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equal to that of the liquor or vapour when it enters the apparatus.

These contrivances are proposed, firstly, for condensing the spirituous vapours emitted from distillation; secondly, for cooling brewer's worts and distiller's wash, or other liquors; and, thirdly, for condensing the eduction steam of an engine. The principal advantage that appears to be proposed by the Patentees, is the facility of separating the parts of the apparatus for cleaning and repairs.

A refrigerator, constructed with extended narrow passages between thin plates, in which the cold water flows in one direction, and the hot vapour or liquor in the opposite direction, formed the subject of a patent granted to James Yandal, in August, 1826; (see the thirteenth volume of our First Series, p. 65;) and a condenser constructed of tubes, through which steam or other vapours passed in one direction, while cold water passed in the opposite direction, for the purpose of condensing the former, and thereby beating the latter, constituted part of a patent granted to Dr. Church, Septemher, 1833. (See our present Conjoined Series, vol. iv. p. 233.)-[Inrolled in the Inrolment Office, January, 1835.]

T. THOMAS ELLIS, of Stamford-hill, in the county of

Middleser, Esq., and THOMAS BURR, of Shrewsbury, in the county of Salop, plumber, for their invention of improvements in the manufacture of sheets and pipes, or tubes, and other articles of lead and other metal. [Sealed 24th November, 1836.]

This invention consists of improvements in that mode of manufacturing tubes, for which a patent was formerly granted by his late Majesty, Geo. IV., to Mr. Thomas Burr, bearing date the 11th day of April, 1820, (see London Journal of Arts, vol. i. First Series, p. 411,) according to which invention, lead was pressed out of a cylinder through dies, called washers or thimbles, having an internal die or core.

Now, the object of the present improvements consists, first, in applying a certain elongation to such cylinder from which the lead is forced, whereby the Patentees are, by the aid of wedges, enabled more securely to hold and adjust the dies used in making the pipes or tubes; and which, for performing one part of their invention, are cut open longitudinally in the act of making, and thus produce sheets of lead. Secondly, the invention consists in a mode of applying a coating or covering of tin, or a compound of tin and alloys, to the internal and external surfaces of a lead tube, or pipe, or other articles produced by forcing lead through dies, simultaneously with the formation of the pipe or tube itself, or of the making of the other articles, depending on the shape or form of the dies put into the machine ; and, thirdly, in the application of a conical or inclined surface, and a suitable cutting instrument to the apparatus for making pipes or tubes, in order (in the act of forming the same) that they may be laid out and flattened into sheets, as hereafter described.

Plate II., fig. 1, represents a section of the machinery used for making lead into pipes or tubes, whether it be laid open into sheets or otherwise, or to be coated internally or externally, or both, with tin or a compound of tin : a, a, is a strong hollow cylinder of cast iron, which is similar to the cylinder used under the former patent; but, in the present cylinder, the upper part b, b, is added, there being suitable openings formed therein in order to have the wedges c, c, passed through, they having inclined surfaces at their inner ends, resting on the upper part of the die d, (the construction of which is clearly shown in the drawing), by which means the die d, is securely held in its place; in addition to which, the die can be most accurately adjusted by driving the wedges with care, first one and then the other; e, is a smooth steel or other suitable rod affixed to the piston f, the rod e, serving as the internal core for forming the inner surface of the pipe, or tube, as the metal is forced out through the die d. The piston f, is fitted to slide freely, yet closely in the cylinder a, a, and is affixed to the upper end of the plunger or piston of an hydraulic press; &, is a hole drilled or formed in the side of the cylinder a, in which lead is kept; and h, is another holo drilled or formed in the cylinder a, a, in which tin, or a compound of tin are placed; and the cylinder a, a, is kept heated by a flue or jacket passing round it, to such a degree as will keep the tin well melted; but should the lead in the other hole melt, the workman must damp off or lower the beat.

The drawing represents the machinery arranged for making lead pipes or tubes of an inch diameter, which, in the act of making, are coated internally and externally with tin, or a compound thereof. The workman first pours melted lead into the cylinder a, a, through the die d, or through a holo made in the upper end of the cylinder, which hole is aíterwards stopped by a plug or screw, the piston being at the lower end of that cylinder to admit thereof; and the same is permitted to set before the pump of the hydraulic press is put to work. A quantity of tin is placed on the die d, and, as the cylinder a, and the died, are kept to a sufficient degree of temperature at all times, the tin will remain in a fluid

státe. On the pump of the hydraulic press being worked, the piston of the press will slowly rise in the cylinder a, a, pressing out the lead therefrom in the form of a tube or pipe, which coming in contact with the fluid tin, will be coated on the inside and outside, the workman supplying a quantity of tin on the inside of the tube or pipe as soon as it rises a few inches above the die d.

It will be evident, from the above description, that in case lead pipes uncombined with tin are desired, the tin or coating compound of tin is to be omitted; and in case it is desired to make sheets, by laying open the pipe or tube produced as above, an apparatus, fig. 2, is to be used, it being intended to open the pipe to such an extent as will allow of the same being readily rolled up as if it were a flat sheet; g, is a cone securely fixed over the die d, so as to allow of the core coming up to it at the completion of its movement in the rising of the piston in the cylinder a, a.

On the cone g, or at other convenient position, is affixed a cutting edge against which the pipe or tube coming as it is forced upwards in the act of forming, it is cut, and by the cone is laid open to such an extent as to be sufficient for the purpose of being rolled up as if it were a flat sheet.

The other figure of the drawing shows another die, which may be used for producing other articles to be coated with tin in the act of making.

“Having thus described the nature of our invention, we would have it understood that we lay no claim to those parts which were formerly used and described in the said Thomas Burr's said specification to his former patent; but what we do claim is, first, the application of the elongation b, of the cylinder a, a, for receiving the wedges c, c, for forming sheets, and pipes or tubes, and

VOL. XI.

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other articles of lead and other metal as above de. scribed ; secondly, we claim the mode of coating the inner and outer surfaces of lead pipes or tubes, and other articles, with tin or compounds thereof, when in the act of making such tubes or pipes, and other articles, by the description of machinery herein described ; but we do not claim coating of lead pipes or other articles with tin by a subsequent process, that having been before accomplished by other means; and, thirdly, we claim the application to such description of machinery, suitable surfaces and cutting instruments for laying the pipes or tubes longitudinally, and for making sheet lead therefrom in the act of making tubes or pipes; but we do not claim generally the using of a cutting edge to such machinery, we having before used a cutting edge in combination with such machinery for marking the tubes longitudinally, in order to their being subsequently cut open for open pipes.--[Inrolled in the Inrolment Office, May, 1837.]

To WILLIAM HANCOCK, of Windsor-place, City-road,

in the county of Middlesex, gentleman, for his invention of certain improvements in bookbinding.-[Sealed 7th December, 1836.]

These improvements in bookbinding consist in attaching the leaves of books at their backs by means of caoutchouc or Indian rubber in a fluid state, or in a thin sheet.

The leaves of the books to be bound, after being folded, and beaten or pressed, and placed in their proper positions, instead of being notched and sown at the back, as usual, are to be fixed in the ordinary cutting

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