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1. Needs and Present Methods of Distribution.
2. Immigrant Homes and Aid Societies.
Number of Workers and Persons Assisted. . 248
Cooperation of the Government.
3. Results of Investigation of Immigrant Homes
4. Influence of Immigrant Churches.
Toward Permanency of Residence.
5. Work of Native Churches and Religious Organiza-
The Young Men's Christian Association
The North American Civic League.
8. The Chinese Exclusion Law of 1904 .
9. Legislation Relative to Japanese Laborers
10. The Administration of the Law .
Political Condition of Foreign-born Male Em-
Occupations Abroad of Foreign-born Male
Congestion in Industrial Localities
Weekly Earnings of Industrial Workers.
Weekly Earnings of Male Employees.
Weekly Earnings of Female Employees
Daily Earnings of Male Employees
Daily Earnings of Female Employees
Family Income of Industrial Workers
Location of Wives of Foreign-born Husbands. 433
Contract Laborers Debarred and Deported. . 435
Distribution of Foreign-born Population.
Period of Residence in the United States
Affiliation with Trade-unions of Foreign-born
Total Population and Number of Foreign-born
The Immigration Problem is one of vital interest to the American people. President Roosevelt said that he considered it, with the possible exception of that of the conservation of the natural resources of the country, our most important problem. Upon our policy in dealing with the immigrants depend, to a very noteworthy extent, the progress and nature of the development of the nation economically, politically, and socially.
Heretofore the discussions on the subject of Immigration have of necessity been based very largely upon conjecture or the personal observation of individuals, and, far too often, upon prejudice. There has not been in existence trustworthy statistical material showing the effects of immigration. The United States Immigration Commission during the last four years has, however, gathered such material on a scale complete enough to enable a reasonably accurate judgment to be formed regarding the effects of immigration.
Both of the authors of this book were associated with the Commission from the beginning, and it has been their purpose to put into shape for the public, in such a manner that its significance may be readily understood by any thoughtful reader, the gist of the information collected in the forty-two volumes of the original material published by the Commission. Free use has been made of the data of the Commission and of the special reports of its experts. The writers are not advocates, but interpreters of facts. They are
not members of any league for the restriction of immigrants or for the encouragement of a more liberal policy toward immigration. Until about the time the investigation was completed, they had not formulated in their own minds any definite policy which they believed the Government should follow. Such opinions as they have exprest in this volume are the result of careful deliberation following study of the facts gathered by the Commission.
If any person is inclined to differ from the judgments in this volume, it is suggested that he examine carefully the data in an unprejudiced spirit before he condemns the conclusions. The attempt has been made to furnish in either the text or the appendices enough material to enable the reader to form an independent opinion. But, if the material presented seems insufficient, the reader is referred to the detailed reports of the Immigration Commission, where the original material is presented in such form that a careful student may reach an independent judgment. On a question of so profound importance to the welfare of the country it is hoped that many citizens will attempt through careful study to reach a sound conclusion.
The authors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness to Miss Elizabeth A. Hyde for her editorial suggestions and her assistance in reading proofs.
J. W. J.