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ITS PROSPECTS AND PRACTICABILITY.
him "un grand peintre," and placed him high both as twenty-seven years, yet none even of the narrow circle of his a man and as an artist. A fortnight later, I met Vladimir friends had seen his masterwork. He was famous even before Svertschkoff; I spoke to him about Ivanoff, and mentioned what 1830, when he painted in St. Petersburg and did but poor Botkin had said. Svertschkoff then criticised the picture most work. A study of Ivanoff's life will explain these contradicseverely and pulled Ivanoff down from the pedestal upon which tions and peculiarities. Botkin's reverence for him had placed him, and where my
Rus- Ivanoff's early years had been passed in poverty and he had sian cicerone had fixed him. All who know Svertschkoff know seen nothing of art but that in the collection of the Eremitage. that his art-terms, gathered from the studios of Munich, Paris, His friends and teachers, knowing that his opportunities of and Florence, need not be taken very literally, but, neverthe- instruction had been few, ascribed his knowledge of art to less, when he had finished, not much of “notre célébre com- extraneous sources—to inspiration. It is for that reason that patriote" was left.
so mucli respect and reverence was paid him. Whatever we He fell back upon the judgment of Alexander Herzen, may think of his inspiration, he himself either doubted it or Turgenieff, the St. Petersburg Academy, etc., and, as far as I was ignorant of it, for in Rome he asked Thorwaldsen “to remember, he was the first who called Ivanoff an art-nihilist. which line of art he (Ivanoff) ought to devote himself.” It is As I have had opportunity to examine Ivanoff's picture for not known what the master answered. At this time German months, I have myself, of course, formed an opinion about it, Romanticism flourished. He joined the “ Isidorus Brotherfree and unbiased by other people's judgment.
hood,” whose purpose was, as Atterbom stated, “ to live, to About some works of art, one can almost say with Lessing, work, and to believe as the old mediæval art-guild brothers
did, with their piety, earnestness, self-sacrifice, and untramWer wird nicht einen Klopstock loben,
meled views of nature." Ivanoff's paintings from this time Doch wird ihn jeder lesen? Nein !
show the strange influence of these art-Nazarenes, but he soon Wir wollen weniger erhoben
discovered the unnaturalness of the brethren, and left them. Und fleissiger gelesen sein.
Immediately after his arrival in Rome he began his great work, It is a curious phenomenon that a picture, which has really * Christ Before the People.” played no part, has created a large literature. That has been But the Greek orthodox Christian painter became a sceptic. the case with Alexander Ivanoff's painting “ Christ Before the While he was busy in Ronie's Ghetto, in Livorno's and Naples's People." Russia's most prominent literary men, Gogol, Jewishi quarters, looking for suitable models, Strauss's Life of Herzen, Turgenieff, Pogodin, and Chomjäkoff have written Jesus was published. Ivanoff, who read everything in the about it. All this is sufficient reason for a study of Ivanoff, line of his work, read it-to his misfortune. Turgenieff wrote, his work, and his panegyrists.
“ Ivanoff got from that work so deep an impression that it Ivanoff lived in Rome from 1830 to 1858, and was known as entirely changed his views of life.” Signor Alessandro everywhere. He was born in St. Petersburg 1806, and entered the imperial art-academy very early, so early,
A COSMOPOLITAN LANGUAGE. that his general education suffered thereby.
