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Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures.



Recent Patents.

To JAMES DREDGE, of the parish of Walcot, in the city

of Bath, and county of Somerset, brewer, for his invention of certain improvements in the construction of suspension chains for bridges, viaducts, aqueducts, and other purposes, and in the construction of such bridges, viaducts, or aqueducts.[Sealed 17th June, 1836.]

These improvements in the construction of suspension chains for bridges and other erections to be supported on the principles of suspension, and in the construction of such bridges and other suspended erections, have for their object, first, a means of affording greater strength and stability than has been obtained by any of the varied constructions of suspension bridges, piers, or other erections of that kind, which have been heretofore formed of corresponding magnitude and ex



tent; and, secondly, the economy of materials and labour required to be expended in such erections.

These objects are effected in the first instance, by so arranging and connecting a series of parallel links to constitute the chains, that the chain may diminish in breadth, and, consequently, in weight, as it recedes from the point or points of suspension; secondly, in applying such chains to the purposes of constructing suspension bridges and other similar erections, in connexion with inclined suspension rods or bars instead of the usual perpendicular suspension rods or bars, by means of which I am enabled so to connect the longitudinal bearings of the horizontal platform or roadway to the hanging chains, that the weight or principal leverage of the erection may be removed from the centre, and be sustained by the stronger parts of the chains increasing towards the abutments; thirdly, in the employment of transverse tie-beams of a peculiar construction for confining the longitudinal bearings of the horizontal platform or roadway; and, fourthly, the adaptation of a ball and socket bearing to the inclined suspension bars or rods, by means of which, the level or proper position of the platform may be readily adjusted.

In Plate I., fig. 1, represents, upon a large scale, a portion of chains formed by sets of links placed side by side in parallel series a, a, a, a, a, a; b, b, b, b, b; C, C, C, C; &c., connected together by transverse bolts %, %, 2, the links of each of which series diminish in number as they recede from the piers or points of suspension. Fig. 2, represents a side elevation of a suspension bridge constructed with chains of this description, and inclined suspension rods or bars m, m, m; fig. 3, is a plan or horizontal view of the same; and fig. 4, is a transverse section taken through the bridge in a vertical direction. Fig. 5, represents a portion of one of the suspension rods m, showing its lower end, with the ball and socket bearing o, having a screw-nut p, for the purpose of adjustment. The ball bears against a recess or socket formed in the under part of the saddle piece q, through which the longitudinal bars r, r, pass that support the platform; fig. 6, is another representation of the same, taken transversely; s, is a part of one of the transverse tie-beams, which it will be seen by fig. 4, is bowed upwards; and t, is the string or tension rod, which confines it. The means by which the transverse tie-beams s, and their tension rods t, are connected to the saddle pieces q, that the lateral longitudinal bars r, pass through, will be seen by reference to the figs. 5, and 6, and require no further explanation. They are intended to confine the longitudinal bars and to prevent the structure from vibrating in lateral directions, while the peculiar manner in which the suspending rods m, m, are applied, will prevent vibrations in vertical directions. On the top of the tie-beams, the planking u, u, is placed, for the reception of the roadway o.

“I would here remark, that if it is thought desirable, two or more inclined suspension rods may diverge from each link of the chain to different parts of the platform, instead of only one, as shown in the drawings; and, that they may be attached thereto in any convenient manner.

Lastly, I desire it to be understood, that I do not intend to confine myself to any particular dimensions of the parts of which the suspended erection shall be formed, nor of the particular number of the links to be connected in each parallel series, nor to any particular angle from the perpendicular, at which the suspending rods shall be placed ; but, that which I do claim as my invention, is the construction of a chain to be applied to the purposes of suspension, which shall diminish in breadth and weight as it recedes from the point or points of suspension; also the construction of a bridge or other suspended erection by means of such chains, in connexion with inclined suspension rods, supporting the platform or horizontal part of such erection; likewise the manner of bracing the parts together by trapsverse bow and string tie-beams, and the mode of adjustment by the ball and socket connexions." [Inrolled in the Rolls Chapel Office, December, 1836.]

Specification drawn by Messrs. Newton and Berry.

To John CHANTER, of Stamford-street, Blackfriars,

in the county of Surrey, gentleman, and WILLIAM Witty, of Basford Cottage, near Newcastle, in the county of Stafford, engineer, for their invention of an improved method or improved methods of abstracting heat from steam or other vapours and fluids, applicable to stills, breweries, and other useful purposes.-[Sealed 26th July, 1834.]

This is a refrigerating apparatus for condensing vapours or cooling worts, consisting of a series of narrow chambers or vessels, through which a current of cold water is made to flow; and between these vessels or chambers the vapour to be condensed or the liquor to be cooled is made to pass in an opposite direction.

It will, from this slight description, be immediately

perceived that the principles on which this apparatus is founded, are the same as those of many other refrigerators that have preceded it; whatever novelty, therefore, tbis suggested improvement may present, must be looked for in the form of the apparatus alone.

Plate I., fig. 7, represents a section of the refrigerating apparatus, consisting of a series of very thin or narrow vessels or chambers of rectangular shapes, as seen at a, a, formed by thin plates of tinned copper, rivetted together. These vessels are placed side by side at the distance of about a quarter of an inch apart, and are kept from actual contact by small round studs.

The series of vessels are mounted in a wooden vat b, b, having a false bottom, and at the back part there are a series of flat pipes b, which severally communi. cate with the interiors of the respective vessels at their lower parts. These pipes are supplied with cold water from the cistern c, which water flows through the vessels a, in the direction of the arrow, and passes off at top by a tube d, into the chamber e, whence it flows away by a waste pipe.

The vapour to be condensed or liquor to be cooled is admitted into the apparatus by a pipe leading into the chamber f, and from thence it flows downwards through the spaces between the several chambers a, and discharges itself through the false bottom into the chamber g, and proceeds by the pipe h, into a receiving vessel.

A modification of this contrivance is proposed, consisting of a series of cylindrical tubes fixed in a frame, each having a lesser tube within it. The cold water is made to pass upwards through the spaces between the outer and inner tubes, and the vapour or wort to pass downwards through the internal tubes, thereby causing the hot liquor or vapour to transfer its heat to the cold water, which is discharged at a temperature nearly

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