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purposes on and after July 1, 1939, exceed 10 per centum of the total amount of such loans, advances of credit, and purchases: Provided, That with respect to any loan, advance of credit, or purchase made after the effective date of the Housing Act of 1954, the amount of any claim for loss on any such individual loan, advance of credit, or purchase paid by the Secretary under the provisions of this section to a lending institution shall not exceed 90 per centum of such loss.

After the effective date of the Housing Act of 1954, (i) the Secretary shall not enter into contracts for insurance pursuant to this section except with lending institutions which are subject to the inspection and supervision of a governmental agency required by law to make periodic examinations of their books and accounts, and which the Secretary finds to be qualified by experience or facilities to make and service such loans, advances or purchases, and with such other lending institutions which the Secretary approves as eligible for insurance pursuant to this section on the basis of their credit and their experience or facilities to make and service such loans, advances or purchases; (ii) only such items as substantially protect or improve the basic livability or utility of properties shall be eligible for financing under this section, and therefore the Secretary shall from time to time declare ineligible for financing under this section any item, product, alteration, repair, improvement, or class thereof which he determines would not substantially protect or improve the basic livability or utility of such properties, and he may also declare ineligible for financing under this section any item which he determines is especially subject to selling abuses; and (iii) the Secretary is hereby authorized and directed, by such regulations or procedures as he shall deem advisable, to prevent the use of any financial assistance under this section (1) with respect to new residential structures other than manufactured homes that have not been completed and occupied for at least six months, or (2) which would, through multiple loans, result in an outstanding aggregate loan balance with respect to the same structure exceeding the dollar amount limitation prescribed in this subsection for the type of loan involved: Provided, That this clause (iii) may in the discretion of the Secretary be waived with respect to the period of occupancy or completion of any such new residential structures. The Secretary is hereby authorized and directed, with respect to manufactured homes to be financed under this section, to (i) prescribe minimum property standards to assure the livability and durability of the manufactured home and the suitability of the site on which the manufactured home is to be located; and (ii) obtain assurances from the borrower that the manufactured home will be placed on a site which complies with the standards prescribed by the Secretary and with local zoning and other applicable local requirements.

The insurance authority provided under this section may be made available with respect to any existing manufactured home that has not been insured under this section if such home was constructed in accordance with the standards issued under the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 and it meets standards similar to the minimum property standards applicable to existing homes insured under title II.

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Alterations, repairs, and improvements upon or in connection with existing structures may include the provision of fire safety equipment, energy conserving improvements, or the installation of solar energy systems. As used in this section

(1) the term "fire safety equipment” means any device or facility which is designed to reduce the risk of personal injury or property damage resulting from fire and is in conformity with such criteria and standards as shall be prescribed by the Secretary;

(2) the term “energy conserving improvements” means the purchase and installation of weatherization material as defined in section 412(9) of the Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings Act of 1976; and

(3) the term “solar energy system” means any addition, alteration, or improvement to an existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type based on mechanically forced energy transfer or of the passive type based on convective, conductive, or radiant energy transfer or some combination of these types to reduce the energy requirements of that structure from other energy sources, and which is in conformity with such criteria and standards as shall be prescribed by the Secretary in con

sultation with the Secretary of Energy. (b)(1) No insurance shall be granted under this section to any such financial institution with respect to any obligation representing any such loan, advance of credit, or purchase by it if the amount of such loan, advance of credit, or purchase exceeds

(A) $17,500 ($20,000 where financing the installation of a solar energy system is involved) if made for the purpose of financing alterations, repairs and improvements upon or in connection with existing single-family structures or manufactured homes;

(B) $43,750 or an average amount of $8,750 per family unit ($50,000 and $10,000, respectively, where financing the installation of a solar energy system is involved) if made for the purpose of financing the alteration, repair, improvement, or conversion of an existing structure used or to be used as an apartment house or a dwelling for two or more families;

(C) $40,500 if made for the purpose of financing the purchase of a manufactured home;

(D) $54,000 if made for the purpose of financing the purchase of a manufactured home and a suitably developed lot on which to place the home;

(E) $13,500 if made for the purpose of financing the purchase, by an owner of a manufactured home which is the principal residence of that owner, of a suitably developed lot on which to place that manufactured home, and if the owner certifies that he or she will place the manufactured home on the lot acquired with such loan within six months after the date of such loan;

(F) $15,000 per family unit if made for the purpose of financing the preservation of an historic structure; and

(G) such principal amount as the Secretary may prescribe if made for the purpose of financing fire safety equipment for a

nursing home, extended health care facility, intermediate

health care facility, or other comparable health care facility. (2) Because of prevailing higher costs, the Secretary may, by regulation, in Alaska, Guam, or Hawaii, increase any dollar amount limitation on manufactured homes or manufactured home lot loans contained in this subsection by not to exceed 40 per centum. In other areas, the maximum dollar amounts specified in subsections (bX1XD) and (bX1XE) may be increased on an area-by-area basis to the extent the Secretary deems necessary, but not to exceed the percentage by which the maximum mortgage amount of a onefamily residence in the area is increased by the Secretary under section 203(bX2).

