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On the Pacific Coast they have, as a matter of fact, usually made an entirely separate working class. Generally speaking, when they have entered largely into a business, or when they have undertaken certain classes of work, there has been a rapid separation between them and the American workingmen, they taking the harder kinds and the members of the white races taking types of work entirely different. In this way they have become, to a considerable extent, almost a separate caste. Indeed, there is a feeling on the part of many people who have carefully observed conditions in that region that they have almost made a servile caste; and many of the most thoughtful, most cultivated, most kindly people on the Coast have thought that, inasmuch as these are facts, and must be recognized, it is wise for us to take action accordingly.

GOVERNMENTAL ACTION OF CHINA AND JAPAN The Governments of China and Japan have really no reason to object to our wishing not to admit the working people of their races in large numbers. As a matter of fact, Americans are not admitted to China or to Japan on even terms with the natives" there. They can go into the country as residents only in very limited communities; they are not permitted to buy land; and they are not admitted to citizenship in those countries. As a matter of fact, our country has treated the members, particularly, of the Japanese race, more liberally than the Japanese have treated the Americans. The Japanese have been allowed to buy land, in many instances in large tracts; and tho


at the present time we are taking rather active measures to exclude them from coming in large numbers, up to date, at any rate, we have treated them more liberally than they have treated us.

It may be well said, then, that it is better for them, better for us, better for the civilization of the world at large, that each country attempt to work out its own problems independently instead of each working them out in the country of the other.


We should not fail to recognize, nevertheless, the great advantage that comes from intimate association with people who are different from ourselves. One of the mistakes that we often make in our social intercourse, as well as in our political relations, in associating with people of similar tastes and habits, is to form a little clique or society of persons like ourselves, forgetting that in our intimate intercourse with them, while we may derive enjoyment, we obtain very few new ideas. In talking with men trained as we have been trained, meeting the same people, thinking along lines similar to our own habits of thinking, it is not likely that we shall give them many new thoughts, or that we shall derive much from them. On the other hand, when we meet with people of a different type from ourselves, from them we gather many new ideas, if we are thoughtful and can free ourselves from prejudice. It is they, rather than our most intimate associates, perhaps, from whom we learn most and to whom we owe most in our advancement. Indeed, it is often true, that from people who are really opposed to ourselves, we learn the most. By opposing our ideas, they rouse us to activity.

Advantage of Association With Educated Orientals

We ought, then, not to fail to get the benefit from associating with foreigners, especially those whose racial customs differ widely from ours. In order, however, to secure this advantage, it is not necessary that they come in large numbers, and especially that they come as people of the unskilled laboring classes. Rather should we encourage our own people to travel in foreign countries; to get the ideas that come from the study of different civilizations; and to encourage the coming to our shores of people of the more intelligent classes, travelers, scientists, students, merchants, and others from whom we can gather new plans of work. While it may, for economic as well as for social reasons, be wise to exclude the common laborer, it can not but be unwise to exclude trained men and women who come to us usually merely for a temporary sojourn, and from whom we may learn much that will tend to benefit our own civilization. Moreover, by exchanging ideas and giving to them the benefit of our civilization, which differs from theirs, we may give to them an equal advantage, and thus the civilization of the world will be promoted. Whatever views we may hold with reference to the ordinary immigration question, so far as the Orient is concerned, there can be no doubt but we ought to uphold a policy of friendly intercourse between the oriental nations and our own, in order that each may get the benefit of the civilization of the other.

Population of the Pacific Coast


In the eleven States and Territories of the western division of the United States, more than 20 per cent. of the population are foreign-born. About 2 per cent. of the population, and about 10 per cent. of the foreign-born, have emigrated from Asia. About 12.7

per cent. of the total population, more than 60 per cent. of the foreign-born, have emigrated from the North European countries. The Germans rank first, the English next, the Irish next. Moreover, some 90,000 immigrants from Canada, 2.2 per cent. of the population, might be included with the North Europeans as being largely of the same stock. Beside these, considerably more than 100,000 have emigrated from southern and eastern Europe, forming some 2.75 per cent. of the population of the western coast. Of these South European immigrants, the Italians are the most numerous, followed by the Austrians, Finns and Portuguese.

Another group entirely different, and so distinct in their qualities that they might almost in many respects be classed with the orientals, on account of their differences in ways of living, are the Mexicans, with nearly 30,000, less than one per cent. of the entire population.



During the last decade there have been some material changes in the nature of the population. tween 1900 and 1910 came a rapid increase in the number of the Japanese, with a few Koreans. Some

of these came from Japan and others from Hawaii, until the number of that race in the western part of the United States is probably somewhat more than 90,000, more than half of whom are in California, one-sixth of them, perhaps, in the State of Washington. The number of Chinese on the Pacific Coast is rapidly diminishing, the decline being due in part to the exclusion law, and in part to a tendency among the Chinese to move to Eastern cities, while during the ten years a rapid incoming of Mexicans was continued until their numbers in the Western States have increased many times over. The number of English, Scandinavian, and other North Europeans, continued to increase in part by direct immigration from these countries of Europe, and in part by western movement of the workers from the East, as the increasing number of South and East Europeans in the East made the working conditions harder; partly, also, this was a westward movement of families to locate in better conditions on farms. There has been, also, an influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, the smaller part of them coming direct from their native land, except perhaps in the case of the North Italians, the Portuguese and one or two other races of less importance numerically, the larger number coming from the Eastern States to engage in common, unskilled, and partly-skilled labor in the mines, smelters, and other industries where unskilled labor is required in large numbers.

Doubtless, beyond the figures recorded by the Immigration Bureau, a considerable number of Chinese and Japanese have been smuggled in, but as compared with the entire number, this number of Chinese is probably so small that we need take no special account

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