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sale thereof for future delivery as commonly conducted on boards of trade and known as "futures" are affected with a national public interest; such transactions are carried on in large volume by the public generally and by persons engaged in the business of buying and selling commodities and the products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce; the prices involved in such transactions are generally quoted and disseminated throughout the United States and in foreign countries as a basis for determining the prices to the producer and the consumer of commodities and the products and byproducts thereof and to facilitate the movements thereof in interstate commerce; such transactions are utilized by shippers, dealers, millers and others engaged in handling commodities and the products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce as a means of hedging themselves against possible loss through fluctuations in price; the transactions and prices of commodities on such boards of trade are susceptible to speculation, manipulation, and control, and sudden or unreasonable fluctuations in the prices thereof frequently occur as a result of such speculation, manipulation, or control, which are detrimental to the producer or the consumer and the persons handling commodities and products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce, and such fluctuations in prices are an obstruction to and a burden upon interstate commerce in commodities and the products and byproducts thereof and render regulation imperative for the protection of such commerce and the national public interest therein. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 3, 42 Sta. 999; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, § 2, 49 Stat. 1491.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 1 of this title.

8 6. Prohibition against dealings in commodity futures; general exceptions.—It shall be unlawful for any person to deliver for transmission through the mails or in interstate commerce by telegraph, telephone, wireless, or other means of communication any offer to make or execute, or any confirmation of the execution of, any quotation or report of the price of, and contract of sale of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any board of trade in the United States, or for any person to make or execute such contract of sale, which is or may be used for (a) hedging any transaction in interstate commerce in any commodity or the products or byproducts thereof, or (b) determining the price basis of any such transaction in interstate commerce, or (c) delivering any commodity sold, shipped, or received in interstate commerce for the fulfillment thereof, except, in any of the foregoing cases, where such contract is made by or through a member of a board of trade which has been designated by the Secretary of Agriculture as a “contract market," as hereinafter provided in this chapter, and if such contract is evidenced by a record in writing which shows the date, the parties to such contract and their addreses, the property covered and its price, and the terms of delivery: Provided, That each board member shall keep such record for a period of three years from the date thereof or for a longer period if the Secretary of Agriculture shall so direct, which record shall at all times be open to the inspection of any representative of the United States Department of Agriculture or the United States Department of Justice. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 4, 42 Stat. 999; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, $$ 2, 4, 49 Stat. 1491, 1492.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 1 of this title.

§ 6a. Excessive speculation as burden on interstate commerce; trading limits; hedging transactions; application of section.(1) Excessive speculation in any commodity under contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery made on or subject to the rules of contract markets causing sudden or unreasonable fluctuations or unwarranted changes in the price of such commodity, is an undue and unnecessary burden on interestate commerce in such commodity. For the purpose of diminishing, eliminating, or preventing such burden, the commission shall, from time to time, after due notice and opportunity for hearing, by order, proclaim and fix such limits on the amount of trading under contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market which may be done by any person as the commission finds is necessary to diminish, eliminate, or prevent such burden. Nothing in this section shali be construed to prohibit the commission from fixing different trading limits for different commodities, markets, futures, or delivery months, or different trading limits for buying and selling operations, or different limits for the purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this section, or from exempting transactions commonly known to the trade as "spreads" or "straddles” or from fixing trading limits applying to such transactions different from trading limits fixed for other transactions.

(2) The commission shall, in such order, fix a reasonable time (not to exceed ten days) after the order's promulgation; after which, and until such order is suspended, modified, or revoked, it shall be unlawful for any person

(A) directly or indirectly to buy or sell, or agree to buy or sell, under contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of the contract market or markets to which the order applies, any amount of such commodity during any one business day in excess of any trading limit fixed for one busines day by the commission in such order for or with respect to such commodity; or

(B) directly or indirectly to buy or sell, or agree to buy or sell, under contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market, any amount of such commodity that shall result in giving such person a net long or net short position at any one time in or with respect to any such commodity in excess of any trading limit fixed by the commission for net long or net short position in such order for or with respect to such commodity.

(3) No order issued under paragraph (1) of this section shall apply to transactions which are shown to be bona fide hedging transactions. For the purposes of this paragraph, bona fide

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hedging transactions shall mean sales of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any board of trade to the extent that such sales are offset in quantity by the ownership or purchase of the same cash commodity or, conversely, purchases of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any board of trade to the extent that such purchases are offset by sales of the same cash commodity. There shall be included in the amount of any commodity which may be hedged by any person

(A) the amount of such commodity such person is raising, or in good faith intends or expects to raise, within the next twelve months, on land (in the United States or its Territories) which such person owns or leases;

(B) an amount of such commodity the sale of which for future delivery would be a reasonable hedge against the products or byproducts of such commodity owner or purchased by such person, or the purchase of which for future delivery would be a reasonable hedge against the sale of any product or byproduct of such commodity by such person.

(4) This section shall apply to a person that is registered as a futures commission merchant or as floor broker under authority of this chapter only to the extent that transactions made by such person are made on behalf of or for the account or benefit of such person. This section shall not apply to transactions made by, or on behalf of, or at the direction of, the United States, or a duly authorized agency thereof. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 4a, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, § 5, 49 Stat. 1492.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 1 of this title.

