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tum illi terra, plurimum mari pollent.Memor esto, iam 9 cum signum pugnae dabis, has duas acies spectaculo fore, ut fessos confectosque simul victorem ac victum adgrediantur. Itaque si nos di amant, quoniam non contenti libertate certa in dubiam imperii servitiique aleam imus, ineamus aliquam viam qua utri utris imperent, sine magna clade, sine multo sanguine utriusque populi decerni possit.' Haud displicet res Tullo, quam- 10 quam cum indole animi tum spe victoriae ferocior erat. Quaerentibus utrimque ratio initur, cui et fortuna ipsa praebuit materiam.

Forte in duobus tum exercitibus erant trigemini fra- 24 tres nec aetate nec viribus dispares: Horatios Curiatiosque fuisse satis constat, nec ferme res antiqua alia est nobilior; tamen in re tam clara nominum error manet, utrius populi Horatii, utrius Curiatii fuerint. Auctores utroque trahunt: plures tamen invenio qui Romanos Horatios vocent; hos ut sequar inclinat animus.

Cum trigeminis agunt reges ut pro sua quisque patria 2 dimicent ferro: ibi imperium fore unde victoria fuerit. Nihil recusatur, tempus et locus convenit. Priusquam 3 dimicarent, foedus ictum inter Romanos et Albanos est his legibus, ut, cuius[que] populi cives eo certa

sizing te; i.e. you more than anybody.-terra, mari: as in the regular terra marique; see Gr. 258. d.

9. memor esto: not merely remember, but you must bear in mind; hence the future imperative. — iam cum, just as soon as. -spectaculo, etc. the real thought is, they will be on the watch to, etc.- imperent: not only an indirect question, but a deliberative one; see Gr. 334. b. magna: i.e. without the great loss that will be incurred if we fight.

10. fortuna: cf. forte below.

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mine vicissent, is alteri populo cum bona pace imperitaret.

AD Foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodem modo omnia 4 fiunt. Tum ita factum accepimus, nec ullius vetustior foederis memoria est. Fetialis regem Tullum ita rogavit : 'Iubesne me, rex, cum patre patrato populi Albani foedus ferire?' Iubente rege, 'Sagmina' inquit 'te, rex, posco.' 5 Rex ait 'Puram tollito.' Fetialis ex arce graminis herbam puram attulit, postea regem ita rogavit: 'Rex, facisne me tu regium nuntium populi Romani Quiritium, vasa comitesque meos?' Rex respondit: Quod sine fraude

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cunque must be considered colloquial, like its use in Plautus, etc. cives: i.e. the three champions. cum bona pace, without demur; i.e. on the part of the subject nation.

alia aliis: i.e. whatever the conditions of the compact, the manner of making it is the same.

4. ita, as follows. - ullius, etc.: i.e. this is the earliest of which we have any record. — fetialis: a priest, or one of a college of priests, who, under the protection of religion, like the Greek, acted as the means of communication between hostile nations. It is doubtless from books of ritual of such a college that Livy or his authority gets the formulæ here given. The institution is evidently an old Latin one, said to have come from the Equiculi (32. 5). patre patrato: by the account given here this functionary would seem to have been the spokesman and active celebrant of the rites on behalf of the embassy. There is nothing to indicate that he was other than a fetialis. The function seems to have belonged to the whole college, and to have been performed by a temporary chairman. The origin of the participle is uncertain; perhaps it was originally used of one not really the

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father of the clan, but made so. — iubente rege: i.e. saying iubeo in answer to the question preceding. sagmina: evidently connected with sancio (sac-men), as the means of making sacred the proceedings, like the olive branch (iKernpía) of the Greeks. It seems to have been used of a particular plant, but what one is uncertain. A special virtue was no doubt assigned to it, as often to many other plants; but with this sacred character is evidently confounded a representative character symbolic of the place of its growth, the Capitoline Hill. - puram, free from (irreligious) taint.

5. graminis herbam, a growing plant of the sacred herb. — regium, etc.

as much as of the king of the Roman people, indicating with ritual verbosity the official character of the proceeding. —vasa (co-ordinate with me), utensils; a word derived from common use, like 'traps' or 'baggage,' referring here to the silex, verbena, etc. comites: there seem to have been

three in all, the pater patratus, the verbenarius, and the original fetialis. - fraude, etc., harm to, etc.; an earlier meaning of the word. quod ... fiat, so far as may be; a

mea populique Romani Quiritium fiat, facio.' Fetialis 6 erat M. Valerius. Is patrem patratum Spurium Fusium fecit, verbena caput capillosque tangens. Pater patratus, ad ius iurandum patrandum, id est sanciendum fit)foedus, multisque id verbis, quae longo effata carmine non operae est referre, peragit. Legibus deinde recitatis, ‘Audi,' 7 inquit Iuppiter, audi, pater patrate populi Albani, audi tu, populus Albanus: ut illa palam prima postrema ex illis tabulis cerave recitata sunt sine dolo malo utique ea hic hodie rectissime intellecta sunt, illis legibus populus Romanus prior non deficiet. Si prior defexit publico consilio dolo malo, tùm tu, ille Diespiter, populum Romanum sic ferito, ut ego hunc porcum hic hodie feriam, tantoque magis ferito quanto magis potes pollesque.' Id ubi dixit, porcum saxo silice percussit. Sua item 9 carmina Albani suumque ius iurandum per suum dictatorem suosque sacerdotes peregerunt.

