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crop insurance or to the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation speculates in any agricultural commodity or product thereof, to which such enactments apply, or in contracts relating thereto, or in the stock or membership interests of any association or corporation engaged in handling, processing, or disposing of any such commodity or product, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 790.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 1514 (b) of title 7, U.S. C., 1940 ed., Agriculture (Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title V, $ 514 (b), 52 Stat. 76).

Words "upon conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage since punishment can be imposed only after a conviction.

Minor changes were made in phraseology and translations.

ed., Customs Duties (R. S. $ 3167; Aug. 27, 1894, ch. 349, $ 24, 28 Stat. 557; Feb. 26, 1926, ch. 27, § 1115, 44 Stat. 117; June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title III, § 335, 46 Stat. 701; Jan. 27, 1938, ch. 11, $ 2, 52 Stat. 8).

Section consolidates section 176b of title 15, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade; section 216 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., and section 1335 of title 19, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Customs Duties.

Words "or of any department or agency thereof" and words "such department or agency" were inserted so as to eliminate any possible ambiguity as to scope of section. (See definition of "department" and "agency" in section 6 of this title.)

References to the offenses as misdemeanors, contained in all of said sections, were omitted in view of definitive section 1 of this title. (See reviser's note under section 212 of this title.)

The provisions of section 216 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., relating to publication of income tax data by "any person”, were omitted as covered by section 55 (1) (1) of title 26, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code.

Minor changes were made in translations and phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Disclosure of income Information by shareholders, see section 55 (1) (3) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Publication of income information, see section 55 (f) (1) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code,

were

8 1904. Disclosure of information or speculation in se

curities affecting Reconstruction Finance Corpo

ration. Whoever, being connected in any capacity with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, gives any unauthorized information concerning any future action or plan of the said Corporation which might affect the value of securities, or, having such knowledge, invests or speculates, directly or indirectly in the securities or property of any company, bank, or corporation receiving loans or other assistance from the said Corporation, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 791.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 616 (c) of title 16, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade (Jan. 22, 1932, ch. 8, § 16 (c), 47 Stat. 11, 12). Minor changes

made in translations and phraseology. 8 1905. Disclosure of confidential information gen

erally. Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, publishes, divulges, discloses, or makes known in any manner or to any extent not authorized by law any information coming to him in the course of his employment or official duties or by reason of any examination or investigation made by, or return, report or record made to or filed with, such department or agency or officer or employee thereof, which information concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the identity, confidential statistical data, amount or source of any income, profits, losses, or expenditures of any person, firm, partnership, corporation, or association; or permits any income return or copy thereof or any book containing any abstract or particulars thereof to be seen or examined by any person except as provided by law; shall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and shall be removed from office or employment. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 791.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 176b of title 15, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade; section 216 of title 18, U. 8. C., 1940 ed.; section 1335 of title 19, U. S. C., 1940

8 1906. Disclosure of information by bank examiner.

Whoever, being an examiner, public or private, discloses the names of borrowers or the collateral for loans of any member bank of the Federal Reserve System, or bank insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, examined by him, to other than the proper officers of such bank, without first having obtained the express permission in writing from the Comptroller of the Currency as to a national bank, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System as to a State member bank, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as to any other insured bank, or from the board of directors of such bank, except when ordered to do so by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by direction of the Congress of the United States, or either House thereof, or any committee of Congress or either House duly authorized, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 791.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 594 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, $ 22 (second and third sentences of second paragraph), 38 Stat. 272, 273; Sept. 26, 1918, ch, 177, $ 5 [22 (b), second paragraph), 40 Stat. 970; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, $ 326 (b), 49 Stat. 716).

Other provisions of section 594 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, were consolidated with similar provisions from other sections, to form section 1909 of this title. Changes were made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Civil liability of officers or directors of member banks of the Federal Reserve System, for violating or permitting violation of this section, see section 503 of Title 12, Banks and Banking. 8 1907. Disclosure of information by farm credit ex

aminer. Whoever, being a farm credit examiner or any examiner, public or private, discloses the names of borrowers of any national farm loan association, Federal land bank, or joint-stock land bank, or any qualified from holding office as such examiner. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 792.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 1314 of title 12, U.S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title II, $ 216 (d), 42 Stat. 1472).

