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The term "raw sugar” means any sugars which are principally of crystalline structure and which are to be further refined or improved in quality, and any sugars which are principally not of crystalline structure but which are to be further refined or otherwise improved in quality to produce any sugars principally of crystalline structure.

The term "direct-consumption sugar” means any sugars which are principally of crystalline structure and which are not to be further refined or otherwise improved in quality.

The term “liquid sugar” means any sugars (exclusive of sirup of cane juice produced from sugarcane grown in continental United States) which are principally not of crystalline structure and which contain, or which are to be used for the production of any sugars principally not of crystalline structure which contain, soluble nonsugar solids (excluding any foreign substances that may have been added) equal to 6 per centum or less of the total soluble solids.

Sugars in dry amorphous form shall be considered to be principally of crystalline structure.

The “raw value” of any quantity of sugars means its equivalent in terms of ordinary commercial raw sugar testing ninety-six sugar degrees by the polariscope, determined in accordance with regulations to be issued by the Secretary. The principal grades and types of sugar and liquid sugar shall be translated into terms of raw value in the following manner:

(1) For direct-consumption sugar, derived from sugar beets and testing ninety-two or more sugar degrees by the polariscope, by multiplying the number of pounds thereof by 1.07;

(2) For sugar, derived from sugarcane and testing ninety-two sugar degrees by the polariscope, by multiplying the number of pounds thereof by 0.93;

(3) For sugar, derived from sugarcane and testing more than ninety-two sugar degrees by the polariscope, by multiplying the number of pounds thereof by the figure obtained by adding to 0.93 the result of multiplying 0.0175 by the number of degrees and fractions of a degree of polarization above ninety-two degrees;

(4) For sugar and liquid sugar, testing less than ninety-two sugar degrees by the polariscope, by dividing the number of pounds of the "total sugar content" thereof by 0.972.

(5) The Secretary may establish rates for translating sugar and liquid sugar into terms of raw value for (a) any grade or type of sugar or liquid sugar not provided for in the foregoing and (b) any special grade or type of sugar or liquid sugar for which he determines that the raw value cannot be measured adequately under the provisions of paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of this subsection (h).

The term “total sugar content” means the sum of the sucrose (Clerget) and reducing or invert sugars contained in any grade or type of sugar or liquid sugar.

The term “quota”, depending upon the context, means (1) that quantity of sugar or liquid sugar which may be brought or imported into the continental United States, for consumption

therein, during any calendar year, from the Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, or a foreign country or group of foreign countries; (2) that quantity of sugar or liquid sugar produced from sugar beets or sugarcane grown in the continental United States which, during any calendar year, may be shipped, transported, or marketed in interstate commerce, or in competition with sugar or liquid sugar shipped, transported, or marketed in interstate or foreign commerce; or (3) that quantity of sugar or liquid sugar which may be marketed in the Territory of Hawaii or in Puerto Rico, for consumption therein, during any calendar year.

The term "producer" means a person who is the legal owner, at the time of harvest or abandonment, of a portion or all of a crop of sugar beets or sugarcane grown on a farm for the extraction of sugar or liquid sugar.

The terms "including" and "include" shall not be deemed to exclude anything not mentioned but otherwise within the meaning of the term defined.

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Agriculture. (Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 898, title I, $ 101, 50 Stat. 903.)

SUBCHAPTER II.-QUOTA PROVISIONS § 1111. Annual estimate of consumption in continental United States.—The Secretary shall determine for each calendar year the amount of sugar needed to meet the requirements of cont sumers in the continental United States; such determinations shall be made during the month of December in each year for the succeeding calendar year and at such other times during such calendar year as the Secretary may deem necessary to meet such requirements. In making such determinations the Secretary shall use as a basis the quantity of direct-consumption sugar distributed for consumption, as indicated by official statistics of the Department of Agriculture, during the twelve-month period ending October 31 next preceding the calendar year for which the determination is being made, and shall make allowances for a deficiency or surplus in inventories of sugar, and changes in consumption, as computed from statistics published by agencies of the Federal Government with respect to inventories of sugar, population, and demand conditions, and in order that the regulation of commerce provided by this chapter shall not result in excessive prices to consumers, the Secretary shall make such additional allowances as he may deem necessary in the amount of sugar determined to be needed to meet the requirements of consumers, so that the supply of sugar made available to consumers shall not result in average prices to consumers in excess of those necessary to maintain the domestic sugar industry as a whole. The amount of such additional allowances shall not be less than the amount required, after allowance for normal carry-over, to give consumers in the continental United States a per capital consumption equal to the average of the two-year period 1937-38. (Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 898, title II, $ 201, 50 Stat. 904; Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 839, $ 2, 54 Stat. 1093.)

