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CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Jurisdiction of offenses, see section 3241 of this title.

Letters, writings, etc., in violation of this section as nonmailable, see section 1717 of this title.

§ 1543. Forgery or false use of passport.

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, mutilates, or alters any passport or instrument purporting to be a passport, with intent that the same may be used; or

Whoever willfully and knowingly uses, or attempts to use, or furnishes to another for use any such false, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered passport or instrument purporting to be a passport, or any passport validly issued which has become void by the occurrence of any condition therein prescribed invalidating the same

Shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 222 of title 22, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Foreign Relations and Intercourse (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title IX, $ 4, 40 Stat. 227; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, § 7, 54 Stat. 80).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal" in section 2 of this title.

Mandatory-punishment provision with authorization for added fine in discretion of court was rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

Punishment of five years' Imprisonment was substituted for “ten years" to conform with other sections embracing offenses of comparable gravity. Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Jurisdiction of offenses, see section 3241 of this title.

Letters, writings, etc., in violation of this section as nonmailable, see section 1717 of this title.

8 1544. Misuse of passport.

Whoever willfully and knowingly uses, or attempts to use, any passport issued or designed for the use of another; or

Whoever willfully and knowingly uses or attempts to use any passport in violation of the conditions or restrictions therein contained, or of the rules prescribed pursuant to the laws regulating the issuance of passports; or

Whoever willfully and knowingly furnishes, disposes of, or delivers a passport to any person, for use by another than the person for whose use it was originally issued and designed

Shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on section 221 of title 22, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Foreign Relations and Intercourse (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title IX, $ 3, 40 Stat. 227; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, $ 7, 54 Stat. 80).

Mandatory-punishment provision rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

Punishment of five years' imprisonment was substituted for “ten years” to conform with other sections embracing offenses of comparable gravity.

The phrase "which said rules shall be printed on the passport" was omitted as inconsistent with administrative practice and because the existing rules are too volumi. nous to be printed on a passport.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

8 1545. Safe conduct violation.

Whoever violates any safe conduct or passport duly obtained and issued under authority of the United States shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note-Based on section 251 of title 22, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Foreign Relations and Intercourse (R. S. 4062).

The punishment provision was rewritten to permit the alternative of a fine of not more than $2,000 or imprisonment, or both, instead of imprisonment and ine "at the discretion of the court”, to conform with other sections embracing offenses of comparable gravity. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

Minor changes were made in phraseology. 8 1546. Fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other

entry documents. Whoever, knowingly forges, counterfeits, alters, or falsely makes any immigrant or nonimmigrant visa, permit, or other document required for entry into the United States, or utters, uses, attempts to use, possesses, obtains, accepts, or receives any such visa, permit, or document, knowing it to be forged, counterfeited, altered, or falsely made, or to have been procured by means of any false claim or statement, or to have been otherwise procured by fraud or unlawfully obtained; or

Whoever, except under direction of the Attorney General or the Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, or other proper officer, knowingly possesses any blank permit, or engraves, sells, brings into the United States, or has in his control or possession any plate in the likeness of a plate designed for the printing of permits, or makes any print, photograph, or impression in the likeness of any immigrant or nonimmigrant visa, permit or other document required for entry into the United States, or has in his possession a distinctive paper which has been adopted by the Attorney General or the Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service for the printing of such visas, permits, or documents; or

Whoever, when applying for an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa, permit, or other document required for entry into the United States, or for admission to the United States personates another, or falsely appears in the name of a deceased individual, or evades or attempts to evade the immigration laws by appearing under an assumed or fictitious name without disclosing his true identity, or sells or otherwise disposes of, or offers to sell or otherwise dispose of, or utters, such visa, permit, or other document, to any person not authorized by law to receive such document; or

Whoever knowingly makes under oath any false statement with respect to a material fact in any application, affidavit, or other document required by the immigration laws or regulations prescribed thereunder, or knowingly presents any such application, affidavit, or other document containing any such false statement

Shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771; June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, $ 402 (a), 66 Stat. 275.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.--Based on section 220 of title 8, U. S. C., 1940 ed., Allens and Nationality (May 26, 1924, ch. 190, $ 22, 43 Stat. 165).