In his own opinion, he was artist “ by the grace of God," therefore he did not need an education like other people; it might even be
MALTUS QUESTELL HOLYOAKE. hurtful to him. His exterior expressed his romantic ideas; his
Cosmopolitan, New York, November. hair grew long and he always wore a Calabrian hat. To him NTERNATIONALISM is on the increase, and as a conseapplied very well what Carl Plageman said about himself : “ My quence international conferences have been held on earthly hat rests upon that which is without value." Ivan numerous and important subjects. Foremost, however, among Turgenieff, who made his acquaintance in 1857, has in his let- the means of promoting the brotherhood of nations, and accelters given many fine characteristics of him. “ Ivanoff has erating the arrival of the golden time when the world will be become,” he wrote, “a peculiar man on account of his long as one country, is the establishment of a language for the separation from the world, from his constant self-introspection common use of nations, and exclusive concentration of thought and will upon a single There are three ways of reversing “the unfortunate arrangepurpose. There is something mystical and yet childish, some- ment' of the Tower of Babel, as Lord Rosebery termed it. thing grand and yet mean, in him and his appearance. He The methods are, by the revival of a dead language, the utiliseems open and free, yet so unapproachable. When we first zation of a living language, or the invention of a new language. met, he seemed suspicious, retired, and gloomy, but when he Among scholars, Latin really held the place of a universal became acquainted with me and Botkin, he “opened up," language in a past age, and its adoption again would offend grew soft and mellow, and showed a lively nature. He could the prejudices of no nation. Among living languages, French, laugh or fall into ecstasies over trifles, and unexpected words which has been adopted many years as the language of diplocould throw him into a serious mood, even frighten him. At macy, and which is already taught in so many countries, is a times he displayed a matured mind, perfectly able to express strong candidate for universal use. Italian is a beautiful and itself. Like most of the Russian art-students he was ignorant euplionious language, and English has undeniable claims, in general educational matters, but he improved himself con- being already the spoken language of 100,000,000 of people; it stantly. He studied the antique world, Assyriology in partic- is spreading among the 260,000,000 people of Hindostan, and ular, with great ardor and perseverance. He knew the Bible, possesses many philological merits. It is, moreover, the conthe Gospels particularly, by heart. His plan for the restora- necting link between the Gothic and Romanic languages. tion of Solomon's Temple, prepared upon the scanty Biblical English), however, presents many difficulties to the student. records, was thoughtful, learned, and thoroughly worked out. A universal language has always been a pet idea of philoloHe took no part in literature and politics; his whole interest gists in bygone times. Passing by the numerous systems of centered upon art, ethics, and philosophy. Once, a friend shorthand, Bishop Wilkins's “ Essay Towards a Real Characsent him a volume of well-drawn caricatures; while looking ter and a Philosopliical Language” was chief among the thoughtfully at them, he suddenly arose, exclaiming: “Christ, seventeenth-century attempts to promote a common language. never lied !” and laid the book aside.
Since then, innumerable projects have faded into the mists of At the time Turgenieff met Ivanoff, his countrymen con- obscurity. sidered Ivanoff the Russian artist “ par excellence." They Among the more recent efforts to realize the aspirations for called him thus, though but few had actually seen his celebrated the establishment of a universal language is that of Herr picture. He painted and repainted, studied and restudied for Schleyer, whose Volapük, a language he invented for universal
commercial use, was first published in 1880. There are now close of this examination he feels authorized to draw these about a thousand teachers, and over two hundred societies for conclusions as established facts: its extension. Complete introductions to it have have been
There are markings on the surface of Mars which in all probability published in every European language, including Turkish and
represent seas, lakes, regions of water of various kinds. These markHungarian. Its grammar has been published in twenty-one ings are permanent: they are seen to-day in the same regions where languages, and the last edition of its dictionary contains over they were observed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They twenty thousand words. It is considered to fulfill in a remark are not athmospheric products, then, like the markings on Jupiter. able degree the requirements of a universal language, and it is While they are permanent, they are, however, not invariable. They claimed that it numbers several hundred thousand adherents.
change both in dimensions and in depth of tone in different years,
and without doubt at different times of the seasons of Mars. There But while Volapük is the most successful so far of all attempts
are some regions which are specially variable. These appear to hold to provide a cosmopolitan tongue, its universal introduction is impracticable.
