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for planning, implementing, and evaluating community development efforts; and

(4) concerted action by Federal, State, and local governments to address the economic and social hardships borne by commu

nities as a consequence of scarce fuel supplies. (c) The primary objective of this title and of the community de velopment program of each grantee under this title is the develop ment of viable urban communities, by providing decent housing and a suitable living environment and expanding economic opportunities, principally for persons of low and moderate income. Consistent with this primary objective, not less than 51 percent of the aggregate of the Federal assistance provided under section 106 and, if applicable, the funds received as a result of a guarantee under section 108, shall be used for the support of activities that benefit persons of low and moderate income, and the Federal assistance provided in this title is for the support of community development activities which are directed toward the following specific objectives,

(1) the elimination of slums and blight and the prevention of blighting influences and the deterioration of property and neighborhood and community facilities of importance to the welfare of the community, principally persons of low and moderate income;

(2) the elimination of conditions which are detrimental to health, safety, and public welfare, through code enforcement, demolition, interim rehabilitation assistance, and related activities;

(3) the conservation and expansion of the Nation's housing stock in order to provide a decent home and a suitable living environment for all persons, but principally those of low and moderate income;

(4) the expansion and improvement of the quantity and quality of community services, principally for persons of low and moderate income, which are essential for sound community development and for the development of viable urban communities;

(5) a more rational utilization of land and other natural resources and the better arrangement of residential, commercial, industrial, recreational, and other needed activity centers;

(6) the reduction of the isolation of income groups within communities and geographical areas and the promotion of an increase in the diversity and vitality of neighborhoods through the spatial deconcentration of housing opportunities for persons of lower income and the revitalization of deteriorating or deteriorated neighborhoods to attract persons of higher income;

(7) the restoration and preservation of properties of special value for historic, architectural, or esthetic reasons;

(8) the alleviation of physical and economic distress through the stimulation of private investment and community revitalization in areas with population outmigration or a stagnating or declining tax base; and

(9) the conservation of the Nation's scarce energy resources, improvement of energy efficiency, and the provision of alterna

tive and renewable energy sources of supply. It is the intent of Congress that the Federal assistance made available under this title not be utilized to reduce substantially the amount of local financial support for community development activities below the level of such support prior to the availability of such assistance.

(d) It is also the purpose of this title to further the development of a national urban growth policy by consolidating a number of complex and overlaping programs of financial assistance to communities of varying sizes and needs into a consistent system of Federal aid which

(1) provides assistance on an annual basis, with maximum certainty and minimum delay, upon which communities can rely in their planning;

(2) encourages community development activities which are consistent with comprehensive local and areawide development planning;

(3) furthers achievement of the national housing goal of a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family; and

(4) fosters the undertaking of housing and community development activities in a coordinated and mutually supportive manner by Federal agencies and programs, as well as by communities.

DEFINITIONS Sec. 102. (a) As used in this title

(1) The term "unit of general local government” means any city, county, town, township, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State; Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, or a general purpose political subdivision thereof; a combination of such political subdivisions recognized by the Secretary; the District of Columbia; and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Such term also includes a State or a local public body or agency (as defined in section 711 of the Housing and Urban De velopment Act of 1970), community association, or other entity, which is approved by the Secretary for the purpose of providing public facilities or services to a new community as part of a program meeting the eligibility standards of section 712 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970 or title IV of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968.

(2) The term "State" means any State of the United States, or any instrumentality_thereof approved by the Governor; and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(3) The term "metropolitan area" means a standard metro politan statistical area as established by the Office of Management and Budget.

(4) The term "metropolitan city" means (A) a city within a metropolitan area which is the central city of such area, as de fined and used by the Office of Management and Budget, or (B) any other city, within a metropolitan area, which has a population of fifty thousand or more. In order to permit an orderly transition of each city losing its classification as a metropolitan city by reason of the population data of the 1980 decennial census or revisions in the designation of metropolitan areas or central cities, any city classified as or deemed by law to be a metropolitan city for purposes of assistance under any section of this title for fiscal year 1983 shall retain such qualification for purposes of receiving such assistance for fiscal years 1984 and 1985. Any unit of general local government that becomes eligible to be classified as a metropolitan city for fiscal year 1984 or 1985, may, upon submission of written notification to the Secretary, defer its classification as a metropolitan city for all purposes under this title for fiscal years 1984, 1985, and 1986 if such unit of general local government elects to have its population included in an urban county under subsection (d).

(5) The term "city" means (A) any unit of general local government which is classified as a municipality by the United States Bureau of the Census or (B) any other unit of general local government which is a town or township and which, in the determination of the Secretary, (i) possesses powers and performs functions comparable to those associated with municipalities, (ii) is closely settled, and (iii) contains within its boundaries no incorporated places as defined by the United States Bureau of the Census which have not entered into cooperation agreements with such town or township to undertake or to assist in the undertaking of essential community development and housing assistance activities.

