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Announcing the publication of

Applied Colloid Chemistry

Professor of Physical Chemistry, Cornell University,

International Chemical Series.

345 pages, 532 x 8, illustrated, $3.00. A deductive treatment of the general theory of colloid chemistry. Professor Bancroft's wide information on this subject gives the book a special authoritativeness.

It is intended that this volume will be followed by others on such subjects as paints and varnishes, plastics, fibers and dyeing, photochemistry, foods and beverages, etc.

Chapter Headings I. Adsorption of Gas or Vapor by Solid. II. Adsorption of Vapor by Liquid and of Liquid and Solid by Solid and Liquid. III. Adsorption from Solution. IV. Surface Tension-Brownian Movements. V. Coalescence. VI. Preparation of Colloidal Solution VII. Properties of Colloidal Solution. VIII. Jellies and Gelatinous Precipitates. IX. Emulsions and Foams. X. Non-aqueous Collodial Solutions. XI. Fog and Smoke. XII. Gases and Solids in Solids. XIII. Thickness of Surface Films.

Other Recent Books Hamor and Padget—The Technical Examination of Crude Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Natural Gas By William Allen Hamor, Assistant Director of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research of the University of Pittsburgh, and Fred. Warde Padgett, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, University of Oklahoma. Mellon Institute Technochemical Series. 591 pages, 6 x 9, 144 illustrations. $6.00

Van der Bijl—The Thermionic Vacuum Tube and its Applications. By H. J. van der Bijl, M.A., Ph.D.; Research Physicist, American Tel. and Tel. Co. and Western Electric Co., New York. 391 pages, 6 x 9, 232 illustrations ............................................ $5.00

Spurr—Political and Commercial Geology and the World's Mineral Resources. Edited by J. E. Spurr, Editor Engineering and Mining Journal. 561 pages, 6 x 9, 22 illustrations ............................$5.00

Send for copies of these new books on approval


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SAMUEL JAMES MELTZERI Dr. SAMUEL JAMES MELTZER was born in Curland, northwestern Russia, March 22, 1851. He received his preliminary education in a Real Gymnasium in Königsberg and his later training in the University of Berlin where he graduated in medicine in 1882. After taking his medical degree he decided to make his career in America, as the country which in his opinion had the best form of government. He had not sufficient means to make the journey and was therefore obliged to secure a position as ship's surgeon on one of the transatlantic vessels. On arriving in New York it was necessary in the beginning to devote his time mainly to building up a practise sufficient to support his family, but almost from the beginning he made arrangements also to give part of his time to research. From that period until his death on November 7, 1920, in his seventieth year he was a tireless investigator. When in the course of time the opportunity came to him from the Rockefeller Institute to give his time entirely to research he did not hesitate in making his decision. At a considerable financial sacrifice he abandoned his medical practise to devote himself to the kind of work that he most loved and most valued. By his good work and his high character he attained a position of honor and distinction in American medicine and endeared himself to his fellow-workers in all parts of the country. His productivity was remarkable. The list of his published papers includes over two hundred and forty titles, distributed among some forty-eight scientific journals of this country, Germany and England. These papers contain contributions to the subjects

1 Read before the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Chicago, December 28, 1920.


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was thus

of physiology, pharmacology, pathology and hibited a dog in which Herr Cand. Med. clinical medicine together with a number of Meltzer had cut the nerves going to the lectures and general addresses. That he was mylohyoid muscle and thus demonstrated the an investigator of recognized standing in importance of this muscle in the initial stage these several branches of medicine and was of swallowing. At a later meeting of the regarded as a valued contributor to so many society in the same year Kronecker presented scientific journals of the first rank is a strik- the full results of an investigation carried ing demonstration of the breadth of his inter- out by Herr Cand. Med. Meltzer under his ests and knowledge. He was a member of supervision on the “Process of Swallowing." twenty or more national scientific or clinical This paper was published subsequently by societies and in all of them it may be said he Kronecker and Meltzer in the Monatsbericht was prepared to take his part as an expert in der Königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu the reading and the discussion of technical Berlin, 1881. In this important contribution papers.

the mechanism of swallowing was given an He served as president of the American entirely new interpretation which has since Physiological Society, the Society for Experi- been generally accepted and is known as mental Biology and Medicine, the American the Kronecker-Meltzer theory of deglutition. Gastro-enterological Society, the American Meltzer had attracted Kronecker's attention Society for the Advancement of Clinical while a student in his course. Out of this Research, the Association of American Phys- acquaintanceship developed an invitation to icians and the American Association for engage in a research and eventually a warm Thoracic Surgery. The membership in these friendship between the two men that lasted societies is composed of trained specialists. throughout life. Meltzer's career It is their custom to choose as their presiding determined while still a student of medicine. officer only those who have made contribu- Kronecker's influence attracted him to physitions of distinction to the subject to which ology and set his feet in the paths of research. the society is devoted. It seems to me unique The investigation in which they collaborated in the modern history of medicine for one was important and original-just what part man to have received such special recognition each contributed it is not now possible to from technical workers in so many different discover, but it is interesting to find that this fields.

