its own development, its activi long as the disease is in the ascendant, the moral sensibilities ties are dependent on, and conformed to, the activities of the are obscured or dormant; and in that condition the proclivity motor nerves, the channels of transmission of nervous energy for drink will be unchecked, either by the operations of reason from the brain. The function of the nerves is not simply that or by scruples of conscience. If dipsomania is true insanity, it of the electric wire or pneumatic tube. From facts partly must as such be expected to display insane motives. These of familiar, partly recently discovered, I conclude confidently that course interfere in a very radical manner with rational volition. the nerves are not mere instruments, but play an active part in In truth, they usurp the throne and functions of reason. The the transmission of messages. And this activity, precisely as thorough dipsomaniac does not a voluntarily "give way to the with the muscles, attracts a greater aniount of nutrition, gratification of his passions and appetites. He is overtaken attended with a building up of the nerve-substance, and with a morbid impulse of such intensity and force, that it is enhancement of nerve-capacity. The muscles cannot surpass impossible to array against it the subdued mental capacities ia development the nerves which control them, the muscular that characterize the predominancy of the insane state. Dipconditions which favor growth being dependent on nervous somania nust be viewed as a constitutional malady. It may be action.
hereditary or it may be acquired. The latter contingency is an So, then, muscular development is traced to its source in nerv exhibition of the influence of physical injuries, or of chronic ous activity; and following this to its source we are guided to the diseases when reflected upon the brain. Dipsomania is, thereentrances of the organism, the skin, and the organs of sense. fore, a disease very difficult to cure; yet it is amenable to the Here at these entrances the forces of the outer world which biological evolutions of the living body; and it may, not environ us, knock and hammer unceasingly. We cannot infrequently, become totally eliminated from the constitution, emancipate nor withdraw ourselves from their influence. Ever and the patient spontaneously recover. they stand at the boundary line which severs them from the The length of the intervals between the attacks of dipsomavital forces within us, which resist their intrusion. The resis niac vary in different persons, and even in the same person. tance of this intrusion is the condition of our existence.
It may be a few days or weeks, or even months. The tendency Of the existence of these external forces we know only by is, however, for the attacks to come on more and more freconfronting them in strise. What we call a sense-impression, quently. The disease feeds upon itself; and as drinking is really an impression, that is to say, it has really produced a weakens and distresses the nervous system, the calls for alcohol change, however trifling, at the surface of the body. Our become more urgent and at shiorter intervels. weapons, our soldiers in this strife are our nerves ; it is they The dipsomaniacal onset is not without premonitory sympwhich maintain the necessary resistance, it is through their toms. The patient becomes melancholy, depressed, silent, agency that we repair the impressions made by the outer isolated. Uneasiness and fretfulness appear. • He has no world on our surface. The more vigorous the assault, the friends,” and he sinks deeper and deeper into despondency. more energetic is the defense, and the greater the nervous His appetite fails, while morbid sensations oppress and disturb Capacity of resistance developed.
the physical organism—the whole being finally merged and For this nervous capacity develops in the ratio of the task swallowed up in an insatiable craving for alcoholic drinks. it is called on to perform, is in fact developed by the assaults Sometimes by chance, and again perhaps with a purpose, the upon the organism. Here, then, we have traced muscular alcoholic cup finds its way to the lips of a man of unstable and development to its ultimate source in the forces of nature quivering nerve. Instantly the galling invitations of the syswhiclo environ us. Training leads to the evolution of types tem are allayed. Forebodings cease to disquiet, and a delightadapted to their special environment, because it is the forces ful feeling of repose and self-reliance tranquillizes the body and of environment themselves, which, step by step, produce the comforts the mind. Pleasing thoughts, grand ideas, glowing evolution.
fancies, fantastic imaginings, witty, absurd, grotesque, brilliant, If these views are correct, the organism will always be found pass through the mind in endless profusion. It is not strange, adapted to the environment which has moulded it. One might when alcohol produces such effects as these upon a mind natgo further, and assume that like conditions tend to produce urally given to trouble and unrest, that a resort should be liad uniformity of types. But one must tread cautiously here. The to its alluring but deceptive influences. The motives of the tendency would undoubtedly be to the unification of related spasmodic drinker in taking alcoliol, are never the subjects of types; but I have already hinted that there are factors which calm deliberation, and of choice wholly free. impose impassable limitations to the moulding influences of There is this peculiarity about the drinking of the impulsive environment; 'a subject to which, perhaps, I may on some inebriate: that his potations are only limited by the bounds of future occasion return.
physical endurance. It is not so much an appetite for alcohol,
as it is an indication of a great and consuming nerve distress importunate for relief.
The dipsomaniac is infatuated with the agreeable experience of recent intoxication, and in his wild efforts to obtain the full fruition of the alcoholic influence, he becomes speedily and profoundly inebriated. He drinks himself into insensibility, only to awaken and again drink himself into insensibility; and this proceeding he repeats for days together, and until the utter disorganization of the powers of the stomach com pel him to desist. It is needless to say that both the immediate and remote effects of alcohol fail not to declare themselves in the dipsomaniac with peculiar distinctness. We have here in due course of time the deleterious influences of alcohol upon a system blasted and degenerated, with nerves, and glands, and brain structurally ruined and useless in every truly physiological sense.