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

Other provisions of section 1314 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, are incorporated in sections 218 and 1909 of this title.

organization examined by him under the provisions of law relating to Federal intermediate credit banks, to other than the proper officers of such institution or organization, without first having obtained express permission in writing from the Land Bank Commissioner or from the board of directors of such institution or organization, except when ordered to do so by a court of competent jurisdiction or by direction of the Congress of the United States or either House thereof, or any committee of Congress or either House duly authorized, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and shall be disqualified from holding office as a farm credit examiner. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 791.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on sections 983 and 1124 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (July 17, 1916, ch. 245, § 31 (third and fourth sentences of third paragraph), 39 Stat. 383; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, $ 211 (d) (part of first sentence], as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, § 2, 42 Stat. 1460; June 16, 1933, ch. 98, § 80 (a), 48 Stat. 273).

Section 983 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, does not include the term "farm credit examiner,” as used in this section, but it relates thereto as is indicated by sections 951 and 952 of said title.

Section 1124 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, which was taken from a chapter in that title dealing with Federal intermediate credit banks, also relates to farm credit examiners as is indicated by section 1093 thereof. Even so, it was deemed advisable to retain the reference to any examiner "public or private," as used in said section 1124.

For clarification, the types of associations, banks, and organizations to which section relates, were enumerated wherever referred to, and words "examined by him under the provisions of law relating to Federal intermediate credit banks" were inserted.

In addition, changes were made in phraseology.

The provisions relating to disqualification from holding office as an incident to violation were contained in section 1124 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

For bribery and other provisions of section 1124 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, see sections 218 and 1909 of this title.

Other provisions of said section 983 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in section 221 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Secret Service, detection, arrest and delivery into custody of any person violating this section in so far as the Federal land banks, joint-stock land banks and national farm loan associations are concerned, see section 3056 of this title. 8 1908. Disclosure of information by National Agricul

tural Credit Corporation examiner. Whoever, being an examiner appointed under the provisions of law relating to National Agricultural Credit Corporations, discloses the names of borrowers of any organization examined by him, to other than the proper officers of such organization, without first having obtained express permission in writing from the Comptroller of the Currency or from the board of directors of such organization, except when ordered to do so by a court of competent jurisdiction or by direction of the Congress of the United States or either House thereof, or any committee of Congress or either House duly authorized, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and shall be dis

8 1909. Examiner performing other services.

Whoever, being a national-bank examiner, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation examiner, farm credit examiner, or an examiner of National Agricultural Credit Corporations, performs any other service, for compensation, for any bank or banking or loan association, or for any oficer, director, or employee thereof, or for any person connected therewith in any capacity, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 792.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on sections 594, 656a, 962, 981, 1093, 1124, 1243, and 1314 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, § 22, fourth sentence of first paragraph, and third sentence of second paragraph, 38 Stat. 272; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, $$ 28, 31 (third sentence of first paragraph), 39 Stat. 381, 383; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, $$ 208 (c), 211 (d), second sentence, as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, § 2, 42 Stat. 1459, 1460; Sept. 26, 1918, ch. 177, § 5 ["22 (b)"] 40 Stat. 970; Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title II, $$ 209 (C), 216 (d) (second sentence], 42 Stat. 1468, 1472; Ex. Ord. No. 6084, Mar. 27, 1933; June 16, 1933, ch. 98, $ 80 (a), 48 Stat. 273; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, § 326 (b), 49 Stat. 716; Aug. 19, 1937, ch. 704, § 20, 50 Stat. 710).

Section 594 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, first paragraph, related to national-bank examiners and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation examiners, and provided punishment for several offenses including the offense of performing services, for compensation, other than their regular duties. Section 656a of said title 12 is authority for the designation "farm credit examiner" included in this section, and section 1093 of said title authorizes farm credit examiners to conduct examinations in connection with contemplated transactions of Federal intermediate credit banks, to which section 1124 of said title relates.

Sections 981 and 1124 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, which relate to farm credit examiners, and section 1314 of said title, which relates to National Agricultural Credit Corporation examiners, all prohibit the performance of services, for compensation, other than regular duties. They do not specifically provide punishment for violation of such prohibition, but the provisions of said section 594 of said title, relating to national-bank examiners and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation examiners, which does provide punishment for the same of fense, are extended to the former two types of examiners by sections 952 and 1243 thereof.

