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No part of such sum shall be available prior to July 1, 1938. The appropriation for such purpose for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939, shall not exceed $20,000,000 and shall be made only out of the unexpended balances for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938, of the sums appropriated pursuant to section 5900 of Title

16.

(c) Receipts for payments by the United States of America for or on account of such stock shall be issued by the Corporation to the Secretary of the Treasury and shall be evidence of the stock ownership by the United States of America. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title V, $ 504, 52 Stat. 72.)

$ 1504a. Capitalization of Corporation.-The payment for capital stock in the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation shall be effected by transfer of funds on the books of the Treasury Department to the credit of the Corporation. (June 27, 1940, ch. 437, title I, 54 Stat. 640.)

This section is not part of the “Federal Crop Insurance Act.”

$ 1505. Board of directors, compensation; manager of Corporation.-(a) The management of the Corporation shall be vested in a Board of Directors (hereinafter called the "Board") subject to the general supervision of the Secretary of Agriculture. The Board shall consist of three persons employed in the Department of Agriculture who shall be appointed by and hold office at the pleasure of the Secretary of Agriculture.

(b) Vacancies in the Board so long as there shall be two members in office shall not impair the powers of the Board to execute the functions of the Corporation, and two of the members in office shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of the business of the Board.

(c) The Directors of the Corporation appointed as hereinbefore provided shall receive no additional compensation for their services as such directors but may be allowed actual necessary traveling and subsistence expenses when engaged in business of the Corporation outside of the District of Columbia.

(d) The Board shall select, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture, a manager, who shall be the executive officer of the Corporation with such power and authority as may be conferred upon him by the Board. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title V, $ 505, 52 Stat. 72.)

$ 1506. General powers of Corporation. The Corporation(a) shall have succession in its corporate name;

(b) may adopt, alter, and use a corporate seal, which shall be judicially noticed ;

(c) may make contracts and purchase or lease and hold such real and personal property as it deems necessary or convenient in the transaction of its business, and may dispose of such property held by it upon such terms as it deems appropriate;

(d) subject to the provisions of section 1508 (c) of this title, may sue and be sued in its corporate name in any court of competent jurisdiction, State or Federal: Provided, That no attachment, injunction, garnishment, or other similar process, mesne or final, shall be issued against the Corporation or its property; (e) may adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws, rules, and regulations governing the manner in which its business may be conducted and the powers granted to it by law may be exercised and enjoyed;

(f) shall be entitled to the free use of the United States mails in the same manner as the other executive agencies of the Government;

(g) with the consent of any board, commission, independent establishment, or executive department of the Government, including any field service thereof, may avail itself of the use of information, services, facilities, officials, and employees thereof in carrying out the provisions of this chapter;

(h) may conduct researches, surveys, and investigations relating to crop insurance, and preparatory to the application of the chapter to other basic commodities when so provided by law, shall assemble data relative to field corn, for the purpose of establishing a satisfactory actuarial basis for such commodity.

(i) shall determine the character and necessity for its expenditures under this subchapter and the manner in which they shall be incurred, allowed, and paid, without regard to the provisions of any other laws governing the expenditure of public funds and such determinations shall be final and conclusive upon all other officers of the Government; and

(j) shall have such powers as may be necessary or appropriate for the exercise of the powers herein specifically conferred upon the Corporation and all such incidental powers as are customary in corporations generally. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title V, § 506, 52 Stat. 73; June 21, 1941, ch. 214, § 2, 55 Stat. 255.)

AMENDMENTS 1941–Subsec. (h) was amended by act June 21, 1941, cited to text, which substituted for "for wheat and other agricultural commodities” the words "and preparatory to the application of the chapter to other basic commodities when so provided by law, shall assemble data relative to field corn, for the purpose of establishing a satisfactory actuarial basis for such commodity".

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Wartime consolidation of Federal Crop Insurance Corporation into Agricultural Conservation and Adjustment Administration, see note under section 1503 of this title.

