Lapas attēli

8 abiit.' Mirum quantum illi viro nuntianti haec fides fuerit, quamque desiderium Romuli apud plebem exercitumque facta fide immortalitatis lenitum sit.


Patrum interim animos certamen regni ac cupido versabat. Necdum ad singulos, quia nemo magnopere eminebat in novo populo, pervenerat : factionibus inter 2 ordines certabatur. Oriundi ab Sabinis, ne, quia post Tatii mortem ab sua parte non erat regnatum, in societate aequa possessionem imperii amitterent, sui corporis creari regem volebant; Romani veteres peregrinum+ 3 regem aspernabantur. In variis voluntatibus regnari tamen omnes volebant, libertatis dulcedine nondum ex4 perta. Timor deinde patres incessit ne civitatem sine

the indirect discourse construction, as a statement to be made (tradant posteris); but it is preceded by ita (not id), just as the wish above is preceded by ita with velle.

8. mirum: sc. est, with the indirect question for its subject.—desiderium, grief for the loss of; the regular meaning of the word; see Harvard Studies, Vol. I. p. 96. facta fide, by the confirmation of the belief.

INTERREGNUM; CHOICE OF DECEMVIRI AS CHIEF MAGISTRATES. 17. patrum: as opposed to the plebs, whose state of mind has just been described. Keep the emphasis and the perspective of the sentence by a change of voice. certamen: the immediate struggle for the throne; cupido: more general, something like ambition.

pervenerat: sc. certamen (but the reading is uncertain). — factionibus, by factions; the means used by the two great race-parties (ordines) to secure the power through their dependents and connections.

2. sua: we should expect eorum; but the thought is partially put into the minds of the Sabines, yet not sufficiently to change the mood of the verb. - in societate aequa: i.e. though in a partnership that should be equal. The Latin abounds, especially in later writers, with such indefinite expressions that are to be interpreted by the context.

3. in variis, etc.: i.e. though their views varied, yet all were unanimous for a king (cf. last note); the effect here is produced, however, by the emphatic position of variis and regnari. — tamen: i.e. notwithstanding the want of agree


4. timor: as opposed to the desire before mentioned. - civitatem, etc. notice the Livian painting by successive strokes: lest, the state being without a ruler, the army without a leader, the feelings of, etc., irritated, they (the country) should be attacked, etc. The items of the description are put in without regard to clear syntax. Whatever can be governed by the verb goes into the accusative, and all the other

imperio, exercitum sine duce, multarum circa civitatium inritatis animis, vis aliqua externa adoriretur. Et esse igitur aliquod caput placebat et nemo alteri concedere in animum inducebat.

Ita rem inter se centum patres, decem decuriis factis 5 singulisque in singulas decurias creatis qui summae rerum praeessent, consociant. Decem imperitabant, unus cum insignibus imperii et lictoribus erat, quinque 6 dierum spatio finiebatur imperium ac per omnes in orbem ibat, annuumque intervallum regni fuit. Id ab re, quod nunc quoque tenet nomen, interregnum appellatum.

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et, at the same time, the two branches being opposed, although co-ordinate; cf. the frequent use of ut . . . ita, although... yet. esse: notice the emphasis, that there should BE, etc. alteri: cf. Gr. 203. c. N.


5. ita, so, under these circum- rem, the government, as constantly. centum: what became of the other hundred senators (see 13.5) Livy does not say. Probably in the multitude of varying traditions he didn't know very well himself. decem, etc.: the statement, as near as can be made out of Livy's words, is that the senators shared the regal power, acting ten at a time as a college (cf. the later decemviri). One senator was chosen from and for each decury (singulis IN singulas decurias) as a president of the college and formal sov

ereign (qui summae, etc.). There were ten who had the magisterial power (imperitabant), but one only who had the insignia. Livy does not distinctly say, and only blindly implies, that the college changed at all. But as Dionysius' account indicates that it did, we may presume that Livy conceived the matter the same way. Neither the hundred senators of Livy nor the two hundred of Dionysius (II.57) divided into decuries holding five days apiece (quinque dierum spatio) would make an even year. If, however, there were three hundred, as is most likely, a hundred of each great stock, then two turns would make out a year of three hundred days. But the subject is a much mooted one.

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7 Fremere deinde plebs, multiplicatam servitutem, centum pro uno dominos factos; nec ultra nisi regem, et ab 8 ipsis creatum videbantur passuri. Cum sensissent ea moveri patres, offerendum ultro rati quod amissuri erant, ita gratiam ineunt summa potestate populo permissa, 9 ut non plus darent iuris quam detinerent. Decreverunt enim ut, cum populus regem iussisset, id sic ratum esset, si patres auctores fierent. Hodie quoque in legibus magistratibusque rogandis usurpatur idem ius vi adempta priusquam populus suffragium ineat, in incertum. comitiorum eventum patres auctores fiunt.


Tum interrex contione advocata ‘Quod bonum faustum felixque sit,' inquit 'Quirites, regem create : ita patribus visum est. Patres deinde, si dignum qui secundus ab

regular means of passing on the imperium if a consular election for any reason failed, even to the end of the republic.

7. fremere: notice the emphasis: then there were murmurs

among the commons. - ultra, any longer; in this sense it seems to be a popular word coming to the surface in later times. nisi, anything


ab ipsis: instead of the patres. passuri: see Gr. 293. a.

8. ea moveri: i.e. the revolution implied in nec... passuri.―ita: belonging to the whole clause, but, of course, only a limitation of permissa. populo: loosely used for plebs, with which in later times it became identified for the most part, though often distinguished, as in the phrase populus plebesque Romanus. iuris, rights.

9. iussisset: the technical term for a vote of the people.sic ... si, only... in case, with its very common force of a limitation. ratum, valid.-patres: here meaning the senate, whether the word is

strictly used or not. auctores fierent, should ratify; auctor is a voucher or responsible party to an action, and so one who ratifies or makes valid. rogandis: the technical term for the action of the magistrate who put the question to the people, as iubeo is for their action; see above. — ius, form, properly the right which is still formally recognized. adempta : because the act of the senate was required to be performed beforehand by the lex Publilia in 339 B.C., and about fifty years later by the lex Maenia. ineat the subjunctive as a part of the intention of the law; cf. 14. 4 n.

10. tum: as opposed to the modern practice (cf. hodie, 9),—resuming the narrative. - interrex: the presiding officer of the board of ten.

contione: a mass-meeting for communication (see 8. I n.); not as yet a comitia or town-meeting.. quod, etc.: the regular formula, having some variations of words, with which official acts were begun, something like "God save the Common

Romulo numeretur crearitis, auctores fient.' Adeo id II gratum plebi fuit ut, ne victi beneficio viderentur, id modo sciscerent iuberentque, ut senatus decerneret qui Romae regnaret.


Inclita iustitia religioque ea tempestate Numae Pom- 18 pili erat. Curibus Sabinis habitabat, consultissimus vir, ut in illa quisquam esse aetate poterat, omnis divini atque humani iuris. Auctorem doctrinae eius, quia non 2 exstat alius, falso Samium Pythagoram edunt, quem Servio Tullio regnante Romae centum amplius post annos in ultima Italiae ora circa Metapontum Heracleamque et Crotonam iuvenum aemulantium studia coetus habuisse constat. Ex quibus locis, etsi eiusdem 3

wealth of Massachusetts," at the end of a proclamation.

II. victi beneficio, surpassed in courtesy. -sciscerent: another technical term for deliberative action where there is full power.- qui: often found instead of the regular quis.



18. inclita, etc.: notice the order, which gives a rhetorical effect like famous for justice and piety.. was the name of Numa; (he did not live at Rome, but) Cures of the Sabines was his dwelling-place, etc. Numae: probably a later invented surname, connected with vóμos, numerus, etc.- Pompili: a form in the Sabine dialect, equivalent to Quinctilius (cf. πέντε, πέμπε). The whole name may be invented; but one part is a natural Sabine name, the other a nickname. - Sabinis: the Sabines were famous in later times for their conservative, religious and moral character, whence the mention of the nation here. ut, so far as, a common

use of ut, though the opposite mean-
ing, as is natural, is also com-
mon; cf. note to in societate, 17. 2.

quisquam: the underlying neg-
ative idea, nobody could be,' etc.,
occasions the use of this pronoun;
cf. Gr. 202. b and c. aetate: for
the order see Gr. 344. e.
construction with in hardly differs
from the ablative, but is allowed on
account of the time being conceived
as space and circumstances rather
than mere date. - divini :
thing relating to religious practice
and observance (religio); hu-
mani: everything relating to social
andinternational relations (iustitia).

2. auctorem, teacher; cf. auctores, 17. 9 n. Pythagoram: as he introduced Greek culture into Magna Græcia, and was the most famous sage of those early times, it was natural to give him credit for all the wisdom that appeared in Italy. Livy does not generally commit himself about traditions, but this one he expressly combats. 3. ex quibus, etc. : the four points are: 1. That he lived more than a hundred years after; 2. That

aetatis fuisset, quae fama in Sabinos, aut quo linguae commercio quemquam ad cupiditatem discendi excivisset, quove praesidio unus per tot gentes dissonas sermone 4 moribusque pervenisset? Suopte igitur ingenio temperatum animum virtutibus fuisse opinor magis, instructumque non tam peregrinis artibus quam disciplina tetricas ac tristi veterum Sabinorum, quo genere nullum quondam incorruptius fuit.


Audito nomine Numae patres Romani, quamquam inclinari opes ad Sabinos rege inde sumpto videbantur, tamen neque se quisquam nec factionis suae alium nec denique patrum aut civium quemquam praeferre illi viro ausi, ad unum omnes Numae Pompilio regnum deferen6 dum decernunt. Accitus, sicut Romulus augurato urbe condenda regnum adeptus est, de se quoque deos consuli iussit. Inde ab augure, cui deinde honoris ergo publi

there was no chance to hear about him at Cures, even if he had lived at the same time; 3. The difference of language; 4. The impossibility of a journey to those cities through barbarous tribes, without community of language or customs with the Sabines. fama: sc. adlata esset, which is naturally implied in the context. excivisset: sc. fama. It would need some knowledge of Greek to arouse a barbarian to desire to hear a Greek philosopher.

4. ingenio, native powers. temperatum, developea; properly, compounded, so as by its different ingredients to make a fine and noble nature. opinor magis, I fancy, rather. instructum, trained; properly, furnished. -artibus, learning; properly, courses of instruction, particularly philosophy, as theoretical. - disciplina, mode of life; the practical training according to the strict puritanic rules of

the ascetic Sabines. genere, race.

5. audito: the beginning of the chapter implies that his name was mentioned in connection with the throne as a man eminent in the necessary qualifications.—patres: Livy thinks of them as only Romans. inclinari: almost equal to a future; but the meaning of the verb allows the present to be used with rege sumpto as a future protasis. See Gr. 292. inde: i.e. from the Sabines; see Gr. 207 a.— patrum aut civium: here opposed as nobles and illi viro, this great man. — ad unum, unanimously. — decernunt: Livy represents the senate as choosing the king; other writers make the people elect him. Cf. Cic. Rep. II. 13. 25.

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6. sicut, just as.- augurato: see Gr. 255 c. urbe condenda, at the building of the city; a loose use of the ablative of manner. See Gr. 301 and examples. — cui de

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