initial venture into research furnished a While his activities covered this large range motif which can be detected recurring again he was interested primarily in physiology. and again in Meltzer's subsequent work. A “I belong," he said in a recent paper “ to companion paper upon “Die Irradiationen those who believe . . . that the knowledge of des Schluckcentrums und ihre Bedeutung' physiology is of special importance to clinical was published by Meltzer alone in 1883. It medicine." His work in this field entitles is a very suggestive paper on account of the him certainly to be ranked among the fore- careful analysis it contains of the far-reachmost American physiologists. In attempting ing and curious effects in the central nervous to present some estimate of the results of his system of the act of swallowing and also belabors I must limit myself mainly to his cause in it Meltzer announces certain views physiological activity. Indeed in this subject upon the importance of the inhibitory procalone his papers are so varied that it will esses which subsequently formed the basis of be possible to bring under review only what his theory of inhibition, and remained with seem to be his major contributions. His first him throughout life as a sort of compass by appearance as an investigator is recorded in which to set his course on his voyages of disa brief note in the Proceedings of the Berlin covery. He calls attention in this work to Physiological Society, May 14, 1880. In this the fact that reflex excitation of the inspiranote it is stated that Professor Kronecker ex- tory muscles is accompanied by reflex inhibition of the expiratory muscles and vice I entertain and defend the view that the pheversa, and he goes on to make the suggestion nomena of life are not simply the outcome of the that a similar relationship must prevail in

single factor of excitation, but they are the result the case of all antagonistic muscles such as

of a compromise between two antagonistic factors,

the fundamental forces of life, excitation and inthe extensors and flexors of the limbs. Some

hibition." ten years later Sherrington gave the necessary demonstration that this interrelation does That is to say, whenever a tissue is stimhold with the muscular antagonists, that the

ulated two different processes are aroused, contraction of the one is accompanied by the one leading to functional activity and one to inhibition of the other and he designated this a suppression of activity. As to the nature relationship under the term of “reciprocal of these processes very little is said. He was innervation.” Meltzer meanwhile had been ac

not satisfied with the Hering-Gaskell concumulating instances of this combined action ception that excitation follows or is an acof excitation and inhibition, but he neglected companiment of catabolic changes while inat that period to apply a distinctive name to

hibition is due to processes of an anabolic or this kind of correlated activity. There can

assimilative character. He goes only so far be no doubt that when it is possible to label

as to assume that both processes are conan idea with an appropriate designation its

cerned with the kinetic and potential energies currency in the scientific world is greatly

of the system, that excitation facilitates the facilitated. In his paper on “The Self-Regu

conversion of potential to kinetic energy lation of Respiration” read before the Amer

while inhibition hinders or retards this conican Physiological Society in 1889 and pub- version, like the turning off or on of a stop lished in the New York Medical Journal and

cock. Nor was he satisfied with Sherringunder a different title in the Archiv. für

ton's term of reciprocal innervation to dePhysiologie he describes experiments intended scribe all of the phenomena he had in mind. to show that two kinds of afferent fibers exist

While this phrase is a suitable designation

for the relationship between physically anin the vagus nerve, one exciting and the

tagonistic muscles such as the flexors and other inhibiting inspiratory movements. He

extensors it is less appropriate in other cases, used this fact to modify the Hering-Breuer

for example the simultaneous phases of contheory of the self-regulation of the respira

traction and inhibition exhibited in peritions by assuming that the expansion of the

stalsis. In later papers he suggested first the lungs stimulates both groups of fibers. The

term crossed innervation borrowed from von resultant effect, as in the case of the simul

Basch, but subsequently adopted the designataneous stimulation of the motor and in

tion of contrary innervation as more applihibitory fibers to the heart, is a dominance

cable to the whole series of phenomena which of the inhibitory effect, thus cutting short the

he was considering. This process he believed inspiration and bringing on an expiration.

is universal in its action—it is “manifest in But after the inhibition ceases the excitatory all the functions of the animal body.” Morefibers, which, like the acceleratory fibers of

over his experience and observation as a practhe heart have a long after action, come into tising physician led him to believe that “a play and start a new inspiration. In his first disturbance of this law is a factor of more general paper on inhibition this idea of a or less importance in the pathogenesis of combined action of opposing processes is ex- many disorders and diseases of the animal tended by the citation of numerous instances body.” In this way he would explain in part taken from physiological literature and is ex- at least the muscular incoordination in tabes panded into a general theory which makes and the gastric crises of that disease, as well inhibition a universal property of irritable as gastric and intestinal colic in general. If tissues.

the orderly sequence of a peristaltic wave is

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