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of it, especially as during late years the effectiveness of the Immigration Bureau in excluding smugglers has doubtless increased.
DISPLACEMENT OF AMERICANS BY EUROPEAN
As in the East, so also in the West, there have been found a few instances of race displacement by Europeans working at a lower wage than the natives. Generally speaking, the immigrants, introduced for railroad section work, have been paid the same wages as those previously paid. In certain cases they have been paid even more than the laborers previously employed, the latter being insufficient in number to meet the increasing demand.
On several occasions it is found that East European races have been introduced as strike-breakers; for example, in the coal mines of Colorado, New Mexico, and Washington, and in the metalliferous mines of Colorado. In these instances the keeping of the old scale of wages was only possible because of the failure of the strikes. In this way they, as in the coal regions of Pennsylvania, discouraged the efforts of the trade-unions. There have been, however, few such instances.
The availability of a comparatively large supply of the South and East European races, including the Greeks, has assisted to a considerable extent in the expansion of industry in some cases. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that it has seriously retarded the advance of wages in those occupations where such labor could be used to advantage. One specific example is found in the case of section hands on the railroads, where the wages have varied little
during the last fifteen years, altho the wages in other lines of industry have advanced materially. Moreover, the wages of the South and East Europeans and Mexicans have in many cases increased only slightly, if at all, while the wages of Japanese, even when in the same line of work, have been materially advanced. Again, in certain fields of work where, in certain localities, the Europeans from the north and east of Europe are employed, and in other places those from southeastern Europe and from Mexico, it has been found that, among the latter, wages have not advanced, whereas among the earlier classes they have advanced. For example, in the State of Washington, where natives and North Europeans constitute the majority of those employed, wages for the maintenance of way, and for construction on the railways, have varied from $2.25 to $2.50 per day. In another community not far away, where the Greeks and Italians were largely employed, similar labor received wages varying from $1.75 to $2.25 per day. Other instances in the State of California have been found where among the gangs, made up mostly of southern and eastern Europeans, the prevailing wages were less by some 25 to 75 cents per day than those where the North Europeans were chiefly employed.
The immigrants from South and East Europe have been mainly unskilled laborers, and, on the whole, have not shown the same readiness to join trade unions and to insist upon American working conditions as have those coming from the older immigration from the north and west of Europe. Again.
there is clearly a tendency on the part of some employers to segregate their unskilled workmen into colonies under the leadership of a man of their own race. In this way, by keeping the gangs separated one from the other, they are able to avoid any display of race antipathy. They simplify supervision, and doubtless, in very many cases, they are able to prevent any organization into unions, so as to bring pressure for an increase of wages.
KNOWLEDGE OF ENGLISH
There seems to be, also, a material difference between these classes of immigrants as regards their tendency to assimilation, so far as this may be indicated by their knowledge of English. Approximately four-fifths of the number of the non-English-speaking North European races, who have resided in this country less than five years, speak English, while less than half of most of the races of the other groups from southern and eastern Europe speak English. Even among the South and East Europeans, however, there is quite a material difference, the Finns, Dalmatians and Croatians showing greater progress than the Russians, Slovaks and Italians.
The difference between the North and the South and the East Europeans tends, of course, to disappear with the length of residence. As years go by, the immigrants from southern and eastern Europe are showing inclinations much more like those found in the races from northern Europe.
In the case of seasonal labor, such as the maintenance of way on railroads, lumbering, fishing, certain parts of the coal and oil mining industries, are found chiefly the recent immigrants, who are either
unmarried, or whose wives have not been brought with them. These immigrants, living more freely than others in bunk-houses in race groups, are largely drawn from South and East European races. Those, however, who remain in the United States for a comparatively long period, show a much greater proportion of married men. As time goes by, they bring their wives and children from Europe; especially is this to be noted among the Italians and Slovaks, Slovenians and Finns. These families usually get into the more settled kinds of unskilled labor, such as is found in the coal and ore mines and the smelters.
In the larger cities, where the races have remained for a considerable length of time, they have become much more strongly Americanized. The great majority of them speak English, and those who are better-to-do show a tendency to leave the colonies of their own people, and to go into the better resident districts. Their children differ little from those of the American-born, unless they are brought up throughout their childhood in the race colonies. Various races have organized benevolent societies for the care of those of their own people who are unfortunate. These societies, beyond any question, tend somewhat to prevent the race from being Americanized, or perhaps they are rather an evidence that they are not fully Americanized. At the same time, such plans can hardly be regretted since, altho they may somewhat retard the process of assimilation, these societies encourage thrift, and show an independence of State aid, which is extremely commendable.
ITALIAN COLONIES, PORTUGUESE, ETC.
With the exception of a few California communities, the Italian farmers are generally closely colonized. In most cases they are engaged in market gardening, in other cases in grape culture and wine making. The Italians are good farmers; they have converted large tracts of land, formerly used for stock raising and general farming, into vineyards and orchards, and have added greatly to the wealth of the State. The Italians frequently cooperate in leasing land.
The Portuguese, on the other hand, seldom cooperate, each individual wishing to rent alone his separate land. The Portuguese, while endeavoring to establish themselves independently, have, perhaps, not progressed quite so rapidly in the way of securing land and of becoming prosperous as have either the Italians, Japanese, or the German-Russians. In some
special instances, the German-Russians seem to have succeeded unusually well. A considerable number of them came to Fresno County, California, some twenty years ago. Altho they began earning their livelihood as unskilled laborers, many have since established themselves as farmers. They now control about 5,000 acres. These same people have also made settlements in Colorado, and in some cases the sugar companies have brought large numbers of families of this race from Nebraska to do the hand work employed in growing sugar beets. They are industrious and thrifty, and have made an excellent record in becoming tenant and even independent farmers. These, with the Italians and Portuguese, have perhaps succeeded better than the other races in becom