The remaining provisions of sections 594, 981, 1124, and 1314 of title 12, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, relating to unlawful disclosure of the names of borrowers or the collateral for loans, false statements in applications for loans, overvaluation of securities, and acceptance of loans or gratuities, were separated and transferred according to subject matter to sections 218, 1014, 1906– 1908 of this title, where, insofar as possible, they were consolidated with similar provisions from other sections. Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Civil liability of officers or directors of member banks of the Federal Reserve System, for violating or permitting violation of this section, see section 503 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Secret Service, detection, arrest and delivery into custody of any person violating this section in so far as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal land banks, joint-stock land banks and national farm loan associations are concerned, see section 3056 of this title.

8 1910. Nepotism in appointment of receiver or trustee.

Whoever, being a judge of any court of the United States, appoints as receiver, or trustee, any person related to such judge by consanguinity, or afinity, within the fourth degree

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 792.)

LEGISLATTVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 531 of title 28, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Aug. 25, 1937, ch. 777, 50 Stat. 810).

Minor changes were made in phraseology. 8 1911. Receiver mismanaging property.

Whoever, being a receiver, trustee, or manager in possession of any property in any cause pending in any court of the United States, willfully fails to manage and operate such property according to the requirements of the valid laws of the State in which such property shall be situated, in the same manner that the owner or possessor thereof would be bound to do if in possession thereof, shall be fined not more than $3,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 792.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based upon section 124 of title 28, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, $ 65, 36 Stat. 1104).

Word “trustee" was inserted after "receiver" so as to make it clear that persons holding such office are included in the enumeration of court officers who are subject to the provisions of this section.

Changes were made in phraseology and arrangement, but without change of substance or meaning.

Other provisions of section 124 of title 28. U. S. C., 1940 ed., were retained in that title.

CROSS REFERENCES Bribes—

Acceptance or solicitation, see section 208 of this title.

Offer to, see section 206 of this title. Civil actions against trustees and receivers, see section 959 (a) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Embezzlement, see section 645 of this title.

Fee agreements, punishment, see section 155 of this title.

Investigation of violation of laws, see section 3057 of this title.

Management of property by trustees and receivers according to State laws, see section 959 (b) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

National banks, embezzlement or misapplication of funds, see section 656 of this title. $ 1912. Unauthorized fees for inspection of vessels.

Whoever, being an officer, employee, or agent of the United States or any agency thereof, engaged in inspection of vessels, upon any pretense, receives any fee or reward for his services, except what is allowed to him by law, shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both; and shall forfeit his office. - (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 792.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U.S. C., 1940 ed., $ 196 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 107, 35 Stat. 1107).

The phrase "officer or employee of the United States or any agency thereof” was substituted for the phrase "inspector of steamboats" in view of 1946 Reorganization Plan No. 3, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F. R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, abolishing inspectors and transferring their functions to the Coast Guard. Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Commandant of the Coast Guard to perform functions pertaining to inspection of vessels, see note under section 1 of Title 46, Shipping.

Inspection of steam vessels, see section 361 et seq. of Title 46, Shipping. 8 1913. Lobbying with appropriated moneys.

No part of the money appropriated by any enact ment of Congress shall, in the absence of express authorization by Congress, be used directly or indirectly to pay for any personal service, advertise ment, telegram, telephone, letter, printed or writter matter, or other device, intended or designed to in fluence in any manner a Member of Congress, t favor or oppose, by vote or otherwise, any legisla tion or appropriation by Congress, whether befor or after the introduction of any bill or resolutio proposing such legislation or appropriation; but thi shall not prevent officers or employees of the Unite States or of its departments or agencies from com municating to Members of Congress on the reques of any Member or to Congress, through the prope official channels, requests for legislation or appre priations which they deem necessary for the efficier conduct of the public business.

Whoever, being an officer or employee of the Unite States or of any department or agency therea violates or attempts to violate this section, shall E fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not mos than one year, or both; and after notice and hearir by the superior officer vested with the power of r moving him, shall be removed from office or en ployment. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 792

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 2 (July 11, 1919, ch. 6, $ 6, 41 Stat. 68).

Reference to "department" and "agency" was added three instances after the words "United States" to move doubt as to the scope of the section. (See defis tions of "department" and "agency" in section 6 of ti title.)

Reference to the offense as a misdemeanor was omitt as unnecessary in view of the definitive section 1 of t title. (See reviser's note under section 212 of this titi

Words "on conviction thereof” were omitted as plusage since punishment can be imposed only af conviction.

