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The number of passengers carried during the year was 10,566,804, an equivalent of having carried 329,599,818 passengers one mile, an average haul per passenger of 31 miles.

The total passenger revenue this year was $6,580,668; the average amount received from each passenger 62 cents; the average receipt per passenger per mile 1.997 cents; the total passenger earnings were $8,952,167 and the passenger earnings per mile of road $6,273. The classification of freight carried this year is as follows: Products of agriculture 2,283,283 tons; products of animals 1,020,429 tons; product of mines 20,360,876 tons; products of forests 1,805,183 tons; products of manufactories 9,499,835; merchandise 284,714 tons. and miscellaneous shipments 1,868,952 tons, the total tonnage being 37,123,272, an equivalent of having carried 3,271,397,850 tons one mile, an average haul per ton of 100 miles.

The total freight revenue for the year was $23,627,635; the aver age amount received for each ton of freight 64 cents; average receipts per ton per mile .635 of a cent and the freight earnings per mile of road $16,886.

The passenger revenue and earnings this year were $8,952,167; the freight earnings and revenue $24,099,463; other earnings from operation $401,898, making the total earnings and income $33,453,528. To this should be added $157,642, income derived from dividends on stock, interest on bonds, etc., making the total earnings and income for the year covered by this report $33,611,170. Last year the total earnings and income were $29,847,861. Five years ago the total amount of the earnings and income was $22,950,308, showing an increase of about 50 per cent.

From the receipts from operation during the year the company paid for maintenance of way and structures $4,301,474; for mainte nance of equipment $6,348,413; for conducting transportation $12,463,987; for general expenses $649,612, making the total opearting expenses $23,763,485 and showing the percentage of operating expenses to earnings to be 71.03.

Other expenses were paid amounting to $7,317,458, making the grand total of expenditures $31,080,943. Last year the total expenditures amounted to $27,803,180, while five years ago the total expenditures of this corporation were only $20,890,935.

During the year this company has paid out in the way of dividends $1,841,596, leaving a surplus as the result of operations of $688,630. In conducting the business of the year there were no fatal casual ties among passengers; the non-fatal were 75; of employes there were 61 killed and 2,070 injured; of other persons 130 were killed and 174 injured, showing a total of 191 fatal accidents and 2,319 nonfatal. Last year there were 189 fatal accidents and 1,292 non-fatal,


Twenty years ago railroads other than those whose motive power was steam, were usually called street or passenger railways. The utilization of electricity as a motive power on these street and passenger railways has changed conditions most materially. Those lines of railways twenty years ago designated as street and passenger railways are greatly expanded and no longer is the name of that period applicable to these lines of transportation.

The impetus given by the employment of electricity as a motive power has worked marvels. These lines of transportation are not only in cities, within which they alone operated twenty years ago, but they are now interurban and extend into rural districts wher ever density of population will warrant their construction and ex tension.

Industrial affairs everywhere have greatly increased in twenty years, but there are few enterprises where the transition from one. condition to another has been so marked as in street railways since the introduction of the new power. The hum of the electric car is heard in every direction.

Cables were in use to some extent twenty years ago, but nowhere in Pennsylvania were cars propelled by electricity, the usual power being then the faithful horse.

All things have changed in these two decades. If we turn to the report of 1887 we shall find the capitalization of those transporta tion companies designated as passenger railways to have been $25,588,811. Now the amount is $183,653,441. Then there were 67 corporations making report; now there are 238. Besides these 238, hundreds of companies have been incorporated, their lines constructed, and in some form or other there has been a merger, a consolidation, or a community of interests by which scores of these companies have gone out of existence.

In 1887 the cost of road and equipment was represented to be $12,326,069; now it is $140,916,435.

In 1887 the total receipts from operation were $10,025,906; for the year covered by this report $41,039,186.

The total expenses in 1887 were $5,646,606; now the total expenses amount to $40,747,021.

Then the total trackage was 519.85 miles; now it is 3,325.33 miles. In 1887 the number of cars in service was 2,207; now 8,484. Then the total number of passengers carried was 184,835,994; now the number is 949,647,802.

In the operation of street railways in Pennsylvania twenty years ago there were 4 passengers killed and 17 injured; for the year covered by this report there were 65 passengers killed and 2,514 in.

jured. Of the total casualties among passengers, employes and other persons in 1887, 11 were fatal and 63 non-fatal, and for the year covered by this report 224 fatal and 4,681 non-fatal.

It is remarkable that in the percentage of increase, the highest percentage seems to be in the total number of accidents which have occurred both fatal and non-fatal, to passengers, employes and other persons. It will require a great deal of study to determine the rea sons for a greater increase in the percentage of accidents than in the percentage of other features of street railway affairs. The percentage of increase in the passengers carried, capitalization, expenses and all similar matters is much less than the percentage of increase in accidents.