a middle place between continents and seas, and to be marshy lands,
which are, in turn, elevated above and submerged beneath a thin layer The celebrated John Horne Tooke considered that the lan
of water. The continents of Mars appear to be flat and subject to guages which are commonly used throughout the world were
inundations in nearly all their extent The northern hemisphere is much more simple, easy, and philosophical than any plan that
more elevated than the southern; the seas are chiefly in the latter, had at that time been imagined or proposed for the establish
and they do not appear to be deep. The evaporation on Mars is ment of a common tongue. It was with some such idea that
without doubt rapid and considerable. Water is perhaps not the only in 1884 I ventured to suggest a solution of the international
agent concerned in the changes on Mars. The general order of things language difficulty which it may not be out of place to men is very different on Mars and on our earth. tion here. Conceiving that the great strides that education
In 1889, I wrote concerning the conclusions of M. Flammahas made during recent times among civilized nations, partic
rion, just given, that “they all depend on the certainly not ularly the millions spent upon State schools, had brought the
improbable assumption that the darker markings upon Mars project of an international language within the regions of prac
represent bodies of water." ticability, I proposed the transformation of one of the existing
I believe that M. Flammarion is still satisfied that the dark languages into a language for universal use by the simple expe.. markings on Mars can be best explained by supposing them to dient of holding a conference of the ministers of education of
be water. The observations which I have been able to make . all nations who should agree upon one language to be taught
since 1889, seem to me to render this conclusion even more (in addition to the native language of each country) in all
doubtful than I then considered it. schools, such selected language to be the same in all countries.
A paper by Mr. John Brett, F.R.A.S., which appeared so long If English were the language decided upon, it would not be
ago as 1877, has not, I think received the attention it deserves. necessary for an additional language to be taught in English
It is worth summarizing here in order to accentuate the very speaking countries. This suggestion was submitted to, and
wide difference of views which may be held by observers. Mr. considered by, the late John Bright, who wrote to me: “The
Brett begins by pointing out that Mars does not show the same time may come for an attempt to put it in practice, but it is
delicacy of detail as Jupiter, for example, under like conditions, not yet come. English will be the language of the great majority,
and he attributes to Mars on this account an atmosphere of conif we exclude the Chinese.” He feared, however, that the
iderable opacity. As the details of the surface generally vanish members of a conference would never agree on the language to
before they come to the edge, while they are best seen at the be adopted. A similar view was expressed by the late Mr.
centre, and as the borders of the planet are the brightest, his Matthew Arnold, who wrote: "I do not think a conference
conclusion is that the markings themselves lie beneath a very will ever establish an international language.” Professor Max
dense atmosphere. Mr. Brett goes on to say that as the chief Müller has frequently advocated the cause of an international
topographical features on Mars are permanent, the body of the language in his lectures, but he believes “it is one of those
planet must be solid. There are few or no clouds on Mars. reforms which we must leave the next century to carry." The
This fact alone is fatal to the theory that the “land” and difficulties in the way of the adoption of an international lan
water on Mars act as on the earth. A whole opposition of guage are assuredly great, and the objections many; but the
Mars may pass, and no changes in its atmosphere be made out. benefits to be derived are correspondingly important. The
It is certain, from spectroscopic observation, that watery formation of an association working to that end would do
vapor exists in the atmosphere of Mars, but it is not certain much to accelerate its realization. It would increase the unity
that it forms clouds, and as watery vapor must form clouds if of the nations, and promote the peace of the universe.
the temperature is cool enough, the absence of clouds would upset the theory of snow-caps at the poles. Mr. Brett thinks
they are clouds in the higher and colder regions of the atmosSCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.
phere. The dark patches near them he supposes to be their
shadows. Finally he concludes that the poles are the only WHAT WE REALLY KNOW ABOUT MARS.
regions cool enough to condense the invisible water-vapor into
visible clouds. EDWARD S. Holden.
Professor Schaeberle says: “Schiaparelli, Flammarion, and Forum, New York, November.
observers of Mars in general, agree in calling the darker area HE cbject of the present paper is to present some of the
of Mars water, and the brighter portions land. My own obser
vations of 1890 and 1892 have led to just the opposite concluviews which have been advanced to explain the various
sion.” “The so-called 'canals' in the red areas,” says Profesphenomena seen on Mars, and I have selected three generali
sor Schaeberle, seem to be continuations of the long, darker zations which all deserve attention. The first is by M. Flam
streaks in the darker areas. The fainter markings called marion, who has himself made a telescopic study of the planet.