Words "upon conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage since punishment can be imposed only after a conviction.

Fine of $10,000 was reduced to $2,000 to conform with sections embracing offenses of comparable gravity. Minor changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS 1952-Act June 27, 1952, amended section to make it applicable to entry documents other than visas and permits.

CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Immigration visas and permits, see section 202 et seq. of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

or sends away any vessel, in any port or place within the United States, or causes such vessel to sail from any such port or place, for the purpose of procuring any person from any foreign kingdom or country to be transported and held, sold, or otherwise disposed of as a slave, or held to service or labor, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than seven years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 772.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 424 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 249, 35 Stat. 1139).

Words "within the United States" were substituted for "within the jurisdiction of the United States". See section 5 of this title defining "United States".

Provision for division of the fine and its recovery by private person was omitted. (See reviser's note under section 1585 of this title.)

Mandatory-punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.) Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Limitation on prosecution of slave trade violations, see section 3283 of this title.

Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13.

Chapter 77.-PEONAGE AND SLAVERY Sec. 1581. Peonage; obstructing enforcement. 1582. Vessels for slave trade. 1583. Enticement into slavery. 1584. Sale into involuntary servitude. 1585. Seizure, detention, transportation or sale of slaves. 1586. Service on vessels in slave trade. 1587. Possession of slaves aboard vessel. 1588. Transportation of slaves from United States.

AMENDMENTS 1949—Act May 24, 1949, ch. 139, $ 36, Stat. 95, amended the analysis by inserting a semicolon in lieu of a comma following “Peonage" in item 1581.

§ 1583. Enticement into slavery.

Whoever kidnaps or carries away any other person, with the intent that such other person be sold into involuntary servitude, or held as a slave; or

Whoever entices, persuades, or induces any other person to go on board any vessel or to any other place with the intent that he may be made or held as a slave, or sent out of the country to be so made or held

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 772.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C. 1940 ed., $ 443 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 268, 35 Stat. 1141).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal" in section 2 of this title. Minor changes were made in paragraphing of section.

CROSS REFERENCES Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13.

$ 1581. Peonage; obstructing enforcement.

(a) Whoever holds or returns any person to a condition of peonage, or arrests any person with the intent of placing him in or returning him to a condition of peonage, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(b) Whoever obstructs, or attempts to obstruct, or in any way interferes with or prevents the enforcement of this section, shall be liable to the penalties prescribed in subsection (a). (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 772.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.--Based on title 18, U. 8. C., 1940 ed., $$ 444, 445 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $$ 269, 270, 35 Stat. 1142).

Section consolidates sections 444 and 445 of said title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology to amplify and clarify their provisions.

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal” in section 2 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Peonage abolished in States and Territories, see section 56 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13.

8 1584. Sale into involuntary servitude.

Whoever knowingly and willfully holds to involuntary servitude or sells into any condition of involuntary servitude, any other person for any term, or brings within the United States any person so held, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 773.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $$ 423, 446 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $$ 248, 271, 35 Stat. 1139, 1142).

Sections consolidated with changes of phraseology necessary to effect consolidation.

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal" in section 2 of this title.

Provisions as to holding of kidnaped persons were omitted as superseded by section 1201 of this title and original text relating to sale or holding to involuntary servitude retained.

$ 1582. Vessels for slave trade.

Whoever, whether as master, factor, or owner, builds, fits out, equips, loads, or otherwise prepares

8 1586. Service on vessels in slave trade.

Whoever, being a citizen or resident of the United States, voluntarily serves on board of any vessel employed or made use of in the transportation of slaves from any foreign country or place to another, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 773.)