Per centum

34.70 64.41

.89

§ 1112. Proration of quotas.—Whenever a determination is made, pursuant to section 1111 of this title, of the amount of sugar needed to meet the requirements of consumers, the Secretary shall establish quotas, or revise existing quotas

(a) Domestic producing areas.-For domestic sugar-producing areas by prorating among such areas 55.59 per centum of such amount of sugar (but not less than 3,715,000 short tons) on the following basis: Area

Per centum Domestic beet sugar..

41.72 Mainland cane sugar.

11.31 Hawaii....

25.25 Puerto Rico...

21.48 Virgin Islands...

.24 (b) Foreign producing areas.-For foreign countries, and the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, by prorating 44.41 per centum of such amount of sugar (except, if such amount of sugar is less than 6,682,670 short tons, the excess of such amount over 3,715,000 short tons) on the following basis:

Area Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. Cuba.... Foreign countries other than Cuba.. In no case shall the quota for the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands be less than the duty-free quota now established by the provisions of sections 1231-1247 of Title 48.

The quota for foreign countries other than Cuba shall be prorated among such countries on the basis of the division of the quota for such countries made in General Sugar Quota Regulations, Series 4, Number 1, issued December 12, 1936, pursuant to sections 601-608, 608a-608c, 608d-612, 613-619, 620, 623, 624 of this title. (Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 898, title II, § 202, 50 Stat. 905.)

8 1113. Estimates for consumption in Hawaii and Puerto Rico; quotas.-In accordance with the applicable provisions of section 1111 of this title, the Secretary shall also determine the amount of sugar needed to meet the requirements of consumers in the Territory of Hawaii, and in Puerto Rico, and shall establish quotas for the amounts of sugar which may be marketed for local consumption in such areas equal to the amounts determined to be needed to meet the requirements of consumers therein. (Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 898, title II, § 203, 50 Stat. 905.)

§ 1114. Revision of proration upon productive deficiency of quota area-(a) Domestic productive deficiency.-The Secretary shall, as he deems necessary during the calendar year, determine whether, in view of the current inventories of sugar, the estimated production from the acreage of sugar-cane or sugar beets planted, the normal marketings within a calendar year of newcrop sugar, and other pertinent factors, any domestic area, the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, or Cuba, will be unable to market the quota for such area. If the Secretary finds that any domestic area or Cuba will be unable to market the quota for such area for the calendar year then current, he shall revise the quotas for the domestic areas and Cuba by prorating an amount of sugar

650673°_46-28

equal to the deficit so determined to the other such areas, on the basis of the quotas then in effect. Any portion of such sugar which the Secretary determines cannot be supplied by domestic areas and Cuba shall be prorated to foreign countries other than Cuba on the basis of the prorations of the quota then in effect for such foreign countries. If the Secretary finds that the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands will be unable to market the quota for such area for the calendar year then current, he shall revise the quota for foreign countries other than Cuba by prorating an amount of sugar equal to the deficit so determined to such foreign countries, on the basis of the prorations of the quota then in effect for such countries: Provided, however, That the quota for any domestic area, the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, or Cuba or other foreign countries, shall not be reduced by reason of any determination made pursuant to the provisions of this subsection.

