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thereof, and to make advance or progress payments in connection therewith.
(c) The Secretary of Defense (through the Army Corps of Engineers), the Secretary of the Interior (through the United States Ge ological Survey), the Secretary of Agriculture (through the Soil Conservation Service), the Secretary of Commerce (through the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration), the head of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the heads of all other Federal agencies engaged in the identification or delineation of flood-risk zones within the several States shall, in consultation with the Director, give the highest practicable priority in the allocation of available manpower and other available resources to the identification and mapping of flood hazard areas and flood-risk zones, in order to assist the Director to meet the deadline established by this section.
(d) The Director shall, not later than September 30, 1984, submit to the Congress a plan for bringing all communities containing flood-risk zones into full program status by September 30, 1987.
CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE
SEC. 1361. (a) The Director is authorized to carry out studies and investigations, utilizing to the maximum extent practicable the existing facilities and services of other Federal departments or agencies, and State and local governmental agencies, and any other organizations, with respect to the adequacy of State and local measures in flood-prone areas as to land management and use, flood control, flood zoning, and flood damage prevention, and may enter into any contracts, agreements or other appropriate arrangements to carry out such authority.
(b) Such studies and investigations shall include, but not be limited to, laws, regulations or ordinances relating to encroachments and obstructions on stream channels and floodways, the orderly de velopment and use of flood plains of rivers or streams, floodway encroachment lines, and flood plain zoning, building codes, building permits, and subdivision or other building restrictions.
(c) On the basis of such studies and investigations, and such other information as he deems necessary, the Director shall from time to time develop comprehensive critera designed to encourage, where necessary, the adoption of adequate State and local measures which, to the maximum extent feasible, will
(1) construct the development of land which is exposed to flood damage where appropriate,
(2) guide the development of proposed construction away from locations which are threatened by flood hazards,
(3) assist in reducing damage caused by floods, and
(4) otherwise improve the long-range land management and
use of flood prone areas, and he shall work closely with and provide any necessary technical assistance to State, interstate, and local governmental agencies, to encourage the application of such criteria and the adoption and enforcement of such measures.
PURCHASE OF CERTAIN INSURED PROPERTIES
Sec. 1362. (a) The Director may, when he determines that the public interest would be served thereby, enter into negotiations with any owner of real property or interest therein which
(1) was located in any flood-risk area, as determined by the Director,
(2) was covered by flood insurance under the flood insurance program authorized under this title, and
(3) incurred significant flood damage on not less than three previous occasions over a five-year period of time and on each occasion the cost of repair, on the average, equaled or exceeded 25 per centum of the value of the structure at the time of each flood event or was damaged substantially beyond repair by
flood while so covered, (b) When any real property referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) has sustained damage as a result of a single casualty of any nature under such circumstances that a statute, ordinance or regulation precludes its repair or restoration or permits repair or restoration only at a significantly increased construction cost, the Director may enter into negotiations with the owner of the property or interest therein for the purchase of such property for the uses and purposes of this section.
(c) Whenever, as a result of damage from any casualty, the repair, reconstruction, or substantial improvement of any singlefamily dwelling structure located within a regulatory floodway and insured under the flood insurance program is deemed by the Director to be made more effective from the standpoint of prudent flood plain management by elevation of the structure so it will not interfere with the flow of water from the base flood within such regulatory floodway, the Director is authorized to make a low-interest loan at a rate of interest of 2 per centum per annum, repayable in ten years, to the owner of any such structure for the purpose of so elevating the structure. There is authorized to be appropriated for
rposes of implementing this subsection not to exceed $4,500,000. (d) The Director is authorized to issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this section.
Sec. 1363. (a) In establishing projected flood elevations for land use purposes with respect to any community pursuant to section 1361, the Director shall first propose such determinations by publication for comment in the Federal Register, by direct notification to the chief executive officer of the community, and by publication in a prominent local newspaper.
(b) The Director shall publish notification of flood elevation determinations in a prominent local newspaper at least twice during the ten-day period following notification to the local government. During the ninety-day period following the second publication, any owner or lessee of real property within the community who believes his property rights to be adversely affected by the Director's proposed determination may appeal such determination to the local government. The sole basis for such appeal shall be the possession of knowledge or information indicating that elevations being proposed by the Director with respect to an identified area having special flood hazards are scientifically or technically incorrect, and the sole relief which shall be granted under the authority of this section in the event that such appeal is sustained in accordance with subsection (e) or (f) is a modification of the Director's proposed determination accordingly.
(c) Appeals by private persons shall be made to the chief executive officer of the community, or to such agency as he shall publicly designate, and shall set forth the data that tend to negate or contradict the Director's finding in such form as the chief executive officer may specify. The community shall review and consolidate all such appeals and issue a written opinion stating whether the evidence presented is sufficient to justify an appeal on behalf of such persions by the community in its own name. Whether or not the community decides to appeal the Director's determination, copies of individual appeals shall be sent to the Director as they are received by the community, and the community's appeal or a copy of its decision not to appeal shall be filed with the Director not later than ninety days after the date of the second newspaper publication of the Director's notification.
