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and the Servians, Magyars, and South Italians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Slovenians and Germans the smallest percentage of individuals earning under $400. The proportion of individuals earning under $600 ranges from 100 per cent for the Magyars and 96.4 per cent for the Servians to 90.9 per cent for the Slovenians and 90.6 per cent for the Germans, while all of the Croatians, Magyars, and Servians, and over 96 per cent of the individuals of every other foreign race, earn under $800.

The table shows, in general, that the foreign-born heads of families earn annually less than those native-born of native father, and the latter less than those native-born of foreign father, while among the foreign-born the heads of families of the races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe earn, in general, more than those of the races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED. The following tables show the yearly earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over and who were working for wages. The presentation is by general nativity and race of individual: TABLE 427.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

General nativity and race of individual.

Number
Number earning-

Per cent earning-
working
for wages Average
and re- earnings. Under Under Under Under Under Under Under Under
porting

$200. $400. $600. $1,000. $200. $400. $600. $1,000. amount.

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60.9 38.2 (a) 26.9 (@) 20.0 (a) 23.4 56. 6 (a)

100.0 96.7 (a) 92.3 (a) 75.0 (a) 96.9 100.0

100.0 100.0 (a) 100.0 (a)

85.0 (a) 100.0 100.0 (a)

65.0
(@)
79.7
90.4

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(a)

112

(a)

175 301 381

96.4

111
17
42

(a) 99.1 (a) 87.5

63.4
(a)
14.6

(a)

100.0 (a) 100.0

48

56. 3

782

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Grand total....
Total native-born of for-
eign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

35.8

92.1

100 146 636

472 450 271

15 24 256

46 72 512

77 114 606

93
139
632

15.0
16.4
40.3

46.0
49.3
80.5

77.0
78. 1
95. 3

93.0
95. 2
99.4

• Not computed, owing to small number involved.

In this locality 35.8 per cent of the males 18 years of age or over working for wages, for whom information was secured, earn under $200 per year, 74.7 per cent earn under $400, 92.1 per cent earn under $600, and 98.6 per cent earn under $1,000. The proportion of individuals earning under $200, under $100, and under $600, respectively, is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of native father, and smallest for the native-born of foreign father. All of the males native-born of native father and a considerably larger proportion of the foreign-born than of the nativeborn of foreign father earn under $1,000 a year. Of the foreign races for which the percentages have been computed, the Servians and Bulgarians have the largest and the Slovenians the smallest proportion of individuals earning under $200 and under $400 each year, respectively.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

The table next presented shows the percentage of families according to general nativity and race of head of family, having a total yearly income of each specified amount:

Table 428.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by

general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races

Three families are included which report women as “done.'']

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The foregoing table shows that the greater proportion of the 106 families selected for study have a total yearly income of less than $750 and that slightly over one-half have an income under $500. Only 23.2 per cent have an annual income in excess of $750 and only 1.5 per cent over $1,500. The average yearly family income is $557. Of families with an annual income under $300 those whose heads are foreign-born show the highest percentage, closely followed by those whose heads are native-born of native father. Only a small proportion of families whose heads are native-born of foreign father

have an income less than $300 each year. Over one-half of the foreign families and only slightly less than one-half of the families with heads of native birth and native father have a yearly income under $500. Families whose heads are native-born of foreign father show a rather small proportion with a yearly income of under $500.

The families whose heads are native-born of foreign father have the highest average yearly income, amounting to $725. No South Italian nor Servian families have an income in excess of $1,000. Servians show the highest and Slovenians the lowest per cent with yearly incomes under $300. With the exception of the Germans, more than one-half of the families of all races whose heads are foreign-born show an income under $500. South Italians exhibit the highest percentage of families with incomes under $750, Servians, Croatians, Slovenians, Magyars, and Germans following in the order named. German families whose heads are foreign-born show the highest average annual income, amounting to $617. The South Italians have an average yearly income of only $380, and the Servians of $365.

WIVES AT WORK.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the wives in the households studied who are at work:

TABLE 429.— Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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It appears from the foregoing table that only a small proportion, or 7.2 per cent, of the wives in this locality are at work. This percentage is slightly higher for wives in families whose heads are native-born of foreign father or native-born of native father than with the foreign-born. The races of the second generation all have a small representation of wives at work.

Of the foreign-born the Magyars have much the largest proportion of wives at work. They are followed by the Croatians and Germans, who have slightly over 6 per cent of their wives at work. The South Italians and Slovenians show between 2 and 3 per cent of their wives to be at work outside the home.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

of

The following table shows the yearly earnings of all females 18 years age or over in the households studied who are working for wages. The exhibit is by general nativity and race of individual. TABLE 430.--- Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general

nativity and race of individual.

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The average yearly earnings of 66 women over 18 years of age working for wages are $205. Almost all earned under $400, and more than half the number earned under $200. The earnings of the native-born of native father or of native-born of foreign father are higher than those of foreign birth.

RELATION TWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE

OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

The tables next presented show the number and percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, according to annual earnings of husband and general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 431.— Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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& For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 272. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this

table. • This column includes 8 families in which husband's earnings are reported as "none." This column includes 5 families in which busband's earnings are reported as “none."

TABLE 432.—Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 272. Of the selected families only those which

have both husband and wife present appear in this table.)

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Native-born of native father, White....
Foreign-born:

Croatian.
German.
Italian, South..
Magyar..
Servian.
Slovenian

:

72.6 50.0 46.3 87.5 90.3 61.8

8

Grand total...
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

38.5

64.2

39.4

34. 1

55.0

21.4
23. 1
68.8

25.0
25. 8
46.0

22.2
18 2
50.0

23. 2
22.8
63.0

41

.

none.

a This column includes 5 families in which husband's earnings are reported as
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

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