(b) Foreign productive deficiency.--If, on the 1st day of September in any calendar year, any part or all of the proration to any foreign country of the quota in effect on the 1st day of July in the same calendar year for foreign countries other than Cuba, has not been filled, the Secretary may revise the proration of such quota among such foreign countries, by prorating an amount of sugar equal to such unfilled proration to all other such foreign countries which have filled their prorations of such quota by such date, on the basis of the prorations then in effect. (Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 898, title II, § 204, 50 Stat. 905.)

§ 1115. Allotments of quotas or prorations—(a) Authoriation; method; modification. Whenever the Secretary finds that the allotment of any quota, or proration thereof, established for any area pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, is necessary to assure an orderly and adequate flow of sugar or liquid sugar in the channels of interstate or foreign commerce, or to prevent disorderly marketing or importation of sugar or liquid sugar, or to maintain a continuous and stable supply of sugar or liquid sugar, or to afford all interested persons an equitable opportunity to market sugar or liquid sugar within any area's quota, after such hearing and upon such notice as he may by regulations prescribe, he shall make allotments of such quota or proration thereof by allotting to persons who market or import sugar or liquid sugar, for such periods as he may designate, the quantities of sugar or liquid sugar which each such person may market in continental United States, the Territory of Hawaii, or Puerto Rico, or may import or bring into continental United States, for consumption therein. Allotments shall be made in such manner and in such amounts as to provide a fair, efficient, and equitable distribution of such quota or proration thereof, by taking into consideration the processings of sugar or liquid sugar from sugar beets or sugarcane to which proportionate shares, determined pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 1132 of this title, pertained; the past marketings or importations of each such person; or the ability of such person to market or import that portion of such quota or proration thereof allotted to him. The Secretary may also, upon such hearing and notice as he may by regulations prescribe, revise or amend any such allotment upon the same basis as the initial allotment was made.

(b) Appeal to courts; grounds.--An appeal may be taken, in the manner hereinafter provided, from any decision making such allotments, or revision thereof, to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in any of the following cases:

(1) By any applicant for an allotment whose application shall have been denied.

(2) By any person aggrieved by reason of any decision of the Secretary granting or revising any allotment made to him.

(c) Same; initial procedure.-Such appeal shall be taken by filing with said court within twenty days after the decision complained of is effective, notice in writing of said appeal and a statement of the reasons therefor, together with proof of service of a true copy of said notice and statement upon the Secretary. Unless a later date is specified by the Secretary as part of his decision, the decision complained of shall be considered to be effective as of the date on which public announcement of the decision is made at the office of the Secretary in the city of Washington. The Secretary shall thereupon, and in any event not later than ten days from the date of such service upon him, mail or otherwise deliver a copy of said notice of appeal to each person shown by the records of the Secretary to be interested in such appeal and to have a right to intervene therein under the provisions of this section, and shall at all times thereafter permit any such person to inspect and make copies of appellants' reasons for said appeal at the office of the Secretary in the city of Washington. Within thirty days after the filing of said appeal the Secretary shall file with the court the originals or certified copies of all papers and evidence presented to him upon the hearing involved and also a like copy of his decision thereon and shall within thirty days thereafter file a full statement in writing of the facts and grounds for his decision as found and given by him and a list of all interested persons to whom he has mailed or otherwise delivered a copy of said notice of appeal.

(d) Same; intervention. Within thirty days after the filing of said appeal any interested person may intervene and participate in the proceedings had upon said appeal by filing with the court a notice of intention to intervene and a verified statement showing the nature of the interest of such party together with proof of service of true copies of said notice and statement, both upon the appellant and upon the Secretary. Any person who would be aggrieved or whose interests would be adversely affected by reversal or modification of the decision of the Secretary complained of shall be considered an interested party.

(e) Same; hearing; review. At the earliest convenient time the court shall hear and determine the appeal upon the record before it, and shall have power, upon such record, to enter a judgment affirming or reversing the decision, and if it enters an order reversing the decision of the Secretary it shall remand the case to the Secretary to carry out the judgment of the court: Provided, however, that the review by the court shall be limited to questions of law and that findings of fact by the Secretary, if

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