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- The Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized, upon recommendation of the Secretary and with the approval of the President, to make available loans on agricultural commodities (including dairy products). Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amount, terms, and conditions of such loans shall be fixed by the Secretary, subject to the approval of the Corporation and the President.

(b) Wheat loans.—The Corporation is directed to make available to cooperators loans upon wheat during any marketing year beginning in a calendar year in which the farm price of wheat on June 15 or at any time thereafter during such marketing year is below 52 per centum of the parity price at any such time, or the July crop estimate for wheat is in excess of a normal year's domestic consumption and exports, at rates not less than 52 per centum and not more than 75 per centum of the parity price of wheat at the beginning of the marketing year. In case marketing quotas for wheat are in effect in any marketing year, the Corporation is directed to make available during such marketing year, to noncooperators, loans upon wheat at 60 per centum of the rate applicable to cooperators. A loan on wheat to a noncooperator shall be made only on so much of his wheat as would be subject to penalty if marketed.

(c) Cotton loans.—The Corporation is directed to make available to cooperators loans upon cotton during any marketing year beginning in a calendar year in which the average price on August 1 or at any time thereafter during such marketing year of seven-eights Middling spot. cotton on the ten markets desigsignated by the Secretary is below 52 per centum of the parity. price of cotton at any such time, or the August crop estimate for cotton is in excess of a normal year's domestic consumption and exports, at rates not less than 52 per centum and not more than 75 per centum of the parity price of cotton as of the beginning of the marketing year. In case marketing quotas for cotton are in effect in any marketing year, the Corporation is directed to make available, during such marketing year to noncooperators, loans upon cotton at 60 per centum of the rate applicable to cooperators. A loan on cotton to a noncooperator shall be made only on so much of his cotton as would be subject to penalty if marketed.

(d) Corn loans.—The Corporation is directed to make available loans upon corn during any marketing year beginning in the calendar year in which the November crop estimate for corn is in excess of a normal year's domestic consumption and exports, or in any marketing year when on November 15 or at any time thereafter during such marketing year the farm price of corn is below 75 per centum of the parity price, at the following rates:

75 per centum of such parity price if such estimate does not exceed a normal year's consumption and exports and the farm price of corn is below 75 per centum of the parity price on November 15 or at any time thereafter. during such marketing year;

70 per centum of such parity price if such estimate exceeds a normal year's domestic consumption and exports by not more than 10 per centum;

65 per centum of such parity price if such estimate exceeds a normal year's domestic consumption and exports by more than 10 per centum and not more than 15 per centum;

60 per centum of such parity price if such estimate exceeds a normal year's domestic consumption and exports by more than 15 per centum and not more than 20 per centum;

55 per centum of such parity price if such estimate exceeds a normal year's domestic consumption and exports by more than 20 per centum and not more than 25 per centum;

52 per centum of such parity price if such estimate exceeds a normal year's domestic consumption and exports by more than 25 per centum. Loans shall be made to cooperators in the commercial cornproducing area at the applicable rate of the above schedule. Loans shall be made to noncooperators within such commercial cornproducing area but only during a marketing year in which farm marketing quotas are in effect and only on corn stored under seal pursuant to section 1324 of this title, and the rate of such loans shall be 60 per centum of the applicable rate under the above schedule. Loans shall be made to cooperators outside such commercial corn-producing area, and the rate of such loans shall be 75 per centum of the applicable rate under the above schedule.

(e) Rates of loans for nonstandard commodities. The rates of loans under subsections (b), (c), and (d) on wheat, cotton, and corn not of standard grade, type, staple, or quality shall be increased or decreased in relation to the rates above provided by such amounts as the Secretary prescribes as properly reflecting differences from standard in grade, type, staple, and quality.

(f) Cooperator defined. For the purposes of subsections (b), (c), and (d), a cooperator shall be a producer on whose farm the acreage planted to the commodity for the crop with respect to which the loan is made does not exceed the farm acreage allotment for the commodity under this subchapter, or, in the case of loans upon corn to a producer outside the commercial corn-producing area, a producer on whose farm the acreage planted to soil-depleting crops does not exceed the farm acreage allotment for soil-depleting crops for the year in which the loan is made under sections 590a-590g of Title 16. For the purposes of this subsection a producer shall not be deemed to have exceeded his farm acreage allotment unless such producer knowingly exceeded his farm acreage allotment.