*canals' would correspond to the ridges of mountain-chains The next is by Mr. Brett, a distinguished artist of London. It
which are almost wholly immersed in water, and the doubling is also founded on telescopic study. The last is by Professor of the canals would correspond to parallel ridges of which our Schaeberle, of the Lick Observatory, who has observed the earth furnishes many examples.” Professor Schaeberle advances planet under the best conditions at Mount Hamilton.
numerous reasons to show that the dark areas of Mars are
more likely to be land than water. In the second volume of the“ Bulletin” of the Astronomical
Considering this wide diversity of opinion among competent Society of France, M. Flammarion has made an elaborate
observers, it appears to me that the wise course is to reserve study of the drawings of Mars from 1659 to 1888, and at the judgment and strive for more light.
factory explanation in a few cases. In no case would we feet
warranted, on the basis of our present knowledge in attributON THE ASSOCIATION OF COLORS WITH WORDS, LETTERS, AND
ing these phenomena to the retinal elements—to the rods and SOUNDS.
cones—though there is a temptation to do so, especially in WILLIAM O. KROHN, Ph.D.
those cases where similar graphic forms produce similar color American Journal of Psychology, Worcester, Mass., October.
impressions. It may be that in some cases the phenome HE first problem of psychology is the study of sensation. could be rightly attributed to the crossing of certain afferent
A wealth of material comes to the investigator as the or sensory fibres, but we are inclined to attribute the majority deliverance of the various special senses when the several end of cases to the cerebral centres themselves. We might even organs are appropriately stimulated. But the pseudo sensations say that the majority of those cases regarded as purely constitute the subject matter of psychology, just as much as · psychic ” can, in the last analysis, be traced to causes most those arising from bona fide stimuli. Indeed, much light is intimately related to the cerebral centres themselves. In the thrown upon the problem of psychology by following out this greater per cent. of cases the pseudo-chromesthesic phenomline of study and investigation.
ena arise from some sort of cerebral work which is the outOf all the interesting phenomena which fall under this head, come of the close relation of the cortical centres, which are the pseudo sensations of sight are the most numerous. The connected by numerous associational fibres, notably the visual present paper deals with one form of pseudo-photesthesia, to and auditory centres. Whether this is done by anastomosis of wit, that large class of phenomena in which colors are called fibres, or irradiation, or by direct stimulus of the fibres of assoup in the mind of the subject when certain letters or words ciation, it is evident that, in some cases at least, it takes place are spoken, or seen in print or writing. The term color condi within the centres themselves. It is a notable fact that the tion does not cover all the cases, for there are instances in weaker the color impressions the more“ psychic” and “ideal” which individuals have these pseudo sensations of color when
it seems. they see words, but not when they hear them spoken.
THE ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM. The term we choose as a sort of label for this interesting class of phenomena is that of pseudo-“ chromesthesia."