(d) In the event the Director does not receive an appeal from the community within the ninety days provided he shall consolidate and review on their own merits, in accordance with the procedures set forth in subsection (e), the appeals filed within the community by private persons and shall make such modifications of his proposed determinations as may be appropriate, taking into account the written opinion, if any, issued by the community in not supporting such appeals. The Director's decision shall be in written form, and copies thereof shall be sent both to the chief executive officer of the community and to each individual appellant.
(e) Upon appeal by any community, as provided by this section, the Director shall review and take fully into account any technical or scientific data submitted by the community that tend to negate or contradict the information upon which his proposed determination is based. The Director shall resolve such appeal by consultation with officials of the local government involved, by administrative hearing, or by submission of the conflicting data to an inde pendent scientific body or appropriate Federal agency for advice. Until the conflict in data is resolved, and the Director makes a final determination on the basis of his findings in the Federal Register, and so notifies the governing body of the community, flood insurance previously available within the community shall continue to be available, and no person shall be denied the right to purchase such insurance at chargeable rates. The Director shall make his determination within a reasonable time. The community shall be given a reasonable time after the Director's final determination in which to adopt local land use and control measures consistent with the Director's determination. The reports and other information used by the Director in making his final determination shall be made available for public inspection and shall be admissible in a
court of law in the event the community seeks judicial review as provided by this section.
(f) When, incident to any appeal under subsection (b) or (c), the owner or lessee of real property or the community, as the case may be, incurs expense in connection with the services of surveyors, engineers, or similar services, but not including legal services, in the effecting of an appeal which is successful in whole or in part, the Director shall reimburse such individual or community to an extent measured by the ratio of the successful portion of the appeal as compared to the entire appeal and applying such ratio to the reasonable value of all such services, but no reimbursement shall be made by the Director in respect to any fee or expense payment, the payment of which was agreed to be contingent upon the result of the appeal. There is authorized to be appropriated for purposes of implementing this subsection, not to exceed $250,000.
(g) Any appellant aggrieved by any final determination of the Director upon administrative appeal, as provided by this section, may appeal such determination to the United States district court for the district within which the community is located not more than sixty days after receipt of notice of such determination. The scope of review by the court shall be as provided by chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code. During the pendency of any such litigation, all final determinations of the Director shall be effective for the purposes of this title unless stayed by the court for good cause shown.
NOTICE OF FLOOD HAZARDS
Sec. 1364. Each Federal instrumentality responsible for the supervision, approval, regulation or insuring of banks, savings and loan associations, or similar institutions shall by regulation require such institutions, as a condition of making, increasing, extending, or renewing (after the expiration of thirty days following the date of the enactment of this section) any loan secured by improved real estate or a mobile home located or to be located in an area that has been identified by the Director under this title or Public Law 93234 as an area having special flood hazards, to notify the purchaser or lessee (or obtain satisfactory assurances that the seller or lessor has notified the purchaser or lessee) of such special flood hazards, in writing, a reasonable period in advance of the signing of the purchase agreement, lease, or other documents involved in the transaction.
CHAPTER IV-APPROPRIATIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS
SEC. 1370. (a) As used in this title
(1) the term "flood" shall have such meaning as may be prescribed in regulations of the Director, and may include inundation from rising waters or from the overflow of streams, rivers, or other bodies of water, or from tidal surges, abnormally high tidal water, tidal waves, tsunamis, hurricanes, or other severe storms or deluge;
(2) the terms "United States" (when used in a geographic sense) and “State” includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the territories and possessions, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands;
(3) the terms "Insurance company”, “other insurer” and “insurance agent or broker” include any organizations and persons authorized to engage in the insurance business under the laws of any State;
(4) the term "insurance adjustment organization" includes any organizations and persons engaged in the business of adjusting loss claims arising under insurance policies issued by any insurance company or other insurer;
(5) the term “person” includes any individual or group of individuals, corporation, partnership, association, or any other organized group of persons, including State and local governments and agencies thereof; and
(6) the term “Director" means the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. (b) The term "flood” shall also include inundation from mudslides which are proximately caused by accumulations of water on or under the ground; and all of the provisions of this title shall apply with respect to such mudslides in the same manner and to the same extent as with respect to floods described in paragraph (1), subject to and in accordance with such regulations, modifying the provisions of this title (including the provisions relating to land management and use) to the extent necessary to insure that they can be effectively so applied, as the Director may prescribe to achieve (with respect to such mudslides) the purposes of this title and the objectives of the program.
(c) The term “flood” shall also include the collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels, and all of the provisions of this title shall apply with respect to such collapse or subsidence in the same manner and to the same extent as with respect to floods described in paragraph (1), subject to and in accordance with such regulations, modifying the provisions of this title (including the provisions relating to land management and use) to the extent necessary to insure that they can be effectively so applied, as the Director may prescribe to achieve (with respect to such collapse or subsidence) the purposes of this title and the objectives of the program.
STUDIES OF OTHER NATURAL DISASTERS
Sec. 1371. (a) The Director is authorized to undertake such studies as may be necessary for the purpose of determining the extent to which insurance protection against earthquakes or any other natural disaster perils, other than flood, is not available from public or private sources, and the feasibility of such insurance protection being made available.
(b) Studies under this section shall be carried out, to the maximum extent practicable, with the cooperation of other Federal de partments and agencies and State and local agencies, and the Di