It would be harsh to volunteer suggestions in this matter or to assign reasons without knowing that such assignments are based upon the facts in the case. Of one thing it is certain there can be no doubt, and that is that more accidents are occurring, not only on street railways, but also on steam railways, than are necessary, and another proposition is equally certain, that with the exhibition of care, with the introduction of safety appliances, with the abolishment of grade crossings with steam railways and so far as may be at all practicable, with public highways, a very great reduction can be made in the percentages of both fatal and non-fatal accidents. The consolidated tables regarding street railways present an assemblage of information of an interesting character, which will en able anyone to determine quickly the capitalization, the funded indebtedness, the current liabilities and assets, the receipts from oper ation and other sources, the expenditures for operation and for other matters, the dividends, the surplus or deficit and the mileage of each of the street railway companies operating lines of street railways in Pennsylvania, and also these same features as they relate to all subsidiary street railway lines operated by other corporations.

Combining the capitalization of operating street railways with that of subsidiary companies, it will be seen how rapidly money has been invested in these public enterprises, and comparison with con ditions existing twenty years ago will show how rapidly and substantially developments have been made.

One of the most remarkable features connected with these trans portation companies is that there is scarcely a vestige left of their physical or tangible affairs, which were utilized only two decades ago. The motive power has entirely changed except that there may be in some isolated cases a few cars which are hauled for a short distance by horses, and there may also be some localities where the cable is still in use, but the prevailing power is that of elec· tricity. The transition from one condition to another has been not

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only rapid but effectual. Of the old conditions existing twenty years ago, there is practically nothing left but the bare rights and franchises.

Such briefly is an epitome of street railways as they exist to-day compared with those that transacted the business of common carriers twenty years ago. Indeed, the advancement, the transition from one condition to another of street railways in Pennsylvania in twenty years furnishes one of the greatest examples of the change of uses that can be found in any direction in the industrial affairs of the nation.

The means of operation then, the amount of business done of that comparatively short time ago, seems but a dream; scarcely a reminicence; nothing tangible left except the record of business transact tions as they appear in the published reports of these corporations All this seems to have come from harnessing and utilizing that unseen power of which it may be said, "No man knoweth whence it cometh or whither it goeth."


In these days of discussion by certain schools of political economists, there are many and varied theories presented for the consideration of the American people regarding common carriers.

Two theories seem strongly advocated, one based on populistic and socialistic ideas, that the Government of the United States should own interstate railroads, and that the states should own railroads that are intra state. The other theory, which is strongly supported also, is that the government should not own, but should control common carrier corporations so far, and so far only, as is necessary to make common carrier corporations true conservators of the commerce of the country; furnishing all the facilities, the conveniences, and the instrumentalities for the transportation of passengers and commodities, the transportation of which is desired, to the markets in this country, or for shipment abroad.

This latter theory relating to the control of railroads and other transportation companies, is supported to some extent, by socialistic theories, and to that extent, invites the opposition of some of the most thoughtful people of our State and Nation.

But while opposed by those thoughtful people, it is not so repulsive to them, as is the first theory, that the government should own transportation companies.

These questions relating to government ownership and government control seem to be rising in importance as a result of our increasing commerce, and on account also of the investigations which are made by political economists on these important affairs which relate to transportation, and the legal and public problems involved.

Standing at the threshold, the first question to be solved is, can the government of the United States legally own railroads? For if it can own, it can operate railroads, and thereby hold in its grasp the entire transportation facilities of the United States.

During a greater portion of the existence of the Republic, the courts have placed limitations upon the powers of Congress, restricting that body in the scope of its legislative action, and the powers that were expressly conferred upon it in the National Constitution, and in the amendments which have since been made thereto.

Some departures have been made since the beginning of the Civil War, and as a result of that war, by which the powers of Congress appear to have been greatly broadened, and extended.

We have not, however, reached an entire reversal of the original theory as to the powers of Congress, and there still remain limitations beyond which Congress cannot go, in the regulation of con merce, and the industrial and business affairs.

The Legislature in each State of the Union, seems to have conferred upon it the power to legislate in any direction except so far as those powers may have been delegated to Congress in the National Constitution, or so far also, as the power to legislate may have been restricted in state constitutions.

In other words, in Pennsylvania, the Legislature is restricted in the enactment of laws, only so far as the constitution of the State may prevent, or the delegated powers to the Nation, may de prive her legislature from taking action in certain directions.

The State cannot legally pass any laws to regulate trade between the states of the American Union, or as might be more properly said, enact any laws that will interfere with interstate commerce, for that right and duty were clearly delegated to Congress at the time of the adoption of the National Constitution.

Does, however, this delegated power to regulate interstate com merce carry with it the power to own railroads?

If that power exists, it must be an implied power, for nowhere in the Constitution of the United States will be found any phrase ology wherein expressed powers are given to Congress to own lines of transportation, where such lines of transportation are used for the transportation of the commerce of the country.

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