Chambers's Journal, London, October. Pseudo-chromesthesia is that peculiar faculty of association of NYTHING that adds to our knowledge of coal, or throws the sensorial perceptions, by means of which any primary sen any light on the origin of the vast subterranean stores of sation or even a purely psychical process can evoke, in the case petroleum and natural gas which have proved of such incalcuof certain persons, a false visual sensation of color, constant in lable service to man, must be received with universal interest. the case of the same stimulus with the same person. The A paper read by Professor Watson Smith at a meeting of the phenomena may be of optical origin, i.e., the efficient cause London section of the Society of Chemical industry does both. may come through the eye, or memory image of a visual sen It deals with the results of his experiments on a highly bitusation, of the graphical forms of a letter, a number, a geograph minous Japanese coal, and the conclusions deducible from ical figure. They are of acoustic origin when the efficient cause them. passes through the ear, or is a memory image associated with The coal is produced from a mine at Miike in the province that organ. Thus every noise, every sound, perceived objec of Chokugo, in Kiu Shin, a large island in the southwestern tively or evoked mentally, can arouse those sensations of color. extremity of the Japanese Empire. The deposit was known This is especially noticeable in the case of the human voice. four hundred years ago, but was not worked until 1873, after
Goethe was one of the very first to make reference to this the Government had bought it at the request of its private subject which he does in his “ Theory of Colors” (1890). The proprietors. In 1885, a new shaft had been sunk to a depth of first case of pseudo-chromesthesia to find a place in medical two hundred and forty feet, and the output increased to twelve journals, is that detailed by Dr. George Sachs. His subject was hundred tons a day, and in 1888 Mitsi bought the mine for an Albino who associated colors with vowels, consonants, musi £750,000. The coal beds are supposed to cover an area of cal notes, sounds of instruments, figures, names of cities, days 3,758 acres, containing some 85,444,000 tons of the mineral. of the week, dates, epochs of history, and phases of human The seam averages fully eight feet thick, is of uniformly excellife.
lent quality throughout, and probably the best coal in Japan. Carnaz and others regarded the phenomena as pathological, The peculiarity of this Japanese coal is its large proportion of and due to some optical lesion. The first to controvert this bitumen. Professor Watson found that it contains no less view was Perrond (1863). He asserted that it was neither a than ten per cent. The highest he was able to extract, even pathological condition nor depending on material lesion, nor from cannel coal, was only a little over one per cent. This constituting an illusion nor hallucination.
ten per cent., therefore, is an enormous proportion. As might Chabaleer regarded it as a light confusion of ideas, a sort of be expected, the Miike coal is an excellent coal for gas-making, psychic perversion, “an illusion compatible with reason." giving over 11,000 cubic feet of 23.4 candle-power gas per ton.
Another theory is that of anastomosis between two cortical The ashes are calcareous, showing that the trees grew on limecentres or tangling of fibres; or the sensory stimulus of one stone soil, and it is assumed that they must have been of an sensory nerve has been assumed to reach another sensory unusually resinous character. nerve in the course to the brain, and thus reach another corti A large quantity of this bitumen was extracted and fractioncal centre than that for which it was intended. Others reject ally distilled—that is, the heat was kept constantly at a parphysiological explanations, and apply the law of association of ticular temperature until nothing more distilled over, then ideas, and they do it with a vengeance.
raised fifty degrees and kept there until the renewed distillaIn the majority of cases it seems to attach itself to a special tion against ceased ; and so on. The first fraction smelt condition of the nervous system as well as to a well-developed exactly like benzoline or petroleum naphtha; the next fraction faculty of the imagination. Very rarely is there any defect of bore the unmistakable odor of petroleum lamp oil; the next, the eye or ear. Then heredity plays an important part. It is on cooling, deposited paraffine scale abundantly, and the oil very infrequent that a single member of a family experiences drained off was similar to the lubricating oils obtained from pseudo-chromosthesic impressions. The impressions of color American petroleum. become more intense, vivid, and striking when the person is The question at once arises: could this petroleum-like subfatigued.
stance formed in the coal, have any bearing on the origin of To us it seems. plain that the theory of psychic association petroleum ? Professor Watson Smith replies : We have here čánñöt account for all the facts, although it may afford a satis a coal with the petroleum in it, which can be distilled off at a
moderately high temperature. Supposing the Miike coal uni- cable. The line traverses the Roman Campagna in nearly a form throughout, there is distributed though it 8,544,000 tons straight direction, and is composed of four cables of
copper of bitumen capable of yielding some 1,800,000 tons of thick wire. Each of these cables is formed of a strand of 19 wires petroleum oil, and 427,000 tons of solid paraffine wax.
2.6 millimetres in diameter, which gives a total section of 100 The next step the investigator proposes to take is to distil square millimetres. The four cables weigh altogether 100 off the oil from a considerable quantity of the coal, and see tons. The Roman Canıpagna is generally deserted; still prewhat the residual coal is like. Probably a residue resembling cautions have been taken against danger.