(6) The term "urban county" means any county within a metropolitan area which (A) is authorized under State law to undertake essential community development and housing assistance activities in its unincorporated areas, if any, which are not units of general local government, and either (B) has a combined population of two hundred thousand or more (excluding the population of metropolitan cities therein) in such unincorporated areas and in its included units of general local government (i) in which it has authority to undertake essential community development and housing assistance activities and which do not elect to have their population excluded or (ii) with which it has entered into cooperation agreements to undertake or to assist in the undertaking of essential community development and housing assistance activities, or (C) has a population in excess of one hundred thousand, a population density of at least five thousand persons per square mile, and contains within its boundries no incorporated places as defined by the United States Bureau of the Census. In order to permit an orderly transition of each county losing its classification as an urban county by reason of a decrease in population, any county classified as or deemed to be an urban county under this paragraph for purposes of receiving assistance under any section of this title for fiscal year 1983 shall retain such qualification for purposes of receiving such assistance for fiscal years 1984 and 1985, or for such longer period covered by a co operation agreement entered into during fiscal year 1984,

except that the provisions of this sentence shall not apply with respect to any county losing its classification as an urban county by reason of the election of any unit of general local government included in such county to have its population excluded under clause (BXi) of the first sentence or to not renew a cooperation agreement under clause (BXii) of such sentence. Notwithstanding the combined population amount set forth in clause (B) of the first sentence, a county shall also qualify as an urban county for purposes of assistance under section 106 if such county (A) complies with all other requirements set forth in the first sentence; (B) has, according to the most recent available decennial census data, a combined population between 190,000 and 199,999, inclusive (excluding the population of metropolitan cities therein) in all its unincorporated areas that are not units of general local government and in all units of general local government located within such county; (C) had a population growth rate of not less than 15 percent during the most recent 10-year period measured by applicable censuses; and (D) has submitted data satisfactory to the Secretary that it has a combined population of not less than 200,000 (excluding the population of metropolitan cities therein) in all its unincorporated areas that are not units of general local government and in all units of general local government located within such county.

(7) The term “nonentitlement area" means an area which is not a metropolitan city or part of an urban county.

(8) The term “population" means total resident population based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time.

(9) The term "extent of poverty” means the number of persons whose incomes are below the poverty level. Poverty levels shall be determined by the Secretary pursuant to criteria provided by the Office of Management and Budget, taking into account and making adjustments, if feasible and appropriate and in the sole discretion of the Secretary, for regional or area variations in income and cost of living, and shall be based on data referable to the same point or period in time.

(10) The term "extent of housing overcrowding” means the number of housing units with 1.01 or more persons per room based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time.

(11) The term “age of housing" means the number of existing housing units constructed in 1939 or earlier based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time.

(12) The term "extent of growth lag” means the number of persons who would have been residents in a metropolitan city or urban county, in excess of the current population of such metropolitan city or urban county, if such metropolitan city or urban county had had a population growth rate between 1960 and the date of the most recent population count referable to the same point or period in time equal to the population growth rate for such period of all metropolitan cities.

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(13) The term "housing stock" means the number of existing housing units based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time.

(14) The term “adjustment factor" means the ratio between the age of housing in the metropolitan city or urban county and the predicted age of housing in such city or county.

(15) The term "predicted age of housing' means the arithmetic product of the housing stock in the metropolitan city or urban county multiplied times the ratio between the age of housing in all metropolitan areas and the housing stock in all metropolitan areas.

(16) The term "adjusted age of housing" means the arithmetic product of the age of housing in the metropolitan city or urban county multiplied times the adjustment factor.

(17) The term “Indian tribe” means any Indian tribe, band, group, and nation, including Alaska Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos, and any Alaskan Native Village, of the United States, which is considered an eligible recipient under the Indian SelfDetermination and Education Assistance Act (Public Law 93638) or under chapter 67 of title 31, United States Code.

(18) The term “Federal grant-in-aid program” means a program of Federal financial assistance other than loans and other than the assistance provided by this title.

(19) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

(20XA) The terms "persons of low and moderate income" and "low- and moderate-income persons” mean families and individuals whose incomes do not exceed 80 percent of the median income of the area involved, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families. The term "persons of low income” means families and individuals whose incomes do not exceed 50 percent of the median income of the area involved, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families. The term “persons of moderate income" means families and individuals whose incomes exceed 50 percent, but do not exceed 80 percent, of the median income of the area involved, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families. For purposes of such terms, the area involved shall be determined in the same manner as such area is determined for purposes of assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937.

(B) The Secretary may establish percentages of median income for any area that are higher or lower than the percentages set forth in subparagraph (A), if the Secretary finds such variations to be necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes in such area.

(21) The term "buildings for the general conduct of government” means city halls, county administrative buildings, State capitol or office buildings, or other facilities in which the legislative or general administrative affairs of the government are conducted. Such term does not include such facilities as neighborhood service centers or special purpose buildings located in

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