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related to the author's concern for the integrity of his published work, it may be well to suggest why this matter is of considerable importance to Government agencies and authors alike.

For example, when a work has been placed in the public domain it can be republished under the author's name with additions, deletions, or revisions made by anyone who chooses to do so, provided that the title page carries a notice as “Revised by John Doe" or "With Additions by John Doe."

For example, the work can be republished under the author's name with the substitutions of a new set of problems, provided that the title page carries a notice such as "With Problems Added by John Doe." Further, John Doe can legitimately put his own copyright notice on such a republished edition.

For example, a printer can produce an offset edition of the original work, reproducing exactly the original indicia (including the publisher's imprint and copyright notice), provided that the title page or cover carry a printed notice "Distributed by John Doe, Printer.

For example, a translated edition can be freely produced by anyone in any language of any foreign country of the world. There can be no effective control of the quality of translations; such control is possible only when a work is protected under one of the international copy. right conventions, and this protection is lost when domestic copyright is forfeited. In many foreign countries an inferior translation can be produced and widely sold by a privileged person under the patronage of a ministry of education or a state school system. In other countries, several translated editions can be produced for a market that will support only one. This situation usually results in an initial glut of hastily produced low-quality books but no continuing supply of any kind.

CONCLUSIONS

Since it is inevitable that the Government will sponsor and finance (either wholly or in part) an increasing number and variety of commercially publishable works, and since the problems of copyright and the public interest differ with each publication, it seems unwise for any Federal agency to establish a blanket policy that places all works in the public domain. We are convinced that such a policy is against rather than for the public interest. We think that every agency should have a policy under which qualified officers may decide for or against commercial publication of each separate project or program in terms of Government benefit and the public interest.

It may be reasonable in some cases to require the commercial publisher to abandon his copyright and place a Government-sponsored work in the public domain, but this should be done only after:

1. The publisher has had time to make sufficient sales to realize a reasonable profit in terms of his investment, his risk, and his contribution to editorial quality.

2. The author has had time to realize an adequate return from royalty in cases where anticipated royalty is a consideration in his total compensation for work performed and for knowledge contributed to the job.

3. The owner of the private copyright has allowed the work to go out of print.

Several considerations should enter into a determination of the time span allowed for each copyright agreement:

1. The potential market, the price, the manufacturing cost, the publisher's editorial and sales costs, the rate of royalty paid the author and/or the Government, and the prime life span of the subject content of the book. From five to fifteen or twenty years should be appropriate for works that will not be revised.

2. The time span needed (a) to establish a text as a teaching tool and an educational influence to the satisfaction of the author and to a proper fulfillment of the Government's objectives, (b) to provide the publisher and the author sufficient incentives to perfect and establish a text through the production of two or three editions, and (c) to prevent undesirable exploitation of new texts through revised or disguised editions produced under the author's name and the publisher's imprint. Usually two editions of a college text and three editions of a text for elementary or high schools, with a minimal period of ten years in either case, would

be needed to meet this requirement. For each new publishing project, all these considerations should be subject to negotiation between the responsible Government agency, its contracting agent (if any), and the authors and the interested publishers. GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED WORKS PUBLISHED BY MCGRAW-HILL AND PRIVATELY

COPYRIGHTED Category 1. Reports of Commissions, Committees, Etc. Civil Aviation. A report by the Joint Committee on Civil Aviation of the

U.S. Department of Commerce and the American Engineering Council. Copy

right, American Engineering Council, 1926. Recent Social Trends in the United States. 2 volumes and 13 specialized mono

graphs. Copyright, President's Research Committee on Social Trends, 1933. Recent Economic Changes in the United States. 2 volumes. Copyright, Presi

dent's Conference on Unemployment, 1930. Air Pollution. Proceedings of the United States Technical Conference on Air

Pollution. Louis C. McCabe (Ed.), U.S. Bureau of Mines. Sponsored by the Interdepartmental Committee on Air Pollution, U.S. Department of the Inte

rior, Bureau of Mines. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1952. Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. Charles N. Cofer (Ed.), University of

California at Berkeley. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and New York University in 1959. Copyright, McGraw

Hill, 1961. Vigilance: A Symposium. Donald N. Buckner and James J. McGrath (Eds.),

Human Factors Research, Inc. Office of Naval Research contract. Copyright,

McGraw-Hill, 1963. Verbal Behavior and Learning : Problems and Processes. Charles N. Cofer, and

Barbara S. Musgrave (Eds.), Office of Naval Research contract with New

York University. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1963. Category 2. Works Written or Edited for Hire The Papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright. Marvin W. McFarland (Ed.). 2

volumes sponsored by Oberlin College on the Wilbur-Orville Wright Memorial Fund and prepared for the press with notes, appendices, and bibliography by the Aeronautics Division of the Library of Congress. Copyright, McGraw-Hill,

19.53. Tables of Integral Transforms. A. Erdelyi (Ed.), The California Institute of

Technology. 2 volumes. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1954. Higher Transcendental Functions. A. Erdelyi (Ed.), The California Institute of

Technology. 3 volumes. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1955.