Minor changes were made in phraseology. $ 1914. Salary of Government officials and employ

payable only by United States. Whoever, being a Government official or employ receives any salary in connection with his servi as such an official or employee from any source oti than the Government of the United States, exc as may be contributed out of the treasury of a State, county, or municipality; or

Whoever, whether a person, associationor poration, makes any contribution to, or in any

ST

supplements the salary of, any Government official or employee for the services performed by him for the Government of the United States

Shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 793.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note. Based on section 66 of title 5, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees (Mar. 3, 1917, ch. 163, § 1, 39 Stat. 1106).

Words "shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor” were deleted because designation of the offense as a misdemeanor is unnecessary in view of definitive section 1 of this title. (See reviser's note under section 212 of this title.)

Words "and upon conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage, because punishment cannot be imposed until after conviction.

The punishment by fine of not less than $1,000 or imprisonment for not less than 6 months was changed by substituting the words "not more than" for "not less than" in each instance to harmonize more closely with recent trends of congressional enactments. Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Canal Zone, applicability to, see section 14 of this title.

Employees of Library of Congress, Department of Agriculture and Forest Service, and Immigration officials not to be subject to this section, see sections 65, 67, 68, 564 of Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Offcers and Employees.

Employees of Railroad Retirement Board in administration of Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act and doctors, hospitals, etc., performing services in connection with sickness benefits under that act as exempt from this section, see section 362 (h), (n) of Title 45, Railroads. $ 1915. Compromise of customs liabilities.

Whoever, being an officer of the United States, without lawful authority compromises or abates or attempts to compromise or abate any claim of the United States arising under the customs laws for any fine, penalty or forfeiture, or in any manner relieves or attempts to relieve any person, vessel, vehicle, merchandise or baggage therefrom, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 793.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 1616 of title 19, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Customs Duties (June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title IV, $ 616, 46 Stat. 757).

Designation of the offense as a felony was omitted as unnecessary in view of definitive section 1 of this title. (See reviser's note under section 550 of this title.)

Words "and upon conviction thereof" were also omitted as unnecessary, since punishment could not be imposed until after conviction. Changes were made in phraseology.

Chapter 95,-RACKETEERING Sec. 1951. Interference with commerce by threats or violence. § 1951. Interference with commerce by threats or

violence. (a) Whoever in any way or degree obstructs, delays, or affects commerce or the movement of any article or commodity in commerce, by robbery or extortion or attempts or conspires so to do, or com

mits or threatens physical violence to any person or property in furtherance of a plan or purpose to do anything in violation of this section shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both.

(b) As used in this section

(1) The term "robbery" means the unlawful taking or obtaining of personal property from the person or in the presence of another, against his will, by means of actual or threatened force, or violence, or fear of injury, immediate or future, to his person or property, or property in his custody or possession, or the person or property of a relative or member of his family or of anyone in his company at the time. of the taking or obtaining.

(2) The term "extortion" means the obtaining of property from another, with his consent, induced by wrongful use of actual or threatened force, violence, or fear, or under color of oficial right.

(3) The term "commerce" means commerce within the District of Columbia, or any Territory or Possession of the United States; all commerce between any point in a State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and any point outside thereof; all commerce between points within the same State through any place outside such State; and all other commerce over which the United States has jurisdiction.

(c) This section shall not be construed to repeal, modify or affect section 17 of Title 15, sections 52, 101—115, 151–166 of Title 29 or sections 151-188 of Title 45. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 793.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $$ 420a-420e-1 (June 18, 1934, ch. 569, $81-6, 48 Stat. 979, 980; July 3, 1946, ch. 537, 60 Stat. 420).

Section consolidates sections 420a to 420e-1 of Title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology and arrangement necessary to effect consolidation.

Provisions designating offense as felony were omitted as unnecessary in view of definitive section 1 of this title. (See reviser's note under section 550 of this title.)

Subsection (c) of the revised section is derived from title II of the 1946 amendment. It substitutes references to specific sections of the United States Code, 1940 ed., in place of references to numerous acts of Congress, in conformity to the style of the revision bill. Subsection (c) as rephrased will preclude any construction of implied repeal of the specified acts of Congress codified in the sections enumerated.

The words "attempts or conspires so to do" were substituted for sections 3 and 4 of the 1946 act, omitting as unnecessary the words "participates in an attempt” and the words “or acts in concert with another or with others”, in view of section 2 of this title which makes any person who participates in an unlawful enterprise or aids or assists the principal offender, or does anything towards the accomplishment of the crime, a principal himself.

