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esset, duas filias iuvenibus regiis Lucio atque Arrunti 2 Tarquiniis iungit. Nec rupit tamen fati necessitatem humanis consiliis, quin invidia regni etiam inter domesticos infida omnia atque infesta faceret. Peropportune. ad praesentis quietem status bellum cum Veientibusiam enim indutiae exierant - aliisque Etruscis sump3 tum. In eo bello et virtus et fortuna enituit Tulli, fusoque ingenti hostium exercitu haud dubius rex, seu patrum seu plebis animos periclitaretur, Romam rediit. 4 Adgrediturque inde ad pacis longe maximum opus, ut, quemadmodum Numa divini auctor iuris fuisset, ita Servium conditorem omnis in civitate discriminis ordinumque, quibus inter gradus dignitatis fortunaeque 5 aliquid interlucet, posteri fama ferrent. Censum enim instituit, rem saluberrimam tanto futuro imperio, ex quo belli pacisque munia non viritim ut ante, sed pro habitu

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(by offering himself for election). See Gr. 308. a. R. and footnote.

modum.

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4. ut: with ferrent. divini : opposed to the general idea of civil law contained in the following. · ita: correlative with quem ad - Servium: instead of se, as representing the language of future fame. discriminis, distinctions (properly abstract); ordinum: the same idea concretely. interlucet: — quibus, whereby. indicative, as representing a kind of explanatory remark of Livy's. The word gives the idea of conspicuous differences. ferrent: a purpose clause, in apposition with opus (to have posterity celebrate the fame of).

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pecuniarum fierent. Tum classes centuriasque et hunc ordinem ex censu discripsit vel paci decorum vel bello. Ex iis qui centum milium aeris aut maiorem censum 43 haberent octoginta confecit centurias, quadragenas seniorum ac iuniorum prima classis omnes appellati seniores ad urbis custodiam ut praesto essent, iuvenes ut foris bella gererent. Arma his imperata galea, clipeum, ocreae, lorica, omnia ex aere, — haec ut tegumenta corporis essent; tela in hostem hastaque et gladius.

munia: i.e. service and taxes. vi-
ritim, individually. -- pro habitu,
according to the state (of their
fortunes). — fierent, should be per-
formed; subjunctive of purpose.
tum: i.e. after having caused the
assessment to be made. - classes:

this word, akin to calare, but prob-
ably borrowed from Greek kλñois
(Xaois), must have originally re-
ferred to the calling out of troops,
as the militia is called to arms (cf.
legio), whence its constant use for
army and fleet. But at the time of
the Servian Constitution, its mean-
ing must have changed, so that it
came to express the different divis-
ions according to property..
- cen-
turias: this word also doubtless
changed its meaning at this time,
and came to be used of divisions
irrespective of numbers. - hunc :
i.e. the one given in the following.

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ordinem, scale; the order in which rights and duties were given, according to the assessment already made. paci: as giving dignity to political and social relations. bello: one would expect utile or the like, but that idea is merged in the splendor of the organization.

THE SERVIAN ARMY.

43. centum milium: these numbers can hardly be the origi

nal ratings; for, first, these depended
upon holdings of land, and second,
they are not based on the full pound
of copper, the original as, but upon
the later reduced value. - aeris:
equal to assium; here probably
reckoned of the value of one-tenth
of a denarius (15 to 20 cts.). The
fortune of the first class would there-
fore be about two thousand dollars
of our money. - censum, fortune;
an almost technical use of the word;
properly, rating. confecit, he
made up.
centurias: here not a
definite number, but a division of
the class, whatever number it hap-
pened to be. seniorum: from
forty-five to sixty. iuniorum:
from seventeen to forty-five.

2. omnes: i.e. both seniors and juniors. ad urbis, etc. : the whole was especially a military institution, although used also for other purposes. essent: depending on confecit. imperata: they were obliged to provide their own equipment; this sense of requisition is undoubtedly the original one of impero.galea: a leather cap with metal mountings. - clipeum (here neuter) the round shield like that carried by Greek warriors. tegumenta corporis : i.e. defensive armor, opposed to tela.- que et: et, as often in Livy; cf. II.

for et... 59.7.

2

3 Additae huic classi duae fabrum centuriae, quae sine armis stipendia facerent; datum munus ut machinas in 4 bello ferrent. Secunda classis intra centum usque ad

quinque et septuaginta milium censum instituta, et ex iis, senioribus iunioribusque, viginti conscriptae centuriae. Arma imperata scutum pro clipeo et praeter loricam 5 omnia eadem. Tertiae classis in quinquaginta milium censum esse voluit. Totidem centuriae et hae, eodemque discrimine aetatium factae; nec de armis quicquam 6 mutatum, ocreae tantum ademptae. In quarta classe census quinque et viginti milium, totidem centuriae factae; arma mutata, nihil praeter hastam et verutum da7 tum. Quinta classis aucta, centuriae triginta factae; fundas lapidesque missiles hi secum gerebant; in his

3. additae, etc.: the form of this statement indicates that these were not selected according to the census.fabrum, engineers, but acting as a sort of artillery. - machinas: the engines for throwing stones and darts, corresponding to modern ord

nance.