(3) No insurance shall be granted under this section to any such financial institution with respect to any obligation representing any such loan, advance of credit, or purchase by it if the term to maturity of such loan, advance of credit or purchase exceeds

(A) fifteen years and thirty-two days if made for the purpose of financing alterations, repairs, and improvements upon or in connection with an existing single-family structure or manufactured home;

(B) fifteen years and thirty-two days if made for the purpose of financing the alteration, repair, improvement or conversion of an existing structure used or to be used as an apartment house or a dwelling for two or more families;

(C) twenty years and thirty-two days (twenty-three years and thirty-two days in the case of a manufactured home composed of two or more modules) if made for the purpose of financing the purchase of a manufactured home;

(D) twenty years and thirty-two days (twenty-five years and thirty-two days in the case of a manufactured home composed of two or more modules) if made for the purpose of financing the purchase of a manufactured home and a suitably developed lot on which to place the home;

(E) fifteen years and thirty-two days if made for the purpose of financing the purchase, by the owner of a manufactured home which is the principal residence of that owner, of a suitably developed lot on which to place that manufactured home;

(F) fifteen years and thirty-two days if made for the purpose of financing the preservation of an historic structure;

(G) such term to maturity as the Secretary may prescribe if made for the purpose of financing the construction of a new structure for use in whole or in part for agricultural purposes; and

(H) such term to maturity as the Secretary may prescribe if made for the purpose of financing fire safety equipment for a nursing home, extended health care facility, intermediate

health care facility, or other comparable health care facility. (4) For the purpose of this subsection

(A) the term "developed lot" includes an interest in a condominium project (including any interest in the common areas) or a share in a cooperative association;

(B) a loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home or a manufactured home and lot may also finance the purchase of a garage, patio, carport, or other comparable appurte

nance; and

(C) a loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home or a manufactured home and lot shall be secured by a first lien upon such home or home and lot, its furnishings, equipment,

accessories, and appurtenances. (5) No insurance shall be granted under this section to any such financial institution with respect to any obligation representing any such loan, advance of credit, or purchase by it unless the obligation has such maturity, bears such insurance premium charges, and contains such other terms, conditions, and restrictions as the Secretary shall prescribe, in order to make credit available for the purpose of this title. Any such obligation with respect to which insurance is granted under this section shall bear interest at such rate as may be agreed upon by the borrower and the financial institution.

(6XA) Any obligation with respect to which insurance is granted under this section may be refinanced and extended in accordance with such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, but in no event for an additional amount or term in excess of any applicable maximum provided for in this subsection.

(B) The owner of a manufactured home lot purchased without assistance under this section but otherwise meeting the requirements of this section may refinance such lot under this section in connection with the purchase of a manufactured home if the borrower certifies that the home and lot is or will be his or her principal residence within six months after the date of the loan.

(C) The owner-occupant of a manufactured home or a home and lot which was purchased without assistance under this section but which otherwise meets the requirements of this section may refinance such home or home and lot under this section if the home was constructed in accordance with standards established under section 604 of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974.

(cX1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall have the power, under regulations to be prescribed by him and approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, to assign or sell at public or private sale, or otherwise dispose of, any evidence of debt, contract, claim, personal property, or security assigned to or held by him in connection with the payment of insurance heretofore or hereafter granted under this section, and to collect or compromise all obligations assigned to or held by him and all legal or equitable rights accruing to him in connection with the payment of such insurance until such time as such obligations may be referred to the Attorney General for suit or collection.

(2) The Secretary is authorized and empowered (a) to deal with, complete, rent, renovate, modernize, insure, or sell for cash or credit in his discretion, and upon such terms and conditions and for such consideration as the Secretary shall determine to be reasonable, any real or personal property conveyed to or otherwise acquired by him, in connection with the payment of insurance heretofore or hereafter granted under this title and (b) to pursue to final collection, by way of compromise or otherwise, all claims against mortgagors assigned by mortgagees to the Secretary in connection with such real or personal property by way of deficiency or otherwise: Provided, That section 3709 of the Revised Statutes shall not be construed to apply to any contract of hazard insurance or to any purchase or contract for services or supplies on account of such property if the amount thereof does not exceed $1,000. The power to convey and to execute in the name of the Secretary, deeds of conveyance, deeds of release, assignments and satisfactions of mortgages, and any other written instrument relating to real or personal property or any interest therein heretofore or hereafter acquired by the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of this title may be exercised by an officer appointed by him without the execution of any express delegation of power or power of attorney: Provided, That nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prevent the Secre tary from delegating such power by order or by power of attorney, in his discretion, to any officer or agent he may appoint.

(d) The Secretary is authorized and empowered, under such regulations as he may prescribe, to transfer to any such approved financial institution any insurance in connection with any loans and advances of credit which may be sold to it by another approved financial institution.

(e) The Secretary is authorized to waive compliance with regulations heretofore or hereafter prescribed by him with respect to the interest and maturity of and the terms, conditions, and restrictions under which loans, advances of credit, and purchases may be insured under this section and section 6, if in his judgment the enforcement of such regulations would impose an injustice upon an insured institution which has substantially complied with such regulations in good faith and refunded or credited any excess charge made, and where such waiver does not involve an increase of the obligation of the Secretary beyond the obligation which would have been involved if the regulations had been fully complied with.

(f) The Secretary shall fix a premium charge for the insurance hereafter granted under this section, but in the case of any obligation representing any loan, advance of credit, or purchase, such premium charge shall not exceed an amount equivalent to 1 per centum per annum of the net proceeds of such loan, advance of credit, or purchase, for the term of such obligation, and such premium charge shall be payable in advance by the financial institution and shall be paid at such time and in such manner as may be prescribed by the Secretary.

(g) Any payment for loss made to an approved financial institution under this section shall be final and incontestable after two years from the date the claim was certified for payment by the Secretary, in the absence of fraud or misrepresentation on the part of such institution, unless a demand for repurchase of the obligation shall have been made on behalf of the United States prior to the expiration of such two-year period.

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