$ 1507. Personnel of corporation—(a) Appointment; civil service exemption; compensation; bonds. The Secretary shall appoint such officers and employees as may be necessary for the transaction of the business of the Corporation, which appointments may be made without regard to the civil-service laws and regulations, fix their compensation in accordance with the provisions of sections 661-663, 664-673, 674 of title 5, as amended, define their authority and duties, delegate to them such of the powers vested in the Corporation as he may determine, require bond of such of them as he may designate, and fix the penalties and pay the premiums of such bonds. The appointment of officials and the selection of employees by the Secretary shall be made only on the basis of merit and efficiency.

(b) Application of workmen's compensation law.-Insofar as applicable, the benefits of section 751-791, 792, 793 of Title 5, as

amended, shall extend to persons giving employment under the provisions of this chapter, including the employees of the committees and associations referred to in subsection (c) of this section and the members of such committees.

(c) Utilization of associations of producers; payment of expenses.-The Board may establish or utilize committeees or associations of producers in the administration of this chapter and make payments to such committees or associations to cover the estimated administrative expenses to be incurred by them in cooperating in carrying out this chapter and may provide that all or part of such estimated expenses may be included in the insurance premiums provided for in this chapter.

(d) Allotment of funds to Federal and State agencies.The Secretary of Agriculture may allot to bureaus and offices of the Department of Agriculture or transfer to such other agencies of the State and Federal Governments as he may request to assist in carrying out this chapter any funds made available pursuant to the provisions of section 1516 of this title.

(e) Utilization of producer cooperative associations. In carrying out the provisions of this chapter the Board may, in its discretion, utilize producer-owned and producer-controlled cooperative associations. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title V, 8 507, 52 Stat. 73.)

§ 1508. Wheat crop insurance.-To carry out the purposes of this chapter the Corporation is authorized and empowered

(a) Insurance against loss authorized; terms and conditions.(1) Commencing with the wheat, cotton, and flax crops planted for harvest in 1945, to insure, upon such terms and conditions as it may determine, producers of wheat, cotton, and flax against loss in yields due to unavoidable causes, including drought, flood, hail, wind, frost, winter-kill, lightning, fire, excessive rain, snow, wild-life, hurricane, tornado, insect infestation, plant disease, and such other unavoidable causes as may be determined by the Board. Such insurance shall cover a percentage to be determined by the Board not in excess of 75 per centum of the recorded or appraised average yield of such commodities on the insured farm for a representative period subject to such adjustments as the Board may prescribe to the end that the average yields fixed for farms in the same area, which are subject to the same conditions, may be fair and just. Such insurance shall not cover losses due to the neglect or malfeasance of the producer, or to the failure of the producer to reseed to the same crop in areas and under circumstances where it is customary to so reseed, or to the failure of the producer to follow established good farming practices. Insurance shall not be provided in any county unless written applications therefor are filed covering at least fifty farms or onethird of the farms normally producing the agricultural commodities authorized to be insured, except that insurance may be provided for producers on farms situated in a local producing area bordering on a county with a crop-insurance program. The Board may limit insurance in any county or area, or on any farm, on the basis of the insurance risk involved.

650673°-46-33

(2) For the purpose of determining the most practical plan, terms, and conditions of insurance with respect to corn, dry beans, oats, barley, rye, tobacco, rice, peanuts, soybeans, sugar beets, sugarcane, timber and forests, potatoes and other vegetables, citrus and other fruits, tame hay, and any other agricultural commodity, if sufficient actuarial data are available, as determined by the Board, to insure upon such terms and conditions not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter as it may determine, producers of such agricultural commodities against loss due to the unavoidable causes covered in paragraph (1) of this subsection: Provided, That such insurance shall be limited in 1945 to corn and tobacco and to not more than three additional crops for each year thereafter. Insurance provided for any agricultural commodity under this paragraph shall be subject to the limitations and conditions provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, shall be for a period of not more than three years, and shall be limited to producers in not to exceed twenty counties selected by the Board as representative of the several areas where the agricultural commodity is normally produced: Provided, however, That such insurance may cover a percentage not in excess of 75 per centum of the investment in the crop, as determined by the Board. The Corporation shall report annually to the Congress the results of its operations as to each commodity under this paragraph.

