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sentatives of the Department of Agriculture, as he may find to be necessary to the proper application of the official cotton standards of the United States. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 6, 42 Stat. 1518.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 51 of this title.

8 57. Disposition of proceeds of sale of cotton and of copies of standards.-Any moneys received from or in connection with the sale of cotton purchased for the preparation of the copies, mentioned in section 56 of this title and condemned as unsuitable for such use or with the sale of such copies may be expended for the purchase of other cotton for such use. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 6, 42 Stat. 1518.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 51 of this title.

$ 57a. Agreements with cotton associations, etc., in foreign countries to establish cotton standards.—The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to effectuate agreements with cotton associations, cotton exchanges, and other cotton organizations in foreign countries, for (1) the adoption, use, and observance of universal standards of cotton classification, (2) the arbitration or settlement of disputes with respect thereto, and (3) the preparation, distribution, inspection, and protection of the practical forms or copies thereof under such agreements. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, 8 6 (b), as added Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title IV, $ 401 (b), 58 Stat. 738.)

CODIFICATION Section was enacted as subsec. (b) of section 6 of act Mar. 4, 1923, cited to text, by act Sept. 21, 1944, cited to text.

Said act Sept. 21, 1944, was the Department of Agriculture Organic Act of 1944.

§ 58. General inspection and sampling of cotton.-In order to carry out the provisions of this chapter, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause the inspection, including the sampling, of any cotton involved in any transaction or shipment in commerce, wherever such cotton may be found, or of any cotton with respect to which a determination of the true classification is requested under section 54 of this title. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 7, 42 Stat. 1518.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 51 of this title.

8 59. Offenses in relation to cotton standards. It shall be unlawful for any person (a) with intent to deceive or defraud, to make, receive, use, or have in his possession any simulate or counterfeit practical form or copy of any standard or part thereof established under this chapter; or (b) without the written authority of the Secretary of Agriculture, to make, alter, tamper with, or in any respect change any practical form or copy of any standard established under this chapter; or (c) to display or use any such practical form or copy after the Secretary of Agriculture shall have caused it to be condemned. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 8, 42 Stat. 1519.)

EFFECTIVE DATE

See note under section 51 of this title.

$ 60. Penalties for violations. (a) Any person who shall knowingly violate any provision of sections 52 or 59 of this title, or (b) any person licensed under this chapter who, for the purposes of or in connection with any transaction or shipment in commerce, shall knowingly classify cotton improperly, or shall knowingly falsify or forge any certificate of classification, or shall accept money or other consideration, either directly or indirectly, for any neglect or improper performance of duty as such licensee, or (c) any person who shall knowingly influence improperly or attempt to influence improperly any person licensed under this chapter in the performance of his duties as such licensee relating to any transaction or shipment in commerce, or (d) any person who shall forcibly assault, resist, impede, or interfere with or influence improperly cr attempt to infleuence improperly any person employed under this chapter in the performance of his duties, shall, upon conviction thereof, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not exceeding $1,000, or imprisoned not exceeding six months, or both, in the discretion of the court. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 9, 42 Stat. 1519.)

EFFECTIVE DATE

See note under section 51 of this title.

§ 61. General regulations, investigations, tests, etc., by Secretary.-For the purposes of this chapter the Secretary of Agriculture shall cause to be promulgated such regulations, may cause such investigations, tests, demonstrations, and publications to be made, including the investigation and determination of some practical method whereby repeated and unnecessary sampling and classification of cotton may be avoided, and may cooperate with any department or agency of the Government, any State Territory, District, or possession, or department, agency, or political subdivision thereof, or any person, as he shall find to be necessary. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 19, 42 Stat. 1519.)

EFFECTIVE DATE

See note under section 51 of this title.

8 62. Definitions; "person"; "commerce"; "cotton."—Wherever used in this chapter, (a) the word "person" imports the plural or the singular, as the case demands, and includes an individual, a partnership, a corporation, or two or more persons having a joint or common interest; (b) the word "commerce" means commerce between any State or the District of Columbia and any place outside thereof, or between points within the same State or the District of Columbia but through any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia; and (c) the word "cotton" means cotton of any variety produced within the continental United States, including linters. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, $ 11, 42 Stat. 1519.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 51 of this title.

§ 63. Liability of principal for act of agent.—When construing and enforcing the provisions of this chapter, the act, omission, or failure of any agent, officer, or other person acting for or employed by any person within the scope of his employment or office, shall in every case be deemed also the act, omission, or failure of such person as well as that of such agent, officer, or other person. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 11, 42 Stat. 1519.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 51 of this title.

8 64. Appropriation for expenses; apointments by Secretary of officers and agents; compensation. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated out of the moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary for carrying out the provisions of this chapter; and the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized, within the limits of such appropriations, to appoint, remove, and fix the compensations of such officers and employees, not in conflict with existing law, and make such expenditures for rent outside the District of Columbia, printing, telegrams, telephones, law books, books of reference, periodicals, furniture, stationery, office equipment, travel, and other supplies and expenses as shall be necessary to the administration of this chapter in the District of Columbia and elsewhere. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 12, 42 Stat. 1519.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 51 of this title.

