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§ 476. Acreage reports.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall cause to be issued a report on or before the 10th day of July of each year showing by States and in toto the number of acres of cotton in cultivation on July 1, to be followed on September 1 and December 1 with an estimate of the acreage of cotton abandoned since July 1. (May 27, 1912, ch. 135, § 1, 37 Stat. 118; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 337, § 6, 44 Stat. 1374.) Chapter 20.-FARM PRODUCE RECEIVED IN INTERSTATE COM
MERCE BY COMMISSION MERCHANTS AND OTHERS; DESTRUCTION OR DUMPING; INVESTIGATION OF QUALITY AND CONDITION OF PRODUCE
§ 491. Destruction or dumping of farm produce received in interstate commerce by commission merchants, etc., prohibited; penalty.–After June 30, 1927, any person, firm, association, or corporation receiving any fruits, vegetables, melons, dairy, or poultry products or any perishable farm products of any kind or character, referred to in this section and section 492 of this title as produce, in interstate commerce, or in the District of Columbia, for or on behalf of another, who without good and sufficient cause therefor, shall destroy or abandon, discard as refuse, or dump any produce directly or indirectly, or through collusion with any person, or who shall knowingly and with intent to defraud make any false report or statement to the person, firm, association, or corporation from whom any produce was received, concerning the handling, condition, quality, quantity, sale, or disposition thereof, or who shall knowingly and with intent to defraud fail truly and correctly to account therefor shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine of not less than $100 and not more than $3,000, or by imprisonment for a period of not exceeding one year, or both, at the discretion of the court. (Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 309, § 1, 44 Stat. 1355.)
CROSS REFERENCE Unfair conduct by commission merchants, see section 499b of this title.
§ 492. Investigation of quality and condition of produce received in interstate commerce; issuance of certificate; certificate as evidence.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall by regulation provide for the making of prompt investigations and the issuing of certificates as to the quality and condition of produce received in interstate commerce or in the District of Columbia, upon application of any person, firm, association, or corporation shipping, receiving, or financially interested in, such produce. Such regulations shall designate the classes of persons qualified and authorized to make such investigations and issue such certificates, except that any such investigation shall be made and any such certificate shall be issued by at least two disinterested persons in any case where such investigation is not made by an officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture or of any State or political subdivision thereof or of the District of Columbia. A certificate made in compliance with such regulations shall be prima facie evidence in all Federal courts of the truth of the statements therein contained as to the quality and condition of the produce; but if any such certificate is put in evidence by any party, in any civil or criminal proceeding, the opposite party
shall be permitted to cross-examine any person signing such certificate, called as a witness at the instance of either party, as to his qualifications and authority and as to the truth of the statements contained in such certificate. (Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 309, § 1, 44 Stat. 1355.)
CROSS REFERENCES Certification of condition of agricultural products shipped in interstate commerce; certificate as evidence, see section 414 of this title.
Offenses respecting certificate of inspection issued under this section, penalties, see section 499n (b) of this title.
§ 493. Enforcement of provisions; prosecution of cases.—The Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized and directed to enforce this chapter. It is hereby made the duty of all United States attorneys to prosecute cases arising under this chapter, subject to the supervision and control of the Department of Justice. (Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 309, § 2, 44 Stat. 1355.)
§ 494. Rules and regulations; cooperation with States, etc., officers and employees; expenditures.—The Secretary of Agriculture may make such rules and regulations as he may deem advisable to carry out the provisions of this chapter and may cooperate with any department or agency of the Government, any State, Territory, District, or possession, or department, agency, or political subdivision thereof, or any person; and may call upon any Federal department, board, or commission for assistance in carrying out the purposes of this chapter; and shall have the power to appoint, remove, and fix the compensation of such officers and employees not in conflict with existing law and make such expenditure for rent, outside the District of Columbia, printing, telegrams, telephones, books of reference, books of law, periodicals, newspapers, furniture, stationery, office equipment, travel, and other supplies and expenses as shall be deemed necessary to the administration of this chapter in the District of Columbia and elsewhere. (Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 309, § 3, 44 Stat. 1355.)
