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12 Ceterum, sive illud domesticum sive publicum fuit iudi-
cium, damnatur Servio Cornelio Q. Fabio consulibus.
42 Haud diuturna ira populi in Cassium fuit. Dulcedo
agrariae legis ipsa per se dempto auctore subibat ani-
mos; accensaque ea cupiditas est malignitate patrum,
qui devictis eo anno Volscis Aequisque militem praeda
2 fraudavere; quidquid captum ex hostibus est, vendidit
Fabius consul ac redegit in publicum. Invisum erat
Fabium nomen plebi propter novissimum consulem ;
tenuere tamen patres ut cum L. Aemilio Caeso Fabius
3 consul crearetur. Eo infestior facta plebes seditione
domestica bellum externum excivit. Bello deinde civiles
discordiae intermissae. Vno animo patres ac plebs re-
bellantes Volscos et Aequos duce Aemilio prospera
4 pugna vicere. Plus tamen hostium fuga quam proe-
lium absumpsit: adeo pertinaciter fusos insecuti sunt
5 equites. Castoris aedes eodem anno idibus Quintilibus
dedicata est. Vota erat Latino bello a Postumio dictatore.
Filius eius duumvir ad id ipsum creatus dedicavit.

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in securing one of the consuls in spite of the opposition; such halfsuccesses were very common; cf. the famous case of Cæsar and Bibulus. - Caeso: see 41. II.

3. excivit, brought about; literally roused, by encouraging the enemies of Rome to take advantage of her internal dissensions.

4. tamen: opposing the greater loss in flight to the implied loss in prospera... vicere.

5. Castoris: this is the great temple of Castor and Pollux (called Castoris for short), which is so often mentioned in later Roman history, and is still partly standing; it was near the end of the Forum, under the Palatine. - Latino: see 20. 12. - filius: the father was probably

Sollicitati et eo anno sunt dulcedine agrariae legis 6 animi plebis. Tribuni plebi popularem potestatem lege populari celebrabant; patres satis superque gratuiti furoris in multitudine credentes esse, largitiones temeritatisque invitamenta horrebant. Acerrimi patribus duces ad resistendum consules fuere. Ea igitur 7 pars rei publicae vicit, nec in praesens modo, sed in venientem etiam annum M. Fabium, Caesonis fratrem, et magis invisum alterum plebi accusatione Sp. Cassii L. Valerium consules dedit. Certatum eo quoque anno cum tribunis est. Vana lex vanique legis auctores iactando inritum munus facti. Fabium inde nomen ingens post tres continuos consulatus unoque velut tenore omnes expertos tribuniciis certaminibus habitum. Itaque ut bene locatus mansit in ea familia aliquamdiu honos. Bellum inde Veiens initum; et Volsci rebellarunt. Sed 9 ad bella externa prope supererant vires, abutebanturque

by this time dead, and in such cases it was usual to appoint a kinsman as one of the commission of two to build and dedicate the temple.

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6. dulcedine, etc.: cf. I. plebi: a rare form of the genitive found in certain phrases; cf. plebiscitum. - popularem, etc.: i.e. being elected to an office devoted to the people, they felt bound to 'magnify' it by proposing a law for the benefit of the people. - celebrabant: for the tense, cf. instigabant, 39. 7. · gratuiti, without a premium; i.e. without a definite incitement to partisan agitation. largitiones, etc.: a descriptive reference, in quite the modern style, to the measure in question, the agrarian law; cf., however, 41. 2.

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dit: i.e. by its success in the elections.

8. vana... facti, was brought to nought; vani, baffled; but with the underlying idea in each case that the agitation ended in nothing. iactando: a loose ablative of manner; see Gr. 301. footn. — inritum, unaccomplished, but containing the same idea as vana, etc., above. tenore, character, but with the idea of the pursuance of the same policy throughout.. pertos: not merely that they met with the opposition, but that they forced it. bene locatus, well invested, with the same figure.

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9. sed: contradicting the inference that foreign war would occupy the state so as to prevent civil dissensions. abutebantur: with its proper etymological idea of misuse, or diversion from an end or purpose.

10 iis inter semet ipsos certando. Accessere ad aegras iam omnium mentes prodigia caelestia, prope cotidianas in urbe agrisque ostentantia minas; motique ita numinis causam nullam aliam vates canebant publice privatimque, nunc extis nunc per aves consulti, quam haud rite II sacra fieri. Qui terrores tamen eo evasere, ut Oppia virgo Vestalis damnata incesti poenas dederit.