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common proviso, apparently of a religious character, as if it were quoad fas est. For mood see Gr. 320. d.

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6. ad ius, etc.: an attempted etymology, possibly the right one; but see above. patrandum: from pater, perhaps originally in a literal sense; cf. pario and 'get.' mine the regular word for formula as originally in metre. non operae est, I haven't time; a colloquial expression, as in Plautus; cf. Gell. VI. (VII.) 17. II.

7. populus Albanus: in apposition with tu, hence nominative instead of the expected vocative. prima postrema: from first to last. The apposition and asyndeton are both formalistic. - tabulis cerave, etc.: notice the verbiage of legal and religious style. sine dolo malo, in good faith.-utique: i.e. et uti. 8. defexit: old form in antique

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documents; cf. adclarassis, 18. 9. - publico: to exclude the case of unauthorized individual action which in lawless times often took place. Diespiter: another name for Jove: cf. Zeus Taτhp, and Dyauspita; so dies is from the same root. porcum: the regular antique sacrifice both for expiatory and oath sacrifices.

9. silice a survival of the stone age in religion, as the bronze age survived long after the general use of steel. There may be a symbolism in the stone referring to Jupiter himself, from the same confounding of meteoric stones with lightning, from which comes the idea of the thunderbolt. Cf. Iovem lapidem iurare.

sua: Livy conceives the Albans also as having their own peculiar ritual, though probably the usages he recounts were general Italic ones.

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Foedere icto trigemini sicut convenerat arma capiunt. Cum sui utrosque adhortarentur, deos patrios, patriam ac parentes, quidquid civium domi, quidquid in exercitu sit, illorum tunc arma, illorum intueri manus, feroces et suopte ingenio et pleni adhortantium vocibus in medium 2 inter duas acies procedunt. Consederant utrimque pro castris duo exercitus, periculi magis praesentis quam curae expertes; quippe imperium agebatur in tam paucorum virtute atque fortuna positum. Itaque ergo erecti suspensique in minime gratum spectaculum animo in

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Datur signum infestisque armis, velut acies, terni iuvenes, magnorum exercituum animos gerentes, concurrunt. Nec his nec illis periculum suum, publicum imperium servitiumque obversatur animo futuraque ea 4 deinde patriae fortuna quam ipsi fecissent. Vt primo

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bearing was like that of two trained hosts in battle array, in which the tactics are uniform, as, for instance, in a line of bayonets at charge or of levelled lances. - terni: i.e. three on each side. — animos: expressing their courageous spirit as the preceding expresses their outward appearance. publicum, of their nation; opposed to suum, and by the antithesis supplying the want of a connective. obversatur, etc.: it was such moral effects as this that especially interested Livy in his history, and, indeed, the Romans of all times. — futura, etc., and the thought that such would be, etc. This compression of an idea into a noun with a participle is characteristic of the Latin; see Gr. 292. a, and p. 314, footnote. The fondness for such expressions increases much in imperial times. fecissent: subjunctive of indirect discourse standing for future perfect. See Gr. 341.c.

statim concursu increpuere arma micantesque fulsere gladii, horror ingens spectantis perstringit, et neutro inclinata spe torpebat vox spiritusque. Consertis deinde 5 manibus, cum iam non motus tantum corporum agitatioque anceps telorum armorumque sed vulnera quoque et sanguis spectaculo essent, duo Romani super alium alius, vulneratis tribus Albanis, exspirantes corruerunt. Ad quorum casum cum conclamasset gaudio Albanus 6 exercitus, Romanas legiones iam spes tota, nondum tamen cura deseruerat, exanimes vice unius, quem tres Curiatii circumsteterant. Forte is integer fuit, ut uni- 7 versis solus nequaquam par, sic adversus singulos ferox. Ergo ut segregaret pugnam eorum, capessit fugam, ita ratus secuturos ut quemque vulnere adfectum corpus sineret. Iam aliquantum spatii ex eo loco ubi pugna- 8 tum est aufugerat, cum respiciens videt magnis intervallis sequentes, unum haud procul ab sese abesse. eum magno impetu rediit, et dum Albanus exercitus

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