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time was experimental in nature and did not completely follow the pattern of the technique finally agreed upon. Description of main study

At the completion of this test phase, in consultation with client, cities were chosen in which this test was to be made. We were asked by client to have our investigator in each city visit 20 restaurants chosen at random except for the following limitations :

1. Investigators were instructed not to take any restaurants which they knew to be members of large chain operations.

2. Investigators were instructed to make at least four of their interviews in the coffee shops connected with leading hotels. Their first duty upon entering the restaurant would be to make careful observation of walls, counters, and menu, if available, to learn whether information was posted stating that the restaurant served oleomargarine with meals. If such notice did exist the investigator did not proceed further at this location but went on to another restaurant and repeated procedure.

Whenever investigator found a restaurant where no indication was given that oleomargarine was served with meals, she sat down and in the manner of a regular customer ordered coffee and rolls with two pats of butter.

When her order was filled the investigator took these pats of butter, placed them in a coded glassine envelope provided for this purpose, recorded the code number on her report sheet together with the name and address of the restaurant, and notification that no postings were found on walls or menu, and then placed this glassine container holding the specimens obtained in a refrigerated box which she carried for this purpose. This process was repeated as many times as necessary to accumulate her quota of specimens.

These specimens were then immediately packed in refrigerated containers by the investigator and shipped to the offices of Fact Finders Associates, Inc., at 400 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y., by air express. The package from each city was opened under the supervision of an officer of Fact Finders, Inc., and after the number of specimens contained in the package was checked, were immediately delivered by hand to the United States Testing Co., Inc., at which time they performed their function as described in accompanying material.

After completing all tests necessary to supply findings, the United States Testing Co., Inc., rendered a series of city reports, signed copies of which are shown in this report.

All investigators used in this study signed in the presence of a notary public the field form which is shown in this report. These signed statements are on file at the offices of Fact Finders Associates, Inc.

UNITED STATES TESTING Co., INC.,

Hoboken, N. J., May 14, 1948. Mr. WILLIAM J. O'BRIEN, Executive Vice President, Fact Finders Associates, Inc.,

400 Madison Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. DEAR MR. O'BRIEN : This letter will serve to explain the basis for our selection of the tests used in our Report of Test No. 93759 in order to distinguish between butter and oleomargarine or butter substitutes.

After a comprehensive investigation of the problem, specific tests were selected in order to make the distinction required. The following tests were conducted in the laboratory :

1. Foam test.--This test was taken from Farmers' Bulletin, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 131. The description of the test was taken from Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis.

2. Wanklyn's reaction.—This test was taken from Leffmann and Beam's, Select Method of Food Analysis, second edition. The description of the test was taken from Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis.

3. Saponification value.—This test was taken from the Official and Tentative Method of the American Oil Chemists', method Cd 3–25. It is our opinion that the foregoing tests selected are indicative for distinguishing between butter and oleomargarine or butter substitutes. The foam test was carried out on all the specimens and represents an accepted method for generally segregating the two types of substances.

The foam test is at best suitable for sorting or roughly distinguishing within a group of specimens.

Those cases where the classification of the material was doubtful, the Wanklyn reaction and the saponification value were determined in order to substantiate the validity of the preliminary classification both as to specimens and group.

Within the limited scope of this investigation the results obtained are scientifically valid and truthful, and have served to distinguish the nature of the test specimens by identifying these as butter and oleomargarine or butter substitutes. Our choice as to test procedures has been motivated by these ends. Very truly yours,

UNITED STATES TESTING Co., Inc.,
A. MICHAEL BONANNO.

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

UNITED STATES TESTING Co., Inc.,

Hoboken, N. J., May 7, 1948.