43 Q. Fabius inde et C. Iulius consules facti. Eo anno non segnior discordia domi et bellum foris atrocius fuit. Ab Aequis arma sumpta. Veientes agrum quoque Romanorum populantes inierunt. Quorum bellorum crescente cura Caeso Fabius et Sp. Furius consules fiunt. 2 Ortonam, Latinam urbem, Aequi oppugnabant; Veientes, pleni iam populationum, Romam ipsam se op3 pugnaturos minabantur. Qui terrores cum compescere deberent, auxere insuper animos plebis; redibatque non sua sponte plebi mos detrectandi militiam, sed Spurius Licinius tribunus plebis venisse tempus ratus per ultimam necessitatem legis agrariae patribus iniun4 gendae, susceperat rem militarem impediendam. Ceterum tota invidia tribuniciae potestatis versa in auctorem est; nec in eum consules acrius quam ipsius

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collegae coorti sunt, auxilioque eorum dilectum consules habent. Ad duo simul bella exercitus scribitur: 5 ducendus Fabio in Veientes, in Aequos Furio datur. Et in Aequis quidem nihil dignum memoria gestum est; Fabio aliquanto plus negotii cum civibus quam 6 cum hostibus fuit. Vnus ille vir, ipse consul, rem publicam sustinuit, quam exercitus odio consulis, quantum in se fuit, prodebat. Nam cum consul praeter ceteras 7 imperatorias artes, quas parando gerendoque bello edidit plurimas, ita instruxisset aciem ut solo equitatu emisso exercitum hostium funderet, insequi fusos pedes noluit. Nec illos, etsi non adhortatio invisi ducis, suum saltem 8 flagitium et publicum in praesentia dedecus, postmodo periculum, si animus hosti redisset, cogere potuit gradum accelerare, aut, si aliud nihil, stare instructos. In- 9 iussu signa referunt, maestique - crederes victos - exsecrantes nunc imperatorem nunc navatam ab equite operam redeunt in castra. emplo remedia ulla ab imperatore quaesita sunt: adeo

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Nec huic tam pestilenti ex- 10

here, perhaps worked over from the traditions of the Fabian family, assumes the rhetorical form of a speech addressed to the soldiers by their consul. The peculiar constructions, as well as the words employed, become natural if we change the whole into direct discourse, nonne vos... vestrum ... redierit,. . . potest,' etc. Rhetorical style with the ancients was always more or less connected with speeches.

9. crederes: cf. 35. 5 n. —navatam: Gr. 292. a.

10. pestilenti: as being mutiny, and destructive to military discipline. quaesita, found; cf. quaesitam, 44. 3. adeo, etc.: a natural remark of Livy's after so many years of civil government had made

labem civitatibus opulentis repertam, ut magna imperia 9 mortalia essent. Diu sustentatum id malum partim patrum consiliis partim patientia plebis iam ad extrema venisse. Duas civitates ex una factas, suos cuique parti 10 magistratus, suas leges esse; primum in dilectibus saevire solitos, eosdem in bello tamen paruisse ducibus. Qualicumque urbis statu manente disciplina militari sisti potuisse; iam non parendi magistratibus morem in castra II quoque Romanum militem sequi. Proximo bello in ipsa. acie, in ipso certamine consensu exercitus traditam ultro victoriam victis Aequis, signa deserta, imperatorem in 12 acie relictum, iniussu in castra reditum. Profecto, si instetur, suo milite vinci Romam posse. Nihil aliud opus esse quam indici ostendique bellum, cetera sua sponte fata et deos gesturos. Hae spes Etruscos armaverant multis in vicem casibus victos victoresque.

45

Consules quoque Romani nihil praeterea aliud quam suas vires, sua arma horrebant. Memoria pessimi pro

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thing; opposed to primum above.

- quoque: i.e. as well as in the city at the time of the levy.

II. proximo, etc.: the final climax. acie: this would refer to the time when the armies were only in array ready to fight, and so is less strong than certamine, which would mean only the moment of conflict. ultro: i.e. the soldiers gave the victory, as it were, for nothing, voluntarily to their enemies who were already beaten (victis).

12. si instetur, if they pressed matters, i.e. as he goes on to show, and made war energetically in appearance. hae spes, etc., it was these hopes that had, etc.

VEII AND THE ETRUSCANS. 45. consules Romani: though

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