8 495. Appropriation.—There is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary after the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1927, to carry out the purposes of this chapter. (May 3, 1927, ch. 309, $ 3, 44 Stat. 1355.)
§ 496. Validity of other statutes dealing with same subject.This chapter shall not abrogate nor nullify any other statute, whether State or Federal, dealing with the same subjects as this chapter, but it is intended that all such statutes shall remain in full force and effect, except insofar only as they are inconsistent herewith or repugnant hereto. (Mar. 3, 1927, 72. 309, $ 3, 44 Stat, 1355.)
$ 497. Invalidity of any provision of chapter as affecting other provisions. If any provision of this chapter is declared unconstitutional or the applicability thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the chapter and the applicability of such provisions to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby. (Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 309, § 4, 44 Stat. 1356.)
Chapter 20A.-PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT § 499a. Definitions.--When used in this chapter
(1) The term "person" includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations ;
(2) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture;
(3) The term “interstate or foreign commerce” means commerce between any State or Territory, or the District of Columbia and any place outside thereof; or between points within the .same State or Territory, or the District of Columbia but through any place outside thereof; or within the District of Columbia;
(4) The term “perishable agricultural commodity"
(A) Means any of the following, whether or not frozen or packed in ice: Fresh fruits and fresh vegetables of every kind and character, and
(B) Includes cherries in brine as defined by the Secretary in accordance with trade usages;
(5) The term "commission merchant” means any person engaged in the business of receiving in interstate or foreign commerce any perishable agricultural commodity for sale, on commission, or for or on behalf of another;
(6) The term "dealer" means any person engaged in the business of buying or selling in carloads any perishable agricultural commodity in interstate or foreign commerce, except that (A) no producer shall be considered as a "dealer" in respect of sales of any such commodity of his own raising; (B) no person buying any such commodity solely for sale at retail shall be considered as a "dealer" in respect of any such commodity in any calendar year until his purchases of such commodity in carloads in such year are in excess of twenty; and (C) no person buying any such commodity for canning and/or processing within the State where grown shall be considered a "dealer" whether or not the canned or processed product is to be shipped in interstate or foreign commerce, unless such product is frozen or packed in ice, or consists of cherries in brine, within the meaning of paragraph 4 of this section. Any person not considered as a
dealer" under clauses (A), (B), and (C) may' elect to secure a license under the provisions of section 499c of this title, and in such case and while the license is in effect such person shall be considered as a "dealer." As used in this paragraph, the term “in carloads” includes wholesale or jobbing quantities as defined for any commodity by the Secretary.
(7) The term “broker" means any person engaged in the business of negotiating sales and purchases of any perishable agricultural commodity in interstate or foreign commerce for or on behalf of the vendor or the purchaser, respectively.
(8) A transaction in respect of any perishable agricultural commodity shall be considered in interstate or foreign commerce if such commodity is part of that current of commerce usual in the trade in that commodity whereby such commodity and/or the products of such commodity are sent from one State with the expectation that they will end their transit, after purchase, in
another, including, in addition to cases within the above general description, all cases where sale is either for shipment to another State, or for processing within the State and the shipment outside the State of the products resulting from such processing. Commodities normally in such current of commerce shall not be considered out of such commerce through resort being had to any means or device intended to remove transactions in respect thereto from the provisions of this chapter. (June 10, 1930, ch, 436, § 1, 46 Stat. 531; Apr. 13, 1934, ch, 120, § 1, 48 Stat, 584; Aug. 20, 1937, ch. 719, § i, 50 Stat. 725; June 29, 1940, ch. 456, SS 1, 2, 54 Stat. 696.)