Words "within the United States" were substituted for "within the jurisdiction of the United States". (See section 5 of this title defining "United States”.)

The punishment provisions were derived from section 446 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., as more consistent with other sections of this chapter.

The requirement of section 423 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., for payment of one-half the fine "for the use of the person prosecuting the indictment to effect" was omitted as meaningless. (See also reviser's note under section 1585 of this title.)

Mandatory-punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.) Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 427 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 252, 35 Stat. 1139).

Mandatory-punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

CROSS REFERENCES Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13.

8 1585. Seizure, detention, transportation or sale of

slaves. Whoever, being a citizen or resident of the United States and a member of the crew or ship's company of any foreign vessel engaged in the slave trade, or whoever, being of the crew or ship's company of any vessel owned in whole or in part, or navigated for, or in behalf of, any citizen of the United States, lands from such vessel, and on any foreign shore seizes any person with intent to make that person a slave, or decoys, or forcibly brings, carries, receives, confines, detains or transports any person as a slave on board such vessel, or, on board such vessel, offers or attempts to sell any such person as a slave, or on the high seas or anywhere on tide water, transfers or delivers to any other vessel any such person with intent to make such person a slave, or lands or delivers on shore from such vessel any person with intent to sell, or having previously sold, such person as a slave, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than seven years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 773.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $$ 421, 422, 425 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $$ 246, 247, 250, 35 Stat. 1138, 1139).

Sectio consolidates and restores three basic sections (act May 25, 1820, ch. 113, $$ 4, 5, 3 Stat. 600, 601; act Apr. 20, 1818, ch. 91, $ 4, 3 Stat. 451). As reenacted in the Revised Statutes, such sections were extended and broadened beyond such basic acts. The language at the beginning, "being a citizen or resident of the United States", was inserted from said section 425 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., as enacted originally. While the basic provisions of said sections 421 and 422 are thus broadened, their application as enacted in the 1909 Criminal Code is narrowed.

Designation in said section 421 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., of offender as a "pirate" was omitted as unnecessary. The punishment provision of section 1582 of this title (incorporated by reference in said section 425) has been adopted as consistent with other slave-trade statutes rather than the life-imprisonment penalty contained in said sections 421 and 422 of title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed. However, the requirement in section 1582 of this title that one-half the fine be for the "use of the person prosecuting the indictment to effect" was omitted as meaningless.

Mandatory-punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 ore this title.)

CROSS REFERENCES Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13.

8 1587. Possession of slaves aboard vessel.

Whoever, being the captain, master, or commander of any vessel found in any river, port, bay, harbor, or on the high seas within the jurisdiction of the United States, or hovering off the coast thereof, and having on board any person for the purpose of selling such person as a slave, or with intent to land such person for such purpose, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than four years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 773.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 426 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 251, 35 Stat. 1139).

Mandatory-punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.) Minor change was made in phraseology.

CROSS REFERENCES Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13. § 1588. Transportation of slaves from United States.

Whoever, being the master or owner or person having charge of any vessel, receives on board any other person with the knowledge or intent that such person is to be carried from any place within the United States to any other place to be held or sold as a slave, or carries away from any place within the United States any such person with the intent that he may be so held or sold as a slave, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, $ 1, 62 Stat. 773.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.—Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 428 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 253, 35 Stat. 1139).

Words “subject to the jurisdiction of" which appeared twice in this section were omitted and "within" substituted, in view of section 5 of this title defining "United States”.

CROSS REFERENCES Slavery abolished, see Const. Amend. 13.

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Chapter 79.–PERJURY Sec. 1621. Perjury generally. 1622. Subornation of perjury. 8 1621. Perjury generally.

Whoever, having taken an oath before a competent tribunal, officer, or person, in any case in which a law of the United States authorizes an oath to be administered, that he will testify, declare, depose, or

Sec. 1654. Arming or serving on privateers. 1655. Assault on commander as piracy. 1656. Conversion or surrender of vessel. 1657. Corruption of seamen and confederating with

pirates. 1658. Plunder of distressed vessel. 1659. Attack to plunder vessel. 1660. Receipt of pirate property. 1661. Robbery ashore.

certify truly, or that any written testimony, declaration, deposition, or certificate by him subscribed, is true, willfully and contrary to such oath states or subscribes any material matter which he does not believe to be true, is guilty of perjury, and shall, except as otherwise expressly provided by law, be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 773.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $$ 231, 629 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 125, 35 Stat. 1111; June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XI, $ 19, 40 Stat. 230).

Words "except as otherwise expressly provided by law" were inserted to avoid conflict with perjury provisions in other titles where the punishment and application vary.

More than 25 additional provisions are in the code. For construction and application of several such sections, see Behrle v. United States (App. D. C. 1938, 100 F. 2d 714), United States v. Hammer (D. C. N. Y., 1924, 299 F. 1011, affirmed, 6 F. 2d 786), Rosenthal v. United States (1918, 248 F. 684, 160 C. C. A. 584), cf. Epstein v. United States (1912, 196 F. 354, 116 C. C. A. 174, certiorari denied 32 S. Ct. 527, 223 U. S. 731, 56 L. ed. 634).

Mandatory-punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.) Minor verbal changes were made.

CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Census employees; false statements as perjury; pun. ishment, see section 208 of Title 13, Census.

False pension claims as perjury; punishment, see section 712 of Title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief.

False tax return, statements or document as perjury, see section 3809 (a) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Family allowance to dependents of enlisted men, perjury in obtaining; punishment, see section 217 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances.

Government employees; disability compensation; false statements as perjury; punishment, see section 789 of Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

Jurisdiction of offenses, see section 3241 of this title.

Willful and false swearing on examination before Judge of United States Customs Court as perjury, see section 1510 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

World War Veterans' Relief Act; false statements as perjury; punishment, see section 552 of Title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief.

$ 1651. Piracy under law of nations.

Whoever, on the high seas, commits the crime of piracy as defined by the law of nations, and is afterwards brought into or found in the United States, shall be imprisoned for life. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 774.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U.S. C., 1940 ed., § 481 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 290, 35 Stat. 1145).

CROSS REFERENCES High seas included within special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of United States, see section 7 of this title.

Regulations for the suppression of piracy, see sections 381-387 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

Venue of offenses committed on high seas, see section 3238 of this title.

& 1652. Citizens as pirates.

Whoever, being a citizen of the United States, commits any murder or robbery, or any act of hostility against the United States, or against any citizen thereof, on the high seas, under color of any commission from any foreign prince, or state, or on pretense of authority from any person, is a pirate, and shall be imprisoned for life. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat, 774.)

LE ATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 495 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 304, 35 Stat. 1147).

Words "Notwithstanding the pretense of such authority," were omitted as surplusage. 8 1653. Aliens as pirates.

Whoever, being a citizen or subject of any foreign state, is found and taken on the sea making war upon the United States, or cruising against the vessels and property thereof, or of the citizens of the same, contrary to the provisions of any treaty existing between the United States and the state of which the offender is a citizen or subject, when by such treaty such acts are declared to be piracy, is a pirate, and shall be imprisoned for life. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 774.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 496 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 305, 35 Stat. 1147.)

Minor change was made in phraseology. 8 1654. Arming or serving on privateers.

Whoever, being a citizen of the United States, without the limits thereof, fits out and arms, or attempts to fit out and arm or is concerned in furnishing, fitting out, or arming any private vessel of war or privateer, with intent that such vessel shall be employed to cruise or commit hostilities upon the citizens of the United States or their property; or

Whoever takes the command of or enters on board of any such vessel with such intent; or

1622. Subornation of perjury.

Whoever procures another to commit any perjury is guilty of subornation of perjury, and shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 774.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 232 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 126, 35 Stat. 1111).