The cables are supanthracite, a kind of coal converted almost into coke by nat- ported by insulators on poles. Near the Porta Pia is the ural agencies will be left behind. Contiguous to the petroleum building where the current is transformed. Thirty-two transdeposits of Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio, but now separate formers reduce the potential of the line to 2,000 volts. Finally by a branch of the Alleghanies which may have been upheaved the current thus modified is carried to the places where it is more recently than the deposits, are vast beds of anthracite used for power, and there the current is brought down to a coal which form by far the most important coal-field in pressure of 100 volts. All the apparatus, froni Tivoli on, works America. Is it not possible that the oil was once emibosomed with perfect regularity. in this anthracite, as it is now in the Japanese coal? And The progress realized can be estimated by recalling that, in being driven out by subterraneous heat was absorbed by the 1873, for the first time, Mr. Fontaine transmitted, at the neighboring sandstone as in the condenser of a distillery Vienna Exposition on the Prater, before the Emperor, a curapparatus?
rent of one-horse power a distance of about 160 feet. Now It was formerly supposed that coal beds were formed by from Tivoli to Rome a current of 1,200 horse-power is transvegetation brought from a distance, but while rivers may have mitted eighteen miles. been to some extent contributary there is abundant evidence that, for the most part, coal is the fossil product of vegetation
RELIGIOUS. which grew where it formed, as peat now does.
Dresdner Wochenblätter, Dresden, October.
AUL DE LAGARDE, who was radically grounded in the
History of Religions, and himself religious in every fibre HE Eternal City has had for three or four years important of his being, was the first to realize that the old religions are
works for electric lighting by alternating currents and antiquated, worn out, obsolete ; and he did not hesitate to transformers, operating at 2,000 volts with steam-engines. It announce it. “We stand,” he said, “ before a Void. was indeed at Rome that one of the first applications of alter- If any one thinks that the abyss is less an abyss because it is nating currents on a large scale for the production of electric enveloped in fog, he is welcome to his opinion. Protestantism, light was made. For a long time a preference was given to con- Catholicism, Judaism, are all alike, or rather they are no more tinuous currents. To traverse long distances, however, it is existent, for a religion that is not a working religion is dead." preferable to use alternating currents, which can easily be Lagarde was right, and the history of recent years affords produced with pressures of from four to five thousand volts. ample evidence of the widespread acceptance of the truth. There do not exist works with continuous currents exceeding See, for example, Dr. Otto Dreyer's“ Undogmatic Christianity:
Observations of a German Idealist.” Dr. Dreyer still hopes The works at Rome, though osten enlarged, had become much from a resurrection of Christianity, and will surrender insufficient to answer the constantly increasing demands for nothing of its doctrines, but the attentive reader will find the electric current. It occurred to the authorities to utilize many evidences, in this, in many respects, really noble work, the Falls of Tivoli, about eighteen miles from Rome, and this that here the wish was father to the thought, and can never has been done. The works have just been completed and are be other than a pious wish. It is very difficult here to go far very remarkable.
enough, and yet rot go too far. Lagarde, Dreyer, the ComThe mechanical energy of the Falls of Tivoli has been piler of the Catechism, the Protestant Association, and even brought to the gates of Rome with a potential of 5,000 volts. Egidy, do not in many respects go far enough. Nietzsche, on There takes place a first transformation. The always danger- the other hand, goes too far, and yet whatwe want is the unifious current of 5,000 volts is brought down to a potential of cation, without friction, of German Idealism with the modern 2,000 volts.