(b) Premiums.—To fix adequate premiums for insurance in the agricultural commodity or in cash, at such rates as the Board deems sufficient to cover claims for crop losses on such insurance and to establish as expeditiously as possible a reasonable reserve againt unforeseen losses. Such premiums shall be collected at such time or times, or shall be secured in such manner, as the Board may determine: Provided, That, after the crop year of 1949, not more than a sum equivalent to 25 per centum of the premiums collected in the preceding year (beginning calculation of premiums collected in the crop year of 1949) shall be used for administrative expenses in any current operating year.

(c) Payment of claims; actions on claims. To adjust and pay claims for losses in the agricultural commodity or in cash, under rules prescribed by the Board: Provided, however, That, after the crop year of 1949, if the total amount of accumulated claims for losses on any agricultural commodity for any year exceeds the total amount of the premiums collected less the accumulated premium reserves of the Corporation with respect to any such commodity, which reserves, after the crop year of 1948, shall not be less than 10 per centum of the premiums collected on such commodity), such claims shall be paid on a pro rata reduced basis. The Corporation shall provide for the posting annually in each county at the county courthouse of a list of indemnities paid for losses on farms in such county. In the event that any claim for indemnity under the provisions of this chapter is denied by the Corporation, an action on such claim may be brought against the Corporation in the United States district court, or in any court of record of the State having general jurisdiction, sitting in the district or county in which the insured farm is located, and jurisdiction is hereby conferred upon such district courts to determine such controversies without regard to the amount in controversy: Provided, That no suit on such claim shall be allowed under this section unless the same shall have been brought within one year after the date when notice of denial of the claim is mailed to and received by the claimant.

(d) Purchase and sale of agricultural commodity.–From time to time, in such manner and through such agencies as the Board may determine, to purchase, handle, store, insure, provide storage facilities for, and sell the agricultural commodity, and pay any expenses incidental thereto, it being the intent of this pro vision, however, that, insofar as practicable, the Corporation shall purchase the agricultural commodity only at the rate and to a total amount equal to the payment of premiums in cash by farmers or to replace promptly the agricultural commodity sold to prevent deterioration; and shall sell the agricultural commodity only to the extent necessary to cover payments of indemnities and to prevent deterioration: Provided, however, That nothing in this section shall prevent prompt offset purchase and sales 01 the agricultural commodity for convenience in handling. Nothing in this section shall prevent the Corporation from accepting, for the payment of premiums, notes payable in the commodity insured, or the cash equivalent, upon such security as may be determined pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and from purchasing the quantity of the commodity represented by any of such notes not paid at maturity. The restriction on the purchase and sale of the agricultural commodity provided in this section shall be made a part of any crop insurance agreement made under this chapter. Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter, there shall be no limitation upon the legal or equitable remedies available to the insured to enforce against the Corporation the foregoing restriction with respect to purchases and sales of the agricultural commodity.

(e) In connection with insurance upon yields of cotton, to include provision for additional premium and indemnity in terms of lint cotton to cover loss of cottonseed, such additional premium and indemnity to be determined on the basis of the average relationship between returns from cottonseed and returns from lint cotton for the same period of years as that used for computing yields and premium rates. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title V, 8 508, 52 Stat. 74; June 22, 1938, ch. 563, 52 Stat. 835; June 21, 1941, ch. 214, $$ 3-7, 10, 55 Stat. 255, 256; Dec. 23, 1944, ch. 731, §§ 1-3, 58 Stat. 918, 919.)

AMENDMENTS 1944–Subsec. (a) amended generally by act Dec. 23, 1944, cited to text, to provide insurance against loss not only for wheat and cotton crops but also for flax, corn, oats, etc.

Subsec. (b) amended by act Dec. 23, 1944, cited to text, which provided for the establishment of such rates as would cover crop losses and build up a reasonable reserve, and added proviso.

Subsec. (c) amended by act Dec. 23, 1944, cited to text, which inserted first proviso, and inserted "and received” following “mailed to" in last proviso.

1941–Subsec. (a) was amended by act June 21, 1941, cited to text, which struck out comma following “1939" and inserted in lieu thereof "and with

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