The punishment prescribed in section 1621 of this title was substituted for the reference thereto. Minor change was made in phraseology.

CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

Chapter 81.-PIRACY AND PRIVATEERING Sec. 1651. Piracy under law of nations, 1652. Citizens as pirates. 1658. Aliens as pirates.

Shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 774.)

Whoever purchases any interest in any such vessel with a view to share in the profits thereof

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 774.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.--Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., § 494 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 303, 35 Stat. 1147).

Reference to persons procuring or aiding was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal" in section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

The last sentence relating to venue was omitted as unnecessary in view of the general provision to the same effect in section 3238 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology and arrangement.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ea., $ 498 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 307, 35 Stat. 1148).

Mandatory punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

$ 1655. Assault on commander as piracy.

Whoever, being a seaman, lays violent hands upon his commander, to hinder and prevent his fighting in defense of his vessel or the goods intrusted to him, is a pirate, and shall be imprisoned for life. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 774.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note -Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 485 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 294, 35 Stat. 1146).

A minor verbal change was made.

8 1656. Conversion or surrender of vessel.

Whoever, being a captain or other officer or mariner of a vessel upon the high seas or on any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States, piratically or feloniously runs away with such vessel, or with any good or merchandise thereof, to the value of $50 or over; or

Whoever yields up such vessel voluntarily to any pirate

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 774.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 497 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 306, 35 Stat. 1148).

Minor changes were made in phraseology. 8 1657. Corruption of seamen and confederating with

pirates. Whoever attempts to corrupt any commander, master, officer, or mariner to yield up or to run away with any vessel, or any goods, wares, or merchandise, or to turn pirate or to go over to or confederate with pirates, or in anywise to trade with any pirate, knowing him to be such; or

Whoever furnishes such pirate with any ammunition, stores, or provisions of any kind; or

Whoever fits out any vessel knowingly and, with a design to trade with, supply, or correspond with any pirate or robber upon the seas; or

Whoever consults, combines, confederates, or corresponds with any pirate or robber upon the seas, knowing him to be guilty of any piracy or robbery; or

Whoever, being a seaman, confines the master of any vessel

$ 1658. Plunder of distressed vessel.

(a) Whoever plunders, steals, or destroys any money, goods, merchandise, or other effects from or belonging to any vessel in distress, or wrecked, lost, stranded, or cast away, upon the sea, or upon any reef, shoal, bank, or rocks of the sea, or in any other place within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(b) Whoever willfully obstructs the escape of any person endeavoring to save his life from such vessel, or the wreck thereof; or

Whoever holds out or shows any false light, or extinguishes any true light, with intent to bring any vessel sailing upon the sea into danger or distress or shipwreck

Shall be imprisoned not less than ten years and may be imprisoned for life. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 775.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 488 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 297, 35 Stat. 1146).

Mandatory punishment provision in subsection (a) was rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

Minor changes were made in phraseology. 8 1659. Attack to plunder vessel.

Whoever, upon the high seas or other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States, by surprise or open force, maliciously attacks or sets upon any vessel belonging to another, with an intent unlawfully to plunder the same, or to despoil any owner thereof of any moneys, goods, or merchandise laden on board thereof, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, $ 1. 62 Stat. 775.)

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY Reviser's Note.-Based on title 18, U. S. C., 1940 ed., $ 489 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 298, 35 Stat. 1147).

Mandatory punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative. (See reviser's note under section 201 of this title.)

CROSS REFERENCES Conspiracy to destroy vessels, see section 2271 of this title.

8 1660. Receipt of pirate property.

Whoever, without lawful authority, receives or takes into custody any vessel, goods, or other property, feloniously taken by any robber or pirate against the laws of the United States, knowing the same to have been feloniously taken, shall be imprisoned not more than ten years. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 775.)

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