From this point the wires are laid under ground views of Nietzsche and of natural science. through the city and, by a second transformation, the current That the old religions are really antiquated we find abunis reduced to 100 volts. The apparatus, called “transíormers,' dant evidence on all hands. It is the unassailable conviction which bring about this reduction of pressure, leave now a of every man grounded in modern thought. But as this is a pressure of from 96 to 100 volts at most. Very little, then, is very important matter, and as there are unquestionably many lost on the way. Some years ago this transformation could who still cling to the old views, we will advance a few evidences not have been made econoniically.
of the justice of our characterization of the old religions as The hydraulic station at Tivoli is situated in the villa which antiquated, and of their unsuitability for our own age, to say was the residence of Mæcenas, the minister of the Emperor nothing of the future. Augustus. The station is fed by a fall of water about 366 feet Potestantism and Catholicism are alike rooted in Christianhigh. The delivery reaches about 875 gallons a second. This ity, and Christianity is rooted in the ancient world ; it is rooted real river is brought, over an ancient Roman viaduct, in a for the most part in old-Grecian philosophy. It is Philosophy. canal 500 feet long and 10 feet wide, to a station where the The course of development of philosophy from the Græcohydraulic machinery is established, on the side of the mountain, Roman world through Christ to the Middle Ages, and thence in a very picturesque situation. The water, entering a room to modern philosophy is without a break. Christianity had its about 83 feet long and 50 wide, passes through a large pipe origin in the ancient world, and bears the marks of its origin subdivided into three branches. The water from each branch plainly. The ancient world, however, lies behind us. Even the feeds a group of three turbine wheels—two turbines of 350 intermediate Middle Ages have been left behind, and we stand horse-power, one of 50 horse-power, of the Girard pattern. before a new age, a new world. Can any demonstration really These nine turbines engender a total of 1,200 horse-power. be needed that the Christian religion, rooted in antiquity, is Each dynamo produces a current of 5,100 volts and 42 amperes. unsuited to our modern age, irreconcilable with our modes of · From the hydraulic station the current is sent to Rome by thought, out of harmony with our scientific outlook? Our
views of life and nature, our culture, our science, have all undergone development in the course of centuries of culture ; we have been advancing on an onward course, and now we stand before the door; one spring alone is necessary to launch ourselves into the new era. Shall we take this antiquated Christian religion with us into the new era as our ion, or only as history.
Again the new era is characterized by individuality. Even nations are sharply individualized. They recognize themselves as individuals, national characteristics are cultivated. We dive deep down into the popular soul in search of its treasured pearls and corals. And the Christian religion? Did it originate in the primitive days of our Aryan ancestors, or is it marked by Semitic as well as Aryan characteristics? Is it essentially national? “It is universally human.” Good, but humanity is always national. Where is the nationality that gave birth to Christianity?
And the views which the Christian religion enforces? The Christian does good and avoids evil because God requires it, he prays God for help when he is in need and for pardon for his offenses, he prays God for strength to resist evil, and prays God not to lead him into temptation, thanks God for all good gifts, and for life itself, and has his eye ever fixed on the hereafter. But modern man, the man of the new era, takes his stand on our beautiful mother earth and gazes into the blue heavens, does good for goodness's sake, and avoids evil because it is evil, trusts to his own right hand to help him in his need and in the hour of danger: repents him of the evil that he does, and finds in the slings and arrows of conscience, repentance, and in repentance, forgiveness; and knows that when he achieves anything he has only his own energies and the aid of his fellow-man to thank for it.
What sentiments could be more elevated, more Godlike?
We must remember, above all things, that religions are the work of men's hands. For ages it was believed that the Christian religion was divine revelation, but those days are fled. We know now that it is human. Its views of life, the lessons it inculcates cannot rise above the intellectual and ethical level of those who prepared it. But does anyone believe that the world has stood still for nineteen hundred years? Do we not rather know that humanity has developed, changed, risen? The Christian religion has undergone no corresponding development, it had no vitality, and has dropped so far behind that as a practical religion and guide of life it no longer confronts us; we see its face no more, and now
we stand before the Void.” .
But when one has nothing, and needs much, it is necessary to create something. A creed cannot, however, be made, it grows. But it cannot grow spontaneously. The field must be prepared.