§ 499b. Unfair conduct; what constitutes.—It shall be unlawful in or in connection with any transaction in interstate or foreign commerce
(1) For any commission merchant, dealer, or broker to engage in or use any unfair, unreasonable, discriminatory, or deceptive practice in connection with the weighing, counting, or in any way determining the quantity of any perishable agricultural commodity received, bought, sold, shipped, or handled in interstate or foreign commerce;
(2) For any dealer to reject or fail to deliver in accordance with the terms of the contract without reasonable cause any perishable agricultural commodity bought or sold or contracted to be bought, sold, or consigned in interstate or foreign commerce by such dealer;
(3) For any commission merchant to discard, dump, or destroy without reasonable cause, any perishable agricultural commodity received by such commission merchant in interstate or foreign commerce;
(4) For any commission merchant, dealer, or broker to make, for a fraudulent purpose, any false or misleading statement in connection with any transaction involving any perishable agricultural commodity which is received in interstate or foregn commerce by such commission merchant, or bought or sold, or contracted to be bought, sold, or consigned, in such commerce by such dealer, or the purchase or sale of which in such commerce is negotiated by such broker; or to fail or refuse truly and correctly to account and make full payment promptly in respect of any transaction in any such commodity to the person with whom such transaction is had; or to fail, without reasonable cause, to perform any specification or duty, express or implied, arising out of any undertaking in connection with any such transaction;
(5) For any commission merchant, dealer, or broker, for a fraudulent purpose, to misrepresent by word, act, mark, stencil, label, statement, or deed the character, kind, grade, quality, quantity, size, pack, weight, condition, degree of maturity, or State or country of origin of any perishable agricultural commodity received, shipped, sold, or offered to be sold in interstate or foreign commerce;
(6) For any commission merchant, dealer, or broker, for a fraudulent purpose, to remove, alter, or tamper with any card, stencil, stamp, tag, or other notice placed upon any container or railroad car containing any perishable agricultural commodity, if such card, stencil, stamp, tag, or other notice contains a certificate or statement under authority of any Federal or State inspector or in compliance with any Federal or State law or regulation as to the grade or quality of the commodity contained in such container or railroad car or the State or country in which such commodity was produced ;
(7) For any commission merchant, dealer, or broker, without the consent of an inspector, to make, cause, or permit to be made any change by way of substitution or otherwise in the contents of a load or lot of any perishable agricultural commodity after it has been officially inspected for grading and certification, but this shall not prohibit re-sorting and discarding inferor produce. (June 10, 1930, ch. 436, § 2, 46 Stat. 532; Apr. 13, 1934, ch. 120, S$ 2, 3, 48 Stat. 585; June 19, 1936, ch. 602, § 1, 49 Stat. 1533; Aug. 20, 1937, ch. 719, SS 2-4, 50 Stat. 725, 726; June 29, 1940, ch. 456, $$ 3, 4, 54 Stat. 696; Apr. 6, 1942, ch. 211, 56 Stat. 200.)
CROSS REFERENCE Destruction or dumping of farm products received in interstate commerce by commission merchants, see section 491 of this title.
8 499c. Licenses-(a) By whom license required; penalty for failure to obtain.--Aftar December 10, 1930, no person shall at any time carry on the business of a commission merchant, dealer, or broker without a license valid and effective at such time. Any person who violates any provision of this subdivision shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $500 for each such offense and not more than $25 for each day it continues, which shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil suit brought by the United States.
Any person violating this provision may, upon a showing satisfactory to the Secretary of Agriculture, or his authorized representative, that such violation was not willful but was due to inadvertence, be permitted by the Secretary, or such representative, to settle his liability in the matter by the payment of the fees due for the period covered by such violation and an additional sum, not in excess of $25, to be fixed by the Secretary of Agriculture or his authorized representative. Such payment. shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States in the same manner as regular license fees.
(b) Application; to whom made; contents; fee.-Any person desiring any such license shall make application to the Secretary. The Secretary may by regulation prescribe the information to be contained in such application. Upon the filing of the application, and annually thereafter, the applicant shall pay a fee of $10. (June 10, 1930, ch. 436, § 3, 46 Stat. 533; Aug. 20, 1937, ch. 719, $ 5,50 Stat. 726.)
CROSS REFERENCE Delegation of regulatory functions of Secretary of Agriculture, see section 516a_et seq. of Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees.