Lapas attēli

rium. Accedebant blanditiae virorum, factum purgan- 16 tium cupiditate atque amore, quae maxime ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces sunt.

Iam admodum mitigati animi raptis erant. At rapta- 10 rum parentes tum maxime sordida veste lacrimisque et querellis civitates concitabant. Nec domi tantum indignationes continebant, sed congregabantur undique ad Titum Tatium, regem Sabinorum, et legationes eo, quod maximum Tatii nomen in iis regionibus erat, conveniebant. Caeninenses Crustuminique et Antemnates erant 2 ad quos eius iniuriae pars pertinebat. Lente agere his Tatius Sabinique visi sunt; ipsi inter se tres populi communiter bellum parant. Nec Crustumini quidem 3 atque Antemnates pro ardore iraque Caeninensium satis se impigre movent; ita per se ipsum nomen Caeninum. in agrum Romanum impetum facit. Sed effuse vastan- 4 tibus fit obvius cum exercitu Romulus levique certamine

16. accedebant: i.e. besides these arguments of Romulus, there was also the influence of their husbands' wooing. - factum: the word wavers between a noun (excusing their action) and an infinitive (saying that it was done). Probably Livy was not conscious which he meant. It is to be remembered that two constructions which seem very different to us might be undistinguishable by the Romans. quae preces, a kind of prayer which; Gr. 201. d.


10. raptarum parentes: one would expect parentes raptarum, but the two words are artificially made into one expression, repeating with emphasis raptis, which has not been emphasized before. - tum maxime, at that

very moment; i.e. after the brides themselves were reconciled. sordida veste: the usual sign of mourning with the ancients, assumed whenever it was desired to excite compassion. — continebant, etc. the imperfects describe the state of things, as if nor were the expressions of indignation confined to their own cities; there was a flocking,' etc.-regem: apparently ruling only in Cures, but exercising a general control over the Sabine stock. legationes: i.e. officially from these states.

2 lente agere, not to act with sufficient vigor.

3. nomen Caeninum: an almost regular expression for different peoples of one stock. Cf. nomen Lati


4. vastantibus: the usual way of making reprisals in those times.


docet vanam sine viribus iram esse. Exercitum fundit fugatque, fusum persequitur, regem in proelio obtruncat et spoliat, duce hostium occiso urbem primo impetu capit.

Inde exercitu victore reducto ipse, cum factis vir magnificus tum factorum ostentator haud minor, spolia ducis hostium caesi suspensa fabricato ad id apte ferculo gerens in Capitolium escendit, ibique ea cum ad quercum pastoribus sacram deposuisset, simul cum dono designa6 vit templo Iovis finis cognomenque addidit deo. 'Iuppiter Feretri,' inquit 'haec tibi victor Romulus rex regia arma fero templumque his regionibus, quas modo animo metatus sum, dedico sedem opimis spoliis, quae regibus

exercitum, etc.: notice the three moments in the narrative, the army, the king, and the city. regem: named Acron, according to Prop. V. 10. 7.


5. victore, in triumph; not merely victorious army,' but like 'flushed with victory,' as a predicate.

factis, etc.: i.e. no less fond of displaying his exploits than great in performing them. - ferculo: such hand-barrows were used later in the triumphal procession, to which this has a certain resemblance, though Livy ascribes the first triumph to Tarquinius (38. 3). — Capitolium: the Capitoline Hill, then unoccupied; cf. pastoribus, in next line. -pastoribus: i.e. held sacred by them to Jupiter. - deposuisset: i.e. deposited as an offering, doubtless hanging the arms on the tree.

simul, etc: i.e. he offered the gift, and at the same time conceived the idea of a temple, for which, in the manner of augurs, he marked out by some visible objects the

sacred limits. Only such an augurally consecrated place could be a templum.

cognomen: like the saints in more modern times, the ancient divinities were worshipped in many places and under many relations, and in these several circumstances they were considered in a manner as separate divinities, receiving names accordingly.

6. Feretri: the story seems to have been invented, or at least explained, to account for this name, which, however, is not very well accounted for thereby. It is true that feretrum, from which Feretrius might come, does mean barrow; but the instrument in this use is too insignificant to suggest the name for the divinity. The same instrument was used for carrying images in procession, and in that use might very well give the name.

-rex regia: these two circumstances were the necessary requisites for the spolia opima.

animo later the augur marked out the space in the sky with the

ducibusque hostium caesis me auctorem sequentes posteri ferent.'

Haec templi est origo, quod primum omnium Romae 7 sacratum est.Ita deinde diis visum nec inritam conditoris templi vocem esse, qua laturos eo spolia posteros nuncupavit, nec multitudine compotum eius doni vulgari laudem. Bina postea inter tot annos, tot bella opima parta sunt spolia: adeo rara eius fortuna decoris fuit.

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Dum ea ibi Romani gerunt, Antemnatium exercitus 11 per occasionem ac solitudinem hostiliter in fines Romanos incursionem facit; raptim et ad hos Romana legio ducta palantes in agris oppressit. Fusi igitur primo 2 impetu et clamore hostes, oppidum captum, duplicique victoria ovantem Romulum Hersilia coniunx, precibus raptarum fatigata, orat ut parentibus earum det veniam.

lituus, or augur's staff. torem, my example.

- me auc

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7. templi: i.e. of Jupiter Capitolinus.primum: perhaps not inconsistent with chap. 7. 3, because this might be the first templum proper; but no reliance can be placed on these stories. ita: referring to what follows.-nec, not on the one hand. - nuncupavit, solemnly declared; a religious word implying solemn forms. nec: cf. nec above, by which the two statements are opposed to each other. compotum, partakers, but with the idea of a privilege enjoyed. bina: on account of the plural, spolia; Gr. 95. b. These were won by A. Cornelius Cossus (IV. 20. 2) and M. Claudius Marcellus (B.C. 222). WAR WITH THE ANTEMNATES AND CRUSTUMINI.

11. per: cf. note to 3. 11.occasionem ac solitudinem: a hendi

adys; i.e. the army going home
gave the enemy an opportunity for
an inroad.

et ad hos: i.e. as well as the
Cæninenses before. These proceed-
ings give a very good idea of war
in early times.legio: in its orig-
inal meaning of levy or army.
Afterwards, when a larger number
was levied, the name remained for
the unit of organization, the legion,
as it had formerly been levied.

2. clamore: the war-cry in ancient times had a much more potent function than now. The armies often did not meet at all, but, as in a modern charge, one party broke and fled before the collision.-duplici: i.e. over the army in the field and in capturing the town.

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tem, returning in triumph, flushed,
etc. Hersilia: afterwards made
a divinity along with her husband
(cf. Ov. Met. XIV. 851), under the
name of Hora or Horta.


et in civitatem accipiat; ita rem coalescere concordia posse.

Facile impetratum.

Inde contra Crustuminos profectus bellum inferentes. Ibi minus etiam, quod alienis cladibus ceciderant animi, 4 certaminis fuit. Vtroque coloniae missae; plures inventi qui propter ubertatem terrae in Crustuminum nomina darent; et Romam inde frequenter migratum est, a parentibus maxime ac propinquis raptarum.


Novissimum ab Sabinis bellum ortum, multoque id maximum fuit; nihil enim per iram aut cupiditatem actum est, nec ostenderunt bellum prius quam intule6 runt. Consilio etiam additus dolus. Spurius Tarpeius Romanae praeerat arci; huius filiam virginem auro corrumpit Tatius, ut armatos in arcem accipiat, — aquam 7 forte ea tum sacris extra moenia petitum ierat; accepti obrutam armis necavere, seu ut vi capta potius arx videretur seu prodendi exempli causa, ne quid usquam fidum

ita, on those terms (only). -rem coalescere, the strife be settled; properly, the (divided) interests grow together.

4. utroque, to both cities; cf. Gr. 207. a. - -coloniae: to these were assigned land taken from the conquered city, as was the regular way in later times. - nomina darent, enlisted; the regular term for colonists, who went as an army of occupation. et Romam: i.e. many of the citizens of Crustumerium also came to Rome, besides those colonies of Rome that went in the other direction.

WAR WITH THE SABINES. 5. per iram, etc.: as was the case with the others (see 10. 2 seq.).

6. consilio: ie. the open plans of warfare.arci: the whole Capitoline Hill.


aquam: for such purposes water was always taken from a living spring, and often from some particular one. The Vestals brought water daily from the spring of the Camenae, outside the Porta Capena (Serv. Aen. VII. 150; Plut. Numa, 13). Probably Livy had this custom in mind; but that spring was quite on the other side of the city. The order of the words is very artificial, emphasizing first the purpose of the maiden's going outside the walls; then bringing in the introductory words, forte, ea (on account of the parenthesis), and tum (at the time the enemy arrived); then emphasizing the fact of her being outside the walls.sacris: Gr. 233. b.

7. potius: sc. quam dolo.. -ne quid, etc.: the purpose (object)


proditori esset. Additur fabulae, quod vulgo Sabini & aureas armillas magni ponderis bracchio laevo gemmatosque magna specie anulos habuerint, pepigisse eam quod in sinistris manibus haberent; eo scuta illi pro aureis donis congesta. Sunt qui eam ex pacto tradendi quod 9 in sinistris manibus haberent derecto arma petisse dicant et fraude visam agere sua ipsam peremptam mercede.

Tenuere tamen arcem Sabini atque inde postero die, 12 cum Romanus exercitus instructus quod inter Palatinum Capitolinumque collem campi est complesset, non prius descenderunt in aequum quam ira et cupiditate reciperandae arcis stimulante animos in adversum Romani subiere. Principes utrimque pugnam ciebant, ab Sabinis 2 Mettius Curtius, ab Romanis Hostius Hostilius. Hic rem Romanam iniquo loco ad prima signa animo atque audacia sustinebat. Vt Hostius cecidit, confestim Ro- 3

clause gives the idea of their wishing to lay down a law, not merely showing a fact; i.e. to teach future ages not to expect any faith if they themselves were faithless.

8. additur, etc.: Livy's naïve selection among the stories is somewhat amusing. pepigisse, made a bargain for, demanded in return. -eo; i.e. on account of the bargain. - illi: not merely upon her,' which would be in, but as it were, 'for her,' to crush her. Cf. Gr. 225. 6. 2.

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12. tamen, in any case; whichever story is true; i.e. notwithstanding the doubt about the story, yet this fact is true in any case. — quod inter, etc.: the northwesterly part of the Forum and the low ground running towards the river. — in adversum, up the hill, in face of the enemy; properly, in their front.'

subiere: the indicative is regular with priusquam where the main clause is negative.

2. principes (subject), great warriors. utrimque, on the two sides.

pugnam ciebant, led the fight.ab, on the side of.—hic: joined chiastically. iniquo loco: as the enemy were above. ad prima signa, in the front rank; with reference to the later order of battle; cf. VIII. 8. 3 seq. animo, etc.: thus making up for the disadvantage of position.

- sustinebat: the imperfect stops

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