We close here with De Lagarde's saying, Ultramontism”-and note clearly—“and Protestantism must be annihilated, not by force, but firstly by ceasing to recognize them; secondly, by the substitution of something recognizedly better, something which will better satisfy human needs, and enable us to forget them.”
admitted that, glaring as the immoral conditions of civilized life are, and hypocritical as are many of its legislative enactments, the morality of European and American society is very far in advance of that of Mohammedan countries. To compare “the civilization which marked the Khalifate of Bagdad, and which gave a diadem of glory to Moslem rule in Cordova," with the social conditions of Paris, London, or New York would call for a volume.
There is, I admit, very much in the strictures of Ibn Ishak which we may reasonably take to heart. But we can scarcely look to Islam for the regeneration of the Western world. For, admitting that the Sultan of Turkey is an imposter, having no claim to the leadership of Islam, there have been countries, Bokhara, Khiva, and Yarkand, for example, which have enjoyed the privilege of Moslem rule as it was ordained by the precepts of the Prophet; and yet it would, perhaps, be impossible to find any nation more completely sunk in darkness and ignorance than those three countries, which for centuries have been ruled according to the Moslem code.
But if the Moslems are wrong in their estimate of the comparative benefits of Christianity and Islam, it may, I think, be attributed somewhat to the peculiar manner in which the Christian evangelist attempts to convert the Moslem world. Missionaries unfortunately commenced with the evangelical revival, and consequently they have carried with them much that was unintelligible to the Oriental mind.
To the Moslem scholar, the crude utterances of the “ Bazaar preacher” must seem as peculiar as the curious tight-fitting garments worn by the speaker. Again, it is unfortunate that Christianity has been reintroduced into the Oriental World as an English creed, carrying with it all that is objectionable in the voice, manner, and style of the British ruler. The Mohammedan of Turkey, India, and Persia can never separate the religion of the modern missionary from his dislike and prejudice to the Western conqueror.
The Moslem religion stands as much upon its historical continuity as the Christian Church does upon its Apostolical Succession. Consequently, neither the Westminster Coníession, nor the Thirty-nine Articles, nor Wesley's Sermons are very fit weapons wherewith to combat the religion of the great Arabian reformer. It was the present Bishop Westcott, I think, who said that the Moslem mind is more likely to move on the lines of Athanasius and Origen than on those of Augustine and Anselm. Yet the Christian literature introduced into the Orient by the English, German, and American missionary is saturated with Calvinism and Wesleyanism. Even controversies which have agitated the English Church in modern times have been introduced into thc mission field. Modern missionary societies have proved incompetent to deal with Islam and Buddhism, intrenched by the historic continuity of centuries.
Ibn Ishak is perfectly correct in saying that in the study of Islam the Christian writer sees polygamy on every page." Mr. Syed Ameer Ali, · Ibn Ishak," and Syed Ahmed have explained (or attempted to explain) the polygamy of Mohammed, and it would be well for modern missions if those evangelists who carry in their hands the Biblical accounts of Lot, Jacob, David, and Solomon as an inspired record, would avoid this objectionable and unsavory line of controversy.
I refer to this subject with some reluctance. But it must be stated, for I think it provable that the marriages of Mahommed were contracted rather for political than licentious reasons. In attacking the character of the Prophet of Arabia, the Christian missionary raises between himself and the Mahommedans, whom he seeks to convert, an almost in passable barrier. An experience of my own, twenty years ago, proves this.
Converts from Islam, I admit, are few; but there are among them typical men. After careful observation, extending over many years, I am convinced that there are many such men,
HAS ISLAM A FUTURE?
Arena, Boston, November.
sheets of an article on "The Future of Islam,” by Ibn Ishak,* are before me.
I do not intend to reply to the learned Moslem writer's strictures on European and American society. There is much in the conditions of modern life which is regarded by European and American writers as unsatisfactory; but this results from a departure from the essential principles of Christ's religion, and can not, therefore, be used as an argument against the adaptation of Christianity to the necessities of civilized life. It must be
* See THE LITERARY Digest, Vol. V., No. 22, p. 603.