(g) Prohibition of loans after adverse referendum.-Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if the farmers producing cotton, wheat, corn, or rice indicate by vote in a referendum carried out pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter that marketing quotas with respect to such commodity are opposed by more than one-third of the farmers voting in such referendum, no loan shall be made pursuant to this section with respect to the commodity during the period from the date on which the results of the referendum are proclaimed by the Secretary until the beginning of the second succeeeding marketing year for such commodity. This subsection shall not limit the availability or renewal of any loan previously made.

(h) Exemption from liability for deficiency from sale of collateral.—No producer shall be personally liable for any deficiency arising from the sale of the collateral securing any loan under this section unless such loan was obtained through fraudulent representations by the producer.

(i) Utilization of departmental services and personnel.-In carrying out this section the Corporation is directed, with the consent of the Secretary, to utilize the services, facilities, and personnel of the Department. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, § 302, 52 Stat. 43; June 21, 1938, ch. 554, title V, $ 502, 52 Stat. 820.)

CROSS REFERENCE Delegation of regulatory functions of Secretary of Agriculture, see section 516a et seq. of Title 5, Executive Departinents and Government Officers and Employees. Peanut crop loans, see sections 1330 (10) and 1340 (10) of this title.

PAYMENTS FOR INCREASED FLAX PRODUCTION Section 5 of act Dec. 23, 1944, ch. 713. 58 Stat. 919 provided: “Notwithstanding the provisions of the item entitled 'Conservation and use of agricultural land resources', contained in the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1945 [act June 28, 1944, ch. 296, 58 Stat. 425], there is hereby authorized to be appropriated to the War Food Administrator an additional amount not exceeding $30,000,000 for making payments, subject to the applicable provisions of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, as amended [sections 590a-590h, 590i, 590j-590q of Title 16], to producers to encourage an increased production of flax for the crop year 1945 and the Administrator is authorized to make committments to the producers of such commodity accordingly in advance of the appropriation of the funds herein authorized.”

§ 1303. Parity payments. If and when appropriations are made therefor, the Secretary is authorized and directed to make payments to producers of corn, wheat, cotton, rice, or tobacco, on their normal production of such commodities in amounts which, together with the proceeds thereof, will provide a return to such producers which is as nearly equal to parity price as the funds so made available will permit. All funds available for such payments with respect to these commodities shall, unless otherwise provided by law, be apportioned to these commodities in proportion to the amount by which each fails to reach the parity income. Such payments shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other payments authorized by law. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, § 303, 52 Stat. 45.)

CROSS REFERENCE Delegation of regulatory functions of Secretary of Agriculture, see section 516a et seq. of Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.

§ 1304. Consumer safeguards.—The powers conferred under this chapter shall not be used to discourage the production of supplies of foods and fibers sufficient to maintain normal domestic human consumption as determined by the Secretary from the records of domestic human consumption in the years 1920 to 1929, inclusive, taking into consideration increased population, quanti

1 So in original.

ties of any commodity that were forced into domestic consumption by decline in exports during such period, current trends in domestic consumption and exports of particular commodities, and the quantities of substitutes available for domestic consumption within any general class of food commodities. In carrying out the purposes of this chapter it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give due regard to the maintenance of a continuous and stable supply of agricultural commodities from domestic production adequate to meet consumer demand at prices fair to both producers and consumers. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, § 304, 52 Stat. 45.)