REPORT OF TEST

Test made for : Fact Finders Associates, Inc., 400 Madison Avenue, Ne York

17, N. Y. Material tested: Twenty specimens described below, of a substance having the

physical appearance of butter or oleomargarine. Reception of samples

On April 28, 1948, we received by messenger from Fact Finders Associates, Inc., of 400 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y., a package containing 20 glassine envelopes, in each of which were found two pats of a substance having the physical appearance of butter or oleomargarine. These pats were of the approximate size and shape generally provided by restaurants with meals. Each of these glassine envelopes container a number, which is the number referred to throughout these tests as the specimen number. We were advised by a notification accompanying these pats that these specimens were accumulated in Indianapolis, Ind. Purpose of test

In accordance with instructions received from Mr. William J. O'Brien, of Fact Finders Associates, Inc., in his letter of April 26, 1948, we proceeded with a series of tests designed to determine whether each of these specimens was in fact butter or oleomargarine, or a combination of both, or some other substance entirely foreign to either. Specimen numbers received were as follows: 61 to 80, inclusive. Tests conducted

The following tests were made :

1. Foam test.—The foam test was taken from Farmers' Bulletin, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 131. This is a rough and ready method of distinguishing butter substitutes and renovated butter from genuine butter. The description of the test is taken from Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis.

“A lump of about 5 grams of butter is melted in a spoon over a very small bunsen flame; genuine butter boils quietly, producing considerable foam, whilst butter substitutes and renovated butter crackle loudly and sputter, but do not produce any appreciable quantity of foam.

"It will further be noticed that on melting genuine butter, the curd separates in a very finely divided state, whilst in the case of margarine and renovated butter the curd is lumpy.”

2. Wanklyn's test.—This test is based on the production of ethyl butyrate when butterfat is heated with an alcoholic solution of alkali and may be used as a sorting test for distinguishing straight oleos (that is, butterfat).

“A few grams of the sample (which need not be filtered) is placed in a testtube, about 10 cubic centimeters of strong solution of sodium hydroxide in alcohol added, the mixture heated until it foams actively, and then promptly poured into about 100 cubic centimeters of cold water. The pineapple odor of ethyl butyrate is at once noticeable if appreciable amounts of butterfat are present. Care must be taken not to mistake the somewhat aromatic ordor of the alcoholic solution for that of true ester. The nature of the reaction is not known."

3. Saponification value.-The saponification value was determined in accordance with the American Oil Chemists Society Official Method Cd 3-25.

Results of test

The following results were obtained with the above specimens:

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Conclusions

As a result of the foregoing tests we conclude that,

1. Specimens 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 74, 77, and 78 represent probably butter.

2. Specimen 72 represents butter.

3. Specimens 70, 73, 75, 76, 79, and 80 represent oleomargarine or butter substitutes.

We certify~

That no one other than the representatives of Fact Finders Associates, Inc., has been involved in negotiations with us concerning this test.

That we have no knowledge of the existence of any client in this test other than Fact Finders Associates, Inc.

That the findings as indicated represent a complete scientific and truthful result of tests made in our laboratories. Supervised by: B. A. SCHROEDER.

UNITED STATES TESTING Co., INC. By A. MICHAEL BONANNO.

WASHINGTON, D. C.

UNITED STATES TESTING Co., INC.,

Hoboken, N. J., May 7, 1948.

REPORT OF TEST

Test made for: Fact Finders Associates, Inc., 400 Madison Avenue, New York 17,

N. Y. Material tested: Twenty specimens described below, of a substance having the

physical appearance of butter or oleomargarine. Reception of samples

On April 28, 1948, we received by messenger from Fact Finders Associates, Inc., of 400 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y., a package containing 20 glassine envelopes, in each of which were found two pats of a substance having the physical appearance of butter or oleomargarine. These pats were of the approximate size and shape generally provided by restaurants with meals. Each of these glassine envelopes contained a number, which is the number referred to throughout these tests as the specimen number. We were advised by a notification accompanying these pats that these specimens were accumulated in Washington, D. C.

Purpose of test

In accordance with instructions received from Mr. William J. O'Brien, of Fact Finders Associates, Inc., in his letter of April 26, 1948, we proceeded with a series of tests designed to determine whether each of these specimens was in fact butter or oleomargarine, or a combination of both, or some other substance entirely foreign to either. Specimen numbers received were as follows: Nos. 41 to 60, inclusive. Tests conducted

The following tests were made :

1. Foam test.-The foam test was taken from Farmers' Bulletin, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 131. This is a rough and ready method of distinguishing butter substitutes and renovated butter from genuine butter. The description of the test is taken from Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis.

“A lump of about 5 grams of butter is melted in a spoon over a very small bunsen flame; genuine butter boils quietly, producing considerable foam, whilst butter substitutes and renovated butter crackle loundly and splutter, but do not produce any appreciable quantity of foam.

“It will further be noticed that on melting genuine butter, the curd separates in a very finely divided state, whilst in the case of margarine and renovated butter the curd is lumpy."

2. Wanklyn's test. This test is based on the production of ethyl butyrate when butter fat heated with an alcoholic solution of alkali and may be used as a sorting test for distinguishing straight oleos (that is, butterfat)..

"A few grams of the sample (which need not be filtered) is placed in a test tube, about 10 cubic centimeters of strong solution of sodium hydroxide in alcohol added, the mixture heated until it foams actively, and then promptly poured into about 100 cubic centimeters of cold water. The pineapple odor of ethyl butyrate is at once noticeable if appreciable amounts of butter are present. Care must be taken not to mistake the somewhat aromatic odor of the alcoholic solution for that of true ester. The nature of the reaction is not known.”

3. Saponification value.—The saponification value was determined in accordance with the American Oil Chemists Society official method Cd 3–25. Results of test

The following results were obtained with the above specimens:

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Conclusions

As a result of the foregoing tests we conclude that

1. Specimens 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, and 60 represent probably butter.

2. Specimens 44, 51, 56, and 59 represent butter.
3. Specimen 53 represents oleomargarine or a butter substitute.
We certify-

That no one other than the representatives of Fact Finders Associates Inc., has been involved in negotiations with us concerning this test.

That we have no knowledge of the existence of any client in this test other than Fact Finders Associates, Inc.

That the findings as indicated represent a complete scientific and truthful result of tests made in our laboratories.

UNITED STATES TESTING Co., INC.,

By A. MICHAEL BONANNO. Supervised by :

B. A. SCHROEDER.

St. Louis, Mo.

UNITED STATES TESTING Co., INC.,

Hokoben, N. J., May 10, 1948.

REPORT OF TEST

Test made for: Fact Finders Associates, Inc., 460 Madison Avenue, New York,

17, N. Y. Material tested: Twenty specimens described below, of a substance having the

physical appearance of butter or oleomargarine. Reception of samples

On April 28, 1948, we received by messenger from Fact Finders Associates, Inc., of 400 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y., a package containing 20 glassine envelopes, in each of which were found two pats of a substance having the physical appearance of butter or oleomargarine. These pats were of the approximate size and shape generally provided by restaurants with meals. Each of these glassine envelopes contained a number, which is the number referred to throughout these tests as the specimen number. We were advised by a notification accompanying these pats that these specimens were accumulated in St. Louis, Mo. Purpose of test

In accordance with instructions received from Mr. William J. O'Brien, of Fact Finders Associates, Inc., in his letter of April 26, 1948, we proceeded with a series of tests designed to determine whether each of these specimens was in fact butter or oleomargarine, or a combination of both, or some other substance entirely foreign to either. Specimen numbers received were as follows: Nos. 81 to 100, inclusive. Tests conducted

The following tests were made:

1. Foam test.The foam test was taken from Farmers' Bulletin, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 131. This is a rough and ready method of distinguishing butter substitutes and renovated butter from genuine butter. The description of the test is taken from Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis.

“A lump of about 5 grams of butter is melted in a spoon over a very small bunsen flame; genuine butter boils quietly, producing considerable foam, whilst butter substitutes and renovated butter crackle loudly and splutter, but do not produce any appreciable quantity of foam.

“It will further be noticed that on melting genuine butter the curd separates in a very finely divided state, whilst in the case of margarine and renovated butter the curd is lumpy."

2. Wanklyn's test.--This test is based on the production of ethyl butyrate when butterfat is heated with an alcoholic solution of alkali and may be used as a sorting test for distinguishing straight oleos (that is, butterfat).

"A few grams of the sample (which need not be filtered) is placed in a test tube, about 10 cubic centimeters of strong solution of sodium hydroxide in alcohol added, the mixture heated until it foams actively, and then promptly poured into about 100 cubic centimeters of cold water. The pineapple odor of ethyl butrate is at once noticeable if appreciable amounts of butter are present. Care must be taken not to mistake the somewhat aromatic odor of the alcoholic solution for that of true ester. The nature is the reaction is not known.”

3. Saponification value.—The saponification value was determined in accordance with the A. O. C. S. official method Cd 3–25.

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