Lapas attēli

express modifications which really belong to the verb is not uncommon e.g., serae immigraverint, Praef. 11; adeo mitem praebuisse, I. 4. 6.

j. Nouns are used in apposition to express attributive ideas : e.g., pastor accola eius loci, I. 7. 5; exsule advena, I. 34. 5.

k. Participles take the place of clauses more frequently in Livy than in other writers: e.g., concursu pastorum trepidantium circa advenam manifestae reum caedis, I. 7.9; haec eum haud falso memorantem ingenti consensu populus Romanus regnare iussit, I. 35. 6.

7. The perfect participle is often used without any feeling of tense e.g., pater moritur uxore gravida relicta, I. 34. 2; rebus suis Lavinium translatis civitate cessit, II. 2. 10; caesum, II. 36. I n.

m. The use of the gerund or gerundive, especially in the ablative of manner, becomes a mannerism almost: e.g., agere varie rogando alternis suadendoque, II. 2. 9; miscendo consilium precesque, II. 9. 1.

n. Shorthand expressions, with an attribute of any kind, taking the place of a descriptive clause: e.g., factio haud dubia regis, I. 35. 6.

o. Livy has also his favorite derivatives and turns of phrase: as adjectives in -bundus; nunquam alias ante; cf. adeo (see b, above), and parentheses with enim.

p. A form of speech not really strange to the language is frequent, wherein a quality is summed up in an abstract, and made the main feature of an expression: e.g., adversus tanti belli terrorem, I. 2. 4; foeditate spectaculi, I. 28. 11; concient miraculo rei novae atque indignitate homines, I. 59. 3.

9. The use of the neuter singular of adjectives and pronouns, either alone or with a partitive genitive, apparently a colloquial usage, becomes more frequent, but not yet so common as in later writers: e.g., ex infimo, I. 9. 3; quidquid civium, I. 25. 1; pro indignissimo, I. 40. 2; quidquid deorum, II. 49. 7; ullius, II. 59. 8.

In constructions we may notice :

r. The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive in repeated action.

a growth of the times : e.g., ubi dixisset, I. 32. 13; si adesset, II. 58. 7.

s. The more free use of the infinitive instead of clauses.

See I. 4. 9.

t. The indicative with quamvis, forsitan, etc. See II. 40. 7. u. The free use of the dative a more picturesque and poetic construction: e.g., with absonus, I. 15. 6. See d (2), above.

v. The free use of the ablative of manner for more exact modifiers: e.g., periculo, I. 12. 10.

w. Particles with participial phrases instead of a clause: e.g., velut, I. 14. 8.

x. It is more in arrangement than anything else that Livy differs from other prose writers. His narrative is not so much to inform the intellect as to excite the imagination. Hence he does not affect the finely balanced periods of Cicero, though periodic structure is almost inseparable from Latin; but with a skilful use of all the means of co-ordination and subordination, he presents a picture, stroke after stroke, with the proper emphasis to give its proper prominence to each detail, often leaving the grammar to take care of itself. In the skill with which he uses the position of the single words in a clause to produce these effects, he is unequalled (see I. 17. 4; II. 25. 3). It is impossible for us to get the effect he intends to produce without noticing the position of every word. Indeed, he sometimes for effect gives artificial and forced emphasis, which produces the effect, to be sure, but at the sacrifice of simplicity (see I. 11. 6).

Which of these or what other peculiarities of style gave rise to Asinius Pollio's charge of patavinity (provincialism), nobody has ever satisfactorily determined. But whatever the crime was, we may well forgive him, being sure that it can be nothing very bad.




Facturusne operae pretium sim, si a primordio urbis 1 res populi Romani perscripserim, nec satis scio, nec, si sciam, dicere ausim, quippe qui cum veterem tum vul- 2 gatam esse rem videam, dum novi semper scriptores aut in rebus certius aliquid adlaturos se aut scribendi arte


1. Facturusne operae pretium sim (beginning a hexameter; not usually an approved style; see Quint. IX. 4. 74, and cf. Tac. Ann. I. 1), whether I shall accomplish anything worth while; i.e. worthy of recognition in proportion to the trouble. Cf. Sen. de Ben. III. 23. 2 and V. 1. 2.

- facturus is emphatic as opposed to the undertaking of the work. Cf. operae pretium faciat, XXV. 30. 3, operae pretia mereri, XXI. 43. 9, where the other words are the emphatic ones.

a primordio urbis: opposed to partial histories, such as were most of those current. perscripserim: Gr. 307. C. satis, very well; often so used with an expressed or implied negative. sciam: early and colloquial use of the present instead of the imperfect subjunctive in conditions really contrary to fact; Gr. 308. e. ausim: an early and colloquial form; Gr. 128. e.


2. quippe qui . . . videam, seeing; Gr. 320. e. N. I.— cum... tum: see Gr. 208. d.


rem: i.e. eo modo gloriari. Livy is deterred from boasting of what he intends to do by the fact that such boasts are old and common, and, he implies, not always fulfilled. opening of Book XXI.- dum . . . credunt, where, etc.; almost equivalent to a participial construction (Gr. 290. c. N.).-novi semper, etc.: the emphatic position of novi and the interlocked position of semper make the expression mean 'every new writer that arises thinks,' etc.; cf. V. 42. 6, novae semper cladis, and III. 66. 2.

rebus, in the facts, or matter; i.e. the investigation side of history. certius: i.e. than their predecessors. -scribendi, etc.: i.e. the rhetorical side. rudem: as the taste of the time changes, the old is considered less cultivated and elegant. Cf. prisco illo dicendi et horrido modo, II. 32. 8.

3 rudem vetustatem superaturos credunt. Vtcumque erit, iuvabit tamen rerum gestarum memoriae principis terrarum populi pro virili parte et ipsum consuluisse, et si in tanta scriptorum turba mea fama in obscuro sit, nobilitate. ac magnitudine eorum me, qui nomini officient meo, con4 soler. Res est praeterea et immensi operis, ut quae supra septingentesimum annum repetatur et quae ab exiguis profecta initiis eo creverit, ut iam magnitudine laboret sua, et legentium plerisque haud dubito quin primae. origines proximaque originibus minus praebitura voluptatis sint festinantibus ad haec nova, quibus iam pridem

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etc.; another consideration which prevents him from being sure of


septingentesimum: i.e. from the founding of Rome, supposed to be 754 B.C.

repetatur, is (to be) treated from, etc.; always with the idea of going back to get something. For mood, see Gr. 320. e. N. I.

exiguis : of course, the state being small, its history must be limited in abundance of material. Livy's mind wavers between the size of the state and the mass of historical material, a thaumatropic view to which he is all the more tempted by the fact that res may mean either the state or the material. laboret, threatens to fall.

et legentium loosely opposed to operis; difficult for the writers, and unsatisfactory to the readers. Livy has in his mind chiefly the earlier history, though not that alone. Cf. a primordio, 1; supra sept. annum, and primae, 4; prisca illa, 5. The participle, though rare in the singular, is in the best writers not uncommon in the plural, as a noun of agency, and is used still more freely by Livy and later writers.

haec i.e. of our own time. quibus: the deeds and the his

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