Electronic Components Handbook. K. Henney, C. Walsh, and H. Mileaf. 3 vol

umes for the Wright Air Development Command. Copyright, McGraw-Hill,

1957-1959. English-Russian, Russian-English Electronics Dictionary. U.S. Army Signal

Corps Intelligence Agency. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1958. Mariner: Mission to Venus. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA. Copyright, Jet

Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1963. Modern Chinese Technical and General Dictionary. National Science Founda

tion. 3 volumes. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1963. Supplement, 1963. Human Engineering Guide to Equipment Design. Clifford T. Morgan et al.

(Eds.). Office of Naval Research. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1963. Exploring the Universe. Louise B. Young (Ed.). American Foundation for Con

tinuing Education. National Science Foundation Research Grant. Copyright,

McGraw-Hill, 1963–1964. Research, U.S.A.; Nuclear Power, U.S.A.; Radioisotopes and Radiation; and Edu

cation and the Atom. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Copyright, McGraw

Hill, 1964. Twelve Doors to Japan. J. Hall and R. K. Beardsley, U.S. Office of Education,

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Copyright, McGraw-Hill,

1965. Basic Problems in Geotectonics. V. V. Beloussov, translated by National Acad

emy of Science and American Geological Institute. Copyright, McGraw-Hill,

1962. Educational Media Index. Educational Media Council under a contract from

the U.S. Office of Education. Copyright, Educational Media Council, Inc.,

1961. Air Tables. D. P. Jordan and M. D. Mintz, University of California. Lawrence

Radiation Laboratory sponsored by the C.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 196.7. Electrical Insulation : Its Application to Shipboard Electrical Equipment.

Graham Lee Voses. Supported by the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships. Copyright,

McGraw-Hill, 1951. Category 3. Reports on Research Radiation Laboratory Saries. Radiation Research Laboratory, Massachusetts

Institute of Technology. 27 volumes and index volume. Copyright, McGraw

Hill, 1947-1953. Very High Frequency Techniques. Herbert J. Reich (Ed.). Radio Research

Laboratory Staff, Harvard University. 2 volumes. Copyright, McGraw-Hill,

1947. Mathematical Theory of Rocket Flight. J. Barkley Rosser, Robert R. Newton,

and George L. Gross of the Allegheny Ballistics Laboratory, George Washing

ton University. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1947. Techniques of Statistical Analysis. Churchill Eisenhart, Millard W. Hastay,

and W. Allen Wallis (Eds.) of the Columbia University Statistical Research

Group. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1947. Sampling Inspection. H. A. Freeman, Milton Friedman, Frederick Mosteller,

and W. Allen Wallis (Eds.) of the Columbia University Statistical Research

Group. Copyright, 1948. National Nuclear Energy Series. Columbia University under contract to the

Atomic Energy Commission. About 30 volumes. Copyright, McGraw-Hill,

1948–1955. Internal Ballistics of Solid Fuel Rockets. R. N. Wimpress of Industrial Engi

neers, Inc., California Institute of Technology. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1950. The Operational Code of the Politburo. Nathan Leites. A Rand Corporation

Research Study. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1951. Air War and Emotional Stress. Irving L. Janis. A Rand Corporation Research

Study. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1951. Mobilizing Resources for War: The Economic Alternatives. Tibor Scitovsky,

Edward S. Shaw, and Lorie Tarshis of the Rand Corporation. Copyright,

McGraw-Hill, 1951. Soviet Attitudes Toward Authority. Margaret Mead. A Rand Corporation Re

search Study. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1952. The Organizational Weapon : A study of Bolshevik Strategy and Tactics. Phillip

Selznik. A Rand Corporation Research Study. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1952. Weight-Strength Analysis of Aircraft Structures. F. R. Shanley: A Rand

Corporation Research Study. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1952. Introduction to the Theory of Games. J. C. C. McKinsey of the Rand Corpora

tion. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1952. The Compleat Strategyst: A Primer on the Theory of Games of Strategy. John

D. Williams of the Rand Corporation. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1954; second

edition, copyright, Rand, 1965. Linear Programming and Economic Analysis. Robert Dorfman, Paul A. Samuel

son, and Robert M. Solow. A Rand Corporation Research Study. Copyright,

McGraw-Hill, 1958. Introduction to Matrix Analysis. Richard Bellman of the Rand Corporation.

Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1960. The Theory of Plasma Waves. Thomas H. Stix, Princeton University. Air Force

Research Grant. Advanced Physics Monograph Series. Copyright, McGraw

Hill, 1962. Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior. J. M. Warren, Pennsylvania State Uni

versity ; K. Akert, University of Zurich, National Science Foundation Research

Grant. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1964. (Series in Phych.) Creativity. Calvin W. Taylor (Ed.), University of Utah. National Science

Foundation Research Grant. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1964. Constitution of Binary Alloys. Rodney P. Elliott, Illinois Institute of Technical

Research. Air Force Research Grant. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1965. The Logic of Decision. Richard C. Jeffrey, City College, City University of New

York. Air Force Research Grant. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1965. Psychology: A Study of Science, Vol. I-Sensory, Perceptual, and Physiological

Formulations. Edited by Sigmund Koch, Duke University. National Science Foundation contract with American Phychological Association. Copyright,

McGraw-Hill, 1958. Psychology: A Study of Science, Vol. II—General Systematic Formulations,

Learning and Special Processes. Edited by Sigmund Koch, Duke University. National Science Foundation contract with American Psychological

Association. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1958. Psychology: A Study of Science, Vol. III—Formulations of the Person and the

Social Context. Edited by Sigmund Koch, Duke University. National Science Foundation contract with American Psychological Association. Copyright,

McGraw-Hill, 1959. Psychology: A Study of Science, Vol. IV— Biologically Oriented Fields: Their Introduction to Probability: A Programmed Unit in Modern Algebra. Boyd Earl,

Place in Psychology and in Biological Sciences. Edited by Sigmund Koch, Duke University. National Science Foundation contract with American

Psychological Association. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1962. Psychology: A Study of Science, Vol. V—The Process Areas, the Person, and

Some Applied Fields: Their Place in Psychology and in Science. Edited by Sigmund Koch, Duke University. National Science Foundation contract

with American Psychological Association. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1963. Psychology : A Study of Science, Vol. VI–Investigation of Man as Socius: Their

Place in Psychology and the Social Sciences. Edited by Sigmund Koch, Duke University. National Science Foundation contract with American Psycho

logical Association. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1963. Psychology: A Study of Science, Vol. VII—Psychology and the Human Agent:

A View of Problems in the Enaction of a Science. Edited by Sigmund Koch, Duke University. National Science Foundation contract with American Psy

chological Association. In Press. Category 4. Textbooks and Associated Instructional Materials Flight Preparation Training Series: U.S. Navy, Training Division, Bureau of

Aeronautics. 10 volumes. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1943-1945. Demonstration and Laboratory Experiences in the Science of Aeronautics: A

Guide for Teachers and Students. U.S. Civil Aeronautics Administration and

the American Council on Education. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1945. Teaching Aeronautics in High Schools: A Study of Methods, Principles and

Measurements. U.S. Civil Aeronautics Administration and the American

Council on Education. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1947. Sets, Relations, and Functions: A Programmed Unit in Modern Mathematics.

Mura McFadden, Wendell I. Smith, and J. William Moore (Eds.), all of Bucknell University. U.S. Office of Education. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1963.

Wilkes College, Wendell I. Smith, and J. William Moore (Eds.), Bucknell University. C.S. Office of Education. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1963. Chemical Systems and Investigating Chemical Systems (Laboratory Guide) by

The Chemical Bond Approach Project. National Science Foundation. Copyright, Earlham College Press, Inc., 1963–1964. The Pluralistic Economy. E. Ginzberg, D. L. Hiestand, and B. G. Reubens, Colum

bia University. U.S. Department of Labor. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1965. Principles of Radar. Members of the Staff of the Radar School (operated for the

Bureau of Personnel of the United States Navy), Massachusetts Institute of

Technology. Copyright, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1946. Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. I—Mechanics. Charles Kittel, Walter D. Knight,

University of California at Berkeley, and Malvin Ruderman, New York University. National Science Foundation. Copyright, Educational Services, Inc.,

1965. Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. II-Electricity and Magnetism. E. M. Purcell,

Harvard University. National Science Foundation. Copyright, Educational

Services, Inc., 1965. English for Today: Book I-At Home and at School. National Council of Teach

ers of English. U.S. Information Agency. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1962 ;

revised edition 1965. English for Today: Book II–The World We Live In. National Council of

Teachers of English. U.S. Information Agency. Copyright, McGraw-Hill,

1962. English for Today: Book III–The Way We Live National Council of Teachers

of English. U.S. Information Agency. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1964. English for Today: Book IV–Our Changing World. National Council of Teach

ers of English. U.S. Information Agency. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1965. English for Today: Book V-Life in English-speaking Countries. National

Council of Teachers of English. U.S. Information Agency. In Press. English for Today: Book VI-Literature in English. National Council of

Teachers of English. U.S. Information Agency. Copyright, McGraw-Hill, 1964.

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