When the dipsomaniacal diathesis is not of extreme force, there is no doubt that by a special effort of the will the patient may be enabled to abstain from alcoholic drinks, but he must resolve on total abstinence. After the first glass the motive for abstinence no longer exists. There is for such persons no middle-ground, no compromise. The outcome is victory complete, resplendent, or it is utter defeat.
centres are affected, but nierely disabled through lack of conductive media, when, as sometimes liappens, not the gray matter, but only the white afferent fibres of the mental apparatus have suffered hurt. Such folk sink into a veritable“ slough of despond " in the use of words, misapplying terms, and miscalling and confusing generally everybody and everything to the utter discomfort of themselves and their friends. This condition has been called paraphasia, and aptly so, for it certainly appears to be an all-around racket.
If all the mnemonic centres are deserted, the patient's case is desperate, but the paralysis of a single memory may be compensated by a careful and constant exercise of another; a man used to recalling words by sounds only might, for example, on being deprived of that faculty, so wisely discipline the visual memory as to regain command of intelligent utterance, and eventually, even of his lost auditory memory, perhaps through the reaction of the one centre upon the other.
To the terms aphasia, mental blindness, and paraphasia we should add amnesia, a comprehensive designation of memory-failure; mental surdity, or deafness, loss of the auditory meniory, and agraphia or agraphy, the inability to exercise the nervo-motor memory, causing the patient to forget how to write while recollecting words in other connections. It is curious to remark that, according to Lombroso, all known races of men are right-handed, as are ali classes, except the criminal; and as the mnenionic nerves decussate or cross ove another, on their passage from the cerebrum to the surface, the presence of the seat of language on the left side of the brain is but another indication of the natural selection that rendered hereditary, for the most, the preference of the right side over the left in the matter of manual usage.
What complexity is the outcome of prying into that mysterious Mnen osyne, once regarded as one and indivisible.
THE SEAT OF LANGUAGE AND LINGUAL DISEASES.
Medico-Legal Journal, Vol. X., No. 1. TO hear a person in ordinary conversation talk about his or
her "memories,” would, no doubt, strike the majority of people as an eccentricity of expression. The existence of separate and distinct memories within the human brain, has, however, recently been definitely established.
Ralph Waldo Emerson afforded a good example of the local limitation of aphasia. During the last years of his life, withi scarcely any indications of mental decline, he experienced great difficulty in making himself understood by words. More than a score of experiments bore witness to the reality of the local habitation of language and its maladies, without convincing the scientific world; and the patient investigator of the subject, Brocca, encountered the usual mistrust and opposition.
Very interesting are the corroborating illustrations educed by him and by others, and he received positive assurance of the trustworthiness of his discovery from the fact that any injury done to the little gray patch of cerebral substance on the left side of the brain in the third frontal convolution of the cerebrum near the Sylvian fissure, occasioned disturbances of speechi, whereas nothing similar occurred when the right side was tampered with.
As not infrequently happens, the solution of one problem cast a ray of light upon other obscure questions, and led, in this case, to an acquaintance with the existence of various memories.
There is a lingual visual memory, an auditory memory of the same kind, and what may be termed nervo-motor memory, whose character is well illustrated by the case of a person who, showing perplexity in the recognition of words by sight and by sound, discovers that by writing them he recovers their lost signification. Visual memory of words when impaired has not infelicitously been called mental blindness and may coexist with auditory and nervo-motor sanity.
Of the various memories, that of the ear appears to be ordinarily most active. In fact there are many persons who never represent words to themselves except by the spoken sound thereof, and consequently if any injury occurs to their auditory mnemonic centre, they are particularly embarrassed in the expression of thought. Less frequently we find people with the keenest mental vision of words, with little power of auditory remembrance.
Then, again, we find people in wlioni none of the muenionic
TOUCH AND TASTE IN ANIMALS,
Chambers's Journal, London, October. O one doubts that animals have sense, but most of us know comparatively little about their
Is sight a universal gift? Do animals recognize each other, and, if so, how? Can all creatures, even those low in the scale of creation, lear and taste and smell? What is the meaning of the variety of sounds, with all their curious inflections, often so unpleasant to our ears, that are made by animals? These, and many sinislar questions, can now be at least partially answered; for botli American and English naturalists have been lately working at this subject. Although, as Fabricius, the pupil of Linnæus, said many years ago, “nothing in natural history is more abstruse and difficult than an accurate description of the senses of aninials."
By a sense we mean that certain special nerves, on receiving an appropriate impulse, convey it to the brain, where it is translated (how, is as yet unknown) into its special sensation. We usually speak of ourselves as having five senses-smell, taste, touch, sight, and hearing.
In the lower organismis, as the molluscs, the wliole outer skin is sensitive; but some have also specialized organs of touch. These are usually hair-like pro esses. This, jelly-fish shoot out numerous threads, when touched, which enable them to attack the body pressing them. In fishes, touch is usually limited to the lips, parts of the fins, and to special organs called barbels"; these are long pieces of skin.
The skin of crustacea and of insects is more or less horny, or, as has been said, the bee wears its skeleton outside; but even this armor-like surface is sensitive to touch, owing to little bairs or projecting, rod-like bodies seated on the coat, from the base of which a nerve-fibre passes througlı into the body. These little hairs are very numerous on the antennæ of insects, and are evidently sense-hairs of some kind, some of touch, others of other senses. This sense of touch is marvelously developed in spiders,
Bats have an extremely keen sense of touch, perhaps the most delicate of any creature, and are guided in their figlit chiefly by this sense. The insect-eating bats have to be on