« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
seen, which is a modern building, accompanied with a cloistered portico, balustrade, and other ornaments. The interior is a fine room: and the exterior structure, seen by itself, or in the vicinity of less magnificent objects, would obtain much praise; but surveying it between King's College Chapel and the Senate-house, the eye is not sufficiently at leisure to admire. This part was built in 1755.—A word or two on the public schools.
You enter the quadrangle that forms the public schools, through the portico of the public library. It consists of different parts, with different designations; nor were they built at the same time, nor at the expense of a single person. The theological school, which was first built, was erected when the University enlarged St. Mary's Church, partly at their own expense; partly by the aid of some noble benefactors, and legacies bequeathed for the service of the University. Of benefactors, the principal was Sir Robert Thorpe, who died about 1372.
The trustees, also, of Sir William Thorpe, brother of Sir Robert, assigned some of his monies, over which they had a discretional power, to the same purpose.
This school was finished in the year 1400.
The philosophical school was erected next, being finished about the time with the greater side of the public library, which was over it. They were raised on ground, which, in part, belonged to the University, in part, to a private gentleman, and to the garden of St. Mary's, for which the University paid a yearly rent to Corpus Christi College. The public disputations used to be held before
&c. to the proper Guides, and for an account of the wonderful colossal Head of Ceres, &c. brought by Mr. Cripps, and Dr. Clarke, from Greece, and placed in the vestibule of the Public Library, to the TestIMONTES respecting the statue of Ceres, printed at Cambridge, in 1803.
in a small school that was formerly in the garden of Gonville and Caius College. Afterwards, in 1458, by a decree of Laurence, Bishop of Durham, with the consent of the University, in full congregation, it was provided, that the building, formerly called the school of Terence, should be converted into a school of civil law; and that the lower dialectic schools should be finished. The former was done at the expense of those who studied the law; the latter, by contributions raised in the University; and it was finished in the year 1474.
The small schools, as they were called, were built in 1470, by the subscriptions of members of the University. In one of these, every morning, from eight to nine, masters of arts read lectures, from which questions were formed, and afterwards discussed in utramq. partem, by respondencies and opponencies in the philosophical school; and in the school, in which these lectures were thus formerly given, the vice-chancellor afterwards held his court. This was under that part of the public library, founded by Archbishop Rotheram, and I have thought proper closely to follow the steps of Archbishop Parker, in the above account of the public schoolsa.
Rotheram, Archbishop of York, just mentioned, and Tonstal, bishop of Durham, with various other benefactors, presented the library with many valuable MSS. and some of our most early printed books. It was not, however, of the genius of the times, about the period of the invention of printing, to have large collections, nor to be tenants in perpetuity of all they gotb. But in the progress of time, great additions were made. Till gradually enriched by other presents, more particularly by Dr. Moore's valuable library, purchased, and given to the University, by George I. as well as by purchases made out of their own funds, this library consists now, of more than ninety thousand volumes.
a Hist. Cantab. Acad.
b Caius, (Hist. Cantab. lib. ii. p. 82.) speaking of Archbishop Rotheram's library, says,
“ Quorum magna adhuc superest, magna periit suffurantium vitio :” p. 85, he gives a list of those that remained in his time, 1574, and they amounted only to one hundred and fifty three, including MSS. and printed books. According to the Reliquiæ Bodleianæ, similar, or worse depredations, had been made in the library given about the same time to Oxford University, by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. As scarcity of provisions makes people turn thieres, so, from paucity of books, the monks became pilferers; more particularly, when there was nothing but MSS. Hence those frequent anathemas, prefixed to books in ancient monasteries : these were the Priapuses, to drive away the thievish birds.
It appears, from the designs in Mr. Loggan's CANTABRIGIA ILLUSTRATA, that, formerly there was a splendid gateway and pedimenta at the entrance of the schools, together with the arms of the several benefactors to them; and, from Archbishop Parker's account, that in the windows of the schools, there were similar ornaments: these were removed when the public schools were repaired: the glass was taken away, but whither removed is unknown; I speak after Mr. Cole, who is very severe on persons who receive benefactions, but care not how soon their benefactors' names are obliterated.
With respect to the design and elevation of the public schools, Mr. Loggan well observes, they are rather neat than magnificent, and he has some appropriate observations in reference to the true philosophy of such taste for schools. Of the taste, I shall only add, after a writer of much observation in architecture, that if the public schools and library, which now form this internal quadrangle, (to distinguish it from the grand square,) have not the lofty elevation and splendid display of the five orders, like the schools of Oxford, they have none of their faults a.
a These, I understand, now form an ornament to the house of Sir John Cotton, at Madingley.
AMONG the English counties, Cambridgeshire had been long known as peculiarly favourable to botanic studies. Ray, our great English botanist, (who began his researches at Canıbridge,) long since remarked this; but it was not till the year 1763, that any plan was formed for a botanic garden.
Ray, besides making inquiries in this county, had very early perambulated great part of England in search of plants. In 1660, he published his catalogue of plants that grow about Cambridge a, and three years after, an appendix. In 1685, Mr. Dent, an apothecary of Cambridge, added to Mr. Ray's catalogue, a great many more. He was succeeded in the same walk, by Mr. Martyn, Miller, and Israel Lyons. The fasciculus plantarum of the latter was printed in 1763, as a specimen of a larger work. But after Ray, there were only titular professors of botany. Nothing was seriously done till the time of Mr. Martyn, who read lectures, and perambulated the county: and on his leaving Cambridge, Dr. Heberden gave lectures on Botany in reference to medicine, as already has been shewn.
• Fasciculus Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium, 1660.