4. scutum: the oblong, curved shield of the later soldiers. — loricam: i.e. they had no bronze breastplate, which was made unnecessary by the size and shape of the shield.

6. mutata, etc.: with the fourth class begin the distinctively lightarmed. They had no defensive armor. - verutum: a light dart, not used as a lance, like the hasta, but only for a missile. With the hasta, however, they could form a part of the solid phalanx as well, but only in the rear of the heavyarmed.

7. in his accensi, etc.: no very satisfactory meaning can be made out of these words, because any view seems to be inconsistent with the known facts. The whole num

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accensi, cornicines, tubicinesque, in tres centurias distributi. Vndecim milibus haec classis censebatur. Hoc 8 minor census reliquam multitudinem habuit; inde unacenturia facta est, immunis militia.

Ita pedestri exercitu ornato distributoque equitum ex primoribus civitatis duodecim scripsit centurias. Sex 9 item alias centurias, tribus ab Romulo institutis, sub isdem quibus inauguratae erant nominibus fecit. Ad equos emendos dena milia aeris ex publico data, et quibus equos alerent, viduae attributae, quae bina milia

confusion is probably Livy's own, who, writing so long after, may easily have counted the unclassed citizens as one century, which in respect to the army they were not.

-accensi: originally enrolled in addition, but later used as a name for attendants on magistrates. Here, if the theory given above is adopted, it must be taken in its original sense, but as a noun. · - cornicines: 'players on the horn'; originally literally so; later a bronze instrument of a crooked shape was used, the proper trumpet of the cavalry.

tubi

cines: players on the (straight) trumpet, the proper instrument of the foot. -tres to make this number correct, we must suppose some such mistake as above suggested, making three extra centuries of orderlies and musicians.

8. milibus ablative of price. hoc

i.e. than the eleven thousand. census: a short-hand form for the roll of those having such an amount of property. — inde: i.e. ex eis. — immunis: only those who had a stake in the country were supposed to make good soldiers or to be fit to vote. - militia: ablative of separation. The more regular construction would be genitive. ornato: loosely used, not

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of actual but of regulated equipment. primoribus, leading men; apparently chosen arbitrarily, though they would naturally be from the first class. -duodecim: apparently Servius, wishing to increase the cavalry as well as the votes of the better class, with true Roman conservatism, did not disturb the old equites, as they had been originally instituted from noble families, but merely doubled their number, and enrolled twelve other centuries not necessarily from the nobles.

9. sex alias, etc.: these were, no doubt, the original equites, which Servius did not venture to disturb. They were always distinguished afterwards as the sex suffragia.tribus, etc.: ablative absolute. isdem the names had a religious character and could not be disturbed. The centuries were called priores, posteriores, with the original designation; cf. 36. 8.-nominibus: see 13. 8.-dena milia: the aes equestre, whence the knights were called equites equo publico. — ex publico: i.e. from the treasury. -quibus: loosely construed with bina milia. - viduae: unmarried women of fortune, who thus paid their share of the common burdens. bina milia: the aes hor

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aeris in annos singulos penderent. Haec omnia in dites a pauperibus inclinata onera.

Deinde est horos additus: non enim, ut ab Romulo traditum ceteri servaverant reges, viritim suffragium eadem vi eodemque iure promisce omnibus datum est, sed gradus facti, ut neque exclusus quisquam suffragio videretur et vis omnis penes primores civitatis esset. II Equites enim vocabantur primi, octoginta inde primae classis centuriae primum peditum vocabantur; ibi si variaret, quod raro incidebat, ut secundae classis vocarentur, nec fere umquam infra ita descenderent ut ad 12 infimos pervenirent. Nec mirari oportet hunc ordinem, qui nunc est post expletas quinque et triginta tribus, duplicato earum numero centuriis iuniorum seniorumque,

dearium. - haec omnia: all the arrangements of the constitution in regard to military service, which bore harder on the rich, from the expense of arms and horses, etc.

10. honos: i.e. a compensating privilege. viritim: i.e. each man having a separate vote.—gradus facti: this was done by giving each century one vote, though the numbers of the centuries differed enormously.― vis omnis, etc. : eighteen centuries of equites and eighty of the first class at once made a majority if they agreed.

II. primum: genitive plural with peditum, consisting of the best class of the foot, i.e. the richest.

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ibi: i.e. in eis; cf. ubi, 38. 4. — variaret: see Gr. 309. b.- - ut vocarentur: the construction is distorted by incidebat, as if the whole depended on a verb of happening instead of being independent, as in vocabantur. descenderent: sc.

the people in voting.

12. nec mirari, etc.: Livy here evidently refers to the different state

of things in his time in regard to the relative power of the classes of people. At some time in the third century B.C., the constitution was so changed that the first class lost its power of voting first, and at the same time the number of centuries was so altered (probably by increase) that the higher classes no longer constituted a majority, as they had under the Servian constitution. The precise nature of the change is unknown, but the organization of the centuries was approximated to that of the local tribes, whereas under the Servian constitution the centuries were independent of the tribes. mirari: sc. quemquam. — ordinem, organization, but referring particularly to the number (cf. summam below) and the consequent change in the tendency of the constitution. — expletas: the number of tribes was gradually increased from four to thirty-five. duplicato: just how this is to be taken is uncertain. If we look at the text alone, it

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