B. MARKETING QUOTAS

PART I.-MARKETING QUOTAS-TOBACCO § 1311. Legislative finding of effect on interstate and foreign commerce and necessity of regulation.-(a) The marketing of tobacco constitutes one of the great basic industries of the United States with ramifying activities which directly affect interstate and foreign commerce at every point, and stable conditions therein are necessary to the general welfare. Tobacco produced for market is sold on a Nation-wide market and, with its products, moves almost wholly in interstate and foreign commerce from the producer to the ultimate consumer. The farmers producing such commodity are subject in their operations to uncontrollable natural causes, are widely scattered throughout the Nation, in many cases such farmers carry on their farming operations on borrowed money or leased lands, and are not so situated as to be able to organize effectively, as can labor and industry through unions and corporations enjoying Government protection and sanction. For these reasons, among others, the farmers are unable without Federal assistance to control effectively the orderly marketing of such commodity with the result that abnormally excessive supplies thereof are produced and dumped indiscriminately on the Nation-wide market.

(b) The disorderly marketing of such abnormally excessive supplies affects, burdens, and obstructs interstate and foreign commerce by (1) materially affecting the volume of such commodity marketed therein, (2) disrupting the orderly marketing of such commodity therein, (3) reducing the price for such commodity with consequent injury and destruction of interstate and foreign commerce in such commodity, and (4) causing a disparity between the prices for such commodity in interstate and foreign commerce and industrial products therein, with a consequent diminution of the volume of interstate and foreign commerce in industrial products.

(c) Whenever an abnormally excessive supply of tobacco exists the marketing of such commodity by the producers thereof directly and substantially affects interstate and foreign commerce in such commodity and its products, and the operation of the provisions of sections 1311-1314 of this title becomes necessary and appropriate in order to promote, foster, and maintain an orderly flow of such supply in interstate and foreign commerce. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, § 311, 52 Stat. 45.)

CROSS REFERENCE

Supplemental provisions, see section 1330 (10) of this title.

§ 1312. National marketing quota-Proclamation of quota.(a) Whenever the Secretary finds that the total supply of tobacco as of the beginning of the marketing year then current exceeds the reserve supply level therefor, the Secretary shall proclaim the amount of such total supply, and, beginning on the first day of the marketing year next following and continuing throughout such year, a national marketing quota shall be in effect for the tobacco marketed during such marketing year. The Secretary shall also determine and specify in such proclamation the amount of the national marketing quota in terms of the total quantity of tobacco which may be marketed, which will make available during such marketing year a supply of tobacco equal to the reserve supply level. Such proclamation shall be made not later than the 1st day of December in such year. The amount of the national marketing quota so proclaimed may, not later than the following March 1, be increased by not more than 20 per. centum if the Secretary determines that such increase is necessary in order to meet market demands, or to avoid undue restriction of marketings in adjusting the total supply to the reserve supply level. (As amended Feb. 28, 1942, ch. 123, 56 Stat. 121.)

(b) Referendum on quotas.-Within thirty days after the date of the issuance of the proclamation specified in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum of farmers who were engaged in production of the crop of tobacco harvested prior to the holding of the referendum to determine whether such farmers are in favor of or opposed to such quota. If more than one-third of the farmers voting in the referendum oppose such quota, the Secretary shall, prior to the 1st day of January, proclaim the result of the referendum and such quota shall not be effective thereafter. In the same referendum the Secretary shall also submit to such farmers the question of whether they favor tobacco marketing quotas for a period of three years, beginning with the marketing year next following. If two-thirds of the farmers voting on this question favor marketing quotas for a three-year period, the Secretary shall proclaim marketing quotas for such period, and, beginning on the first day of the marketing year next following and continuing throughout the period ao proclaimed, a national marketing quota shall be in effect for the tobacco marketed during each marketing year in said period unless amendments are made in the provisions for determining farm allotments so as to cause material revision of such allotments before the end of such period. If more than one-third of the farmers voting on this question oppose marketing quotas for the three-year period, such results shall be proclaimed by the Secretary and quotas for a longer period than one year shall not be in effect, but such result shall in no wise affect or limit the proclamation and submission to a referendum, as otherwise provided in this section, of a national marketing quota for any marketing year thereafter. (Feb. 16, 1938, 3 p. m., ch. 30, title III, § 312, 52 Stat. 46; Mar. 26, 1938, ch. 54, 52 Stat. 120; Aug. 7,

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