§ 6b. Contracts designed to defraud or mislead customer; bucketing orders; buying and selling orders for cotton.-It shall be unlawful for any member of a contract market, or for any correspondent, agent, or employee of any member, in or in connection with any order to make, or the making of (1) any contract of sale of any commodity in interstate commerce, or (2) any contract of sale of any commodity for future delivery made, or to be made, on or subject to the rules of any contract market for or on behalf of any person if such contract for future delivery is or may be used for (a) hedging any transaction in interstate commerce in such commodity or the products or byproducts thereof, or (b) determining the price basis of any transaction in inters tate commerce in such commodity, or (c) delivering any such commodity sold, shipped, or received in interstate commerce for the fulfillment thereof

(A) to cheat or defraud or attempt to cheat or defraud such person;

(B) willfully to make or cause to be made to such person any false report or statement thereof, or willfully to enter or cause to be entered for such person any false record thereof;

(C) willfully to deceive or attempt to deceive such person by any means whatsoever in regard to any such order or contract or the disposition or execution of any such order or contract, or in regard to any act of agency performed with respect to such order or contract for such period; or

(D) to bucket such order, or to fill such order by offset against the order or orders of any other person, or willfully and knowingly and without the prior consent of such person to become the buyer in respect to any selling order of such person, or become the seller in respect to any buying order of such person.

Nothing in this section or in any other section of this chapter shall be construed to prevent a futures commission merchant or floor broker who shall have in hand, simultaneously, buying and selling orders at the market for different principals for a like quantity of cotton for future delivery in the same month, from executing such buying and selling orders at the market price: Provided, That any such execution shall take place on the floor of the exchange where such orders are to be executed at public outcry across the ring and shall be duly reported, recorded, and cleared in the same manner as other orders executed on such exchange. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 4b, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, § 5, 49 Stat. 1493.)

EFFECTIVE DATE See note under section 1 of this title.

§ 6c. Wash sales; cross trades; fictitious sales; privileges; offers; puts; calls; guaranties.-It shall be unlawful for any person to offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of, any transaction involving any commodity, which is or may be used for (1) hedging any transaction in interstate commerce in such commodity or the products or byproducts thereof, or (2) determining the price basis of any such transaction in interstate commerce in such commodity, or (3) delivering any such commodity sold, shipped, or received in interstate commerce for the fulfillment thereof

(A) if such transaction is, is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, a “wash sale," "cross trade," or "accommodation trade,” or is a fictitious sale;

(B) if such transaction is, is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, a “privilege," "indemnity,” “bid,”. "offer," "put," "call," "advance guaranty," or "decline guaranty,' or

(C) if such transaction is used to cause any price to be reported, registered, or recorded which is not a true and bona fide price.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the exchange of futures in connection with cash commodity transactions or of futures for cash commodities, or of transfer trades or office trades if made in accordance with board of trade rules applying to such transactions and such rules shall not have been disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. Nothing in this section or section 6b of this title shall be construed to impair any State law applicable to any transaction enumerated or described in such sections. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 4c, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, § 5, 49 Stat. 1494.)

EFFECTIVE DATE

See note under section 1 of this title.

$ 6d. Futures commission merchants, dealing by unregistered merchants prohibited; moneys and securities of customers, care and use.It shall be unlawful for any person to engage as futures commission merchant in soliciting orders or accepting orders for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery, or involving any contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery, on or subject to the rules of any contract market unless

(1) such person shall have registered, under this chapter, with the Secretary of Agriculture as such futures commission merchant and such registration shall not have expired nor been suspended nor revoked; and

(2) such person shall, whether a member or non-member of a contract market, treat and deal with all money, securities, and property received by such person to margin, guarantee, or secure the trades or contracts of any customer of such person, or accruing to such customer as the result of such trades or contracts, as belonging to such customer. Such money, securities, and property shall be separately accounted for and shall not be commingled with the funds of such commission merchants or be used to margin or guarantee the trades or contracts, or to secure or extend the credit, of any customer or person other than the one for whom the same are held: Provided, however, That such money, securities, and property of the customers of such futures commission merchant may, for convenience, be commingled and deposited in the same account or accounts with any bank or trust company or with the clearing house organization of such contract market, and that such share thereof as in the normal course of business shall be necessary to margin, guarantee, secure, transfer, adjust, or settle the contracts or trades of such customers, or resulting market positions, with the clearing-house organization of such contract market or with any member of such contract market, may be withdrawn and applied to such purposes, including the payment of commissions, brokerage, interest, taxes, storage, and other charges, lawfully accruing in connection with such contracts and trades: Provided further, That such money may be invested in obligations of the United States, in general obligations of any State or of any political subdivision thereof, in obligations fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, and in “investment securities” as defined in and under authority of section 24 of Title 12 and, subject to approval by the Secretary of Agriculture, may be loaned on the security of negotiable warehouse receipts conveying or securing title to readily marketable commodities to the extent of the current loan value of such receipts, such investments and loans to be made in accordance with such rules and regulations and subject to such conditions as the Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 4d, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, § 5, 49 Stat. 1494.)

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