$ 65. Effect of partial invalidity.-If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the chapter and the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby. (Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, § 13, 42 Stat. 1520.)

EFFECTIVE DATE

See note under section 51 of this title.

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Chapter 3.-GRAIN STANDARDS ACT § 71. Short title of chapter.—This chapter shall be known by the short title of the “United States Grain Standards Act." (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 1, 39 Stat. 482.)

§ 72. Definitions; "person"; "interstate or foreign commerce." -The word "person," whenever used in this chapter shall be construed to import the plural or singular, as the case demands, and shall include individuals, associations, partnerships, and corporations; the words “in interstate or foreign commerce," wherever used in this chapter, mean “from any State, Territory, or District to or through any other State, Territory, or District, or to or through any foreign country, or within any Territory or District." (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 1, 39 Stat. 482.)

§ 73. Liability of principal for act of agent.—When construing and enforcing the provisions of this chapter, the act, omission, or failure of any official, agent, or other person acting for or employed by any association, partnership, or corporation within the scope of his employment or office, shall, in every case, also be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such association, partnership, or corporation as well as that of the person. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch, 313, part B, § 1, 39 Stat. 482.)

§ 74. Establishment of grain standards by Secretary; promulgation.—The Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized to investigate the handling, grading and transportation of grain and to fix and establish standards of quality and condition for corn (maize) wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, soybeans, and such other grains as in his judgment the usages of the trade may warrant and permit, and the Secretary of Agriculture shall have power to alter or modify such standards whenever the necessities of the trade may require. In promulgating the standards, or any alteration or modification of such standards, the Secretary shall specify the date or dates when the same shall become effective, and shall give public notice, not less than ninety days in advance of such date or dates, by such means as he deems proper. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, $ 2, 39 Stat. 482; July 18, 1940, ch. 636, 54 Stat. 765.)

§ 75. Designation of official grain standards.—The standards fixed and established as authorized in section 74 of this title shall be known as the official grain standards of the United States. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 3, 39 Stat. 483.)

$ 76. Compulsory use of official standards; exceptions; inspection and grading after shipment; appeal.—Whenever standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter for any grain no person thereafter shall ship or deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce any such grain which is sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade unless the grain shall have been inspected and graded by an inspector licensed under this chapter and the grade by which it is sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale be one of the grades fixed therefor in the official grain standards of the United States: Provided, That any person may sell, offer for sale, or consign for sale, ship or deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce any such grain by sample or by type, or under any name, description, or designation which is not false or misleading, and which name, description, or designation does not include in whole or in part the terms of any official grain standard of the United States: Provided further, That any such grain sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade may be shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce without inspection at point of shipment by an inspector licensed under this chapter, to or through any place at whch an inspector licensed under this chapter is located, subject to be inspected by a licensed inspector at the place to which shipped or at some convenient point through which shipped for inspection, which inspection shall be under such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe, and subject further to the right of appeal from such inspection, as provided in section 78 of this title: And provided further, That any such grain sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by any of the grades fixed therefor in the official grain standards may, upon compliance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, be shipped in interstate or foreign commerce without inspection from a place at which there is no inspector licensed under this chapter to a place at which there is no such inspector, subject to the right of either party to the transaction to refer any dispute as to the grade of the grain to the Secretary of Agriculture, who may determine the true grade thereof.

No person shall in any certificate or in any contract or agreement of sale or agreement to sell by grade, either oral or written, involving, or in any invoice or bill of lading or other shipping document relating to, the shipment or delivery for shipment, in interstate or foreign commerce of any grain for which standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter, describe, or in any way refer to, any of such grain as being of any grade other than a grade fixed therefor in the official grain standards of the United States. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 4, 39 Stat. 483.)

§ 77. Misrepresentation respecting grade; reexamination by Secretary of inspected grain; hearing and publication of findings. -No person, except as permitted in section 76 of this title, shall represent that any grain shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce is of a grade fixed in the official grain standards other than as shown by a certificate therefor issued in compliance with this chapter; and the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause examinations to be made of any grain for which standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter, and which has been certified to conform to any grade fixed therefor in such official grain standards, or which has been shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce. Whenever, after opportunity for hearing is given to the owner or shipper of the grain involved, and to the inspector thereof if the same has been inspected, it is determined by the Secretary that any quantity of grain has been incorrectly certified to conform to a specified grade, or has been sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale under any name, description, or designation which is false or misleading, he may publish his findings. (Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, part B, § 5, 39 Stat. 483.)

8 78. Appeal to Secretary from official grading; fees for reinspection; conclusiveness of findings on appeal.—Whenever standards shall have been fixed and established under this chapter for any grain and any quantity of such grain sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale, or which has been shipped, or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce shall have been inspected and a dispute arises as to whether the grade as determined by such inspection of any such grain in fact conforms to the standard of the specified grade, any interested party may, either with or without reinspection, appeal the question to the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause such investigation to be made and such tests

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