Words "shall, upon conviction thereof," were omitted as surplusage, since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.

Chapter 97.-RAILROADS Sec. 1991. Entering train to commit crime. 1992. Wrecking trains. § 1991. Entering train to commit crime.

Whoever, in any Territory or District, or within or upon any place within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, willfully and maliciously tres

passes upon or enters upon any railroad train, railroad car, or railroad locomotive, with the intent to commit murder or robbery, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both.

Whoever, within such jurisdiction, willfully and maliciously trespasses upon or enters upon any railroad train, railroad car, or railroad locomotive, with intent to commit any unlawful violence upon or against any passenger on said train, or car, or upon or against any engineer, conductor, fireman, brakeman, or any officer or employee connected with said locomotive, train, or car, or upon or against any express messenger or mail agent on said train or in any car thereof, or to commit any crime or offense against any person or property thereon, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Upon the trial of any person charged with any offense set forth in this section, it shall not be necessary to set forth or prove the particular person against whom it was intended to commit the offense, or that it was intended to commit such offense against any particular person. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, $ 1, 62 Stat. 794.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 522 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 322, 35 Stat. 1150).

After the word “Whoever" the following was inserted: "In any Territory or District, or within or upon any place within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States" as based upon the express provisions of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 511, wherein this section is made applicable only "in any Territory or District, or within or upon any place within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States."

Words "whoever shall counsel, aid, abet, or assist in the perpetration of any of the offenses set forth in this section shall be deemed to be a principal therein" were omitted as unnecessary. Such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title. Minor changes also were made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Larceny, etc., of goods from railroad car or station, see section 659 of this title.

Railroad car entered or seal broken, see section 2117 of this title.

Whoever willfully attempts to do any of the aforesaid acts or things

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both,

Whoever is convicted of any such crime, which has resulted in the death of any person, shall be subject also to the death penalty or to imprisonment for life, if the jury shall in its discretion so direct, or, in the case of a plea of guilty, if the court in its discretion shall so order.

A judgment of conviction or acquittal on the merits under the laws of any State shall be a bar to any prosecution hereunder for the same act or acts. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 794.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 412a (June 8, 1940, ch. 286, 54 Stat. 255).

First clause in second paragraph of said section 412a of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., was omitted as covered by section 3231 of this title.

Words “and on conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.

Chapter 99.-RAPE Sec. 2031. Special maritime and territorial jurisdiction. 2032. Carnal knowledge of female under 16.

8 2031. Special maritime and territorial jurisdiction.

Whoever, within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, commits rape shall suffer death, or imprisonment for any term of years or for life. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 795.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note. Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 457 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 278, 35 Stat. 1143).

Words "within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States" were added to restrict the place of the offense to those places described in section 451 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., now section 7 of this title. Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Rape by or upon Indians, see sections 1153 and 3242 of this title.

8 1992. Wrecking trains.

Whoever willfully derails, disables, or wrecks any train, engine, motor unit, or car used, operated, or employed in interstate or foreign commerce by any railroad; or

Whoever willfully sets fire to, or places any explosive substance on or near, or undermines any tunnel, bridge, viaduct, trestle, track, signal, station, depot, warehouse, terminal, or any other way, structure, property, or appurtenance used in the operation of any such railroad in interstate or foreign commerce, or otherwise makes any such tunnel, bridge, viaduct, trestle, track, signal, station, depot, warehouse, terminal, or any other way, structure, property, or appurtenance unworkable or unusable or hazardous to work or use, with the intent to derail, disable, or wreck a train, engine, motor unit, or car used, operated, or employed in interstate or foreign commerce; or

8 2032. Carnal knowledge of female under 16.

Whoever, within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, carnally knows any female, not his wife, who has not attained the age of sixteen years, shall, for a first offense, be imprisoned not more than fifteen years, and for a subsequent offense, be imprisoned not more than thirty years. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 795.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 458 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 279, 35 Stat. 1143).

Words "within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States" were added to restrict the place of the offense to those places described in section 451 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., now section 7 of this title.

Words “not his wife" were inserted and word "unlaw. fully" was deleted to make section more explicit.

Words "or shall be accessory to such carnal and un. lawful knowledge before the fact" were deleted as unnecessary in view of section 2 of this title defining principals.

Minor changes were also made in phraseology.

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