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twisting B, around the objective mounting, erally found to be smaller, for the time-ball and noting the results. As the field is dark, has to drop a short distance for its motion quite faint stars serve.
to be perceived. Before use the level was carefully calibrated. Taking into consideration the clumsiness of
An observation is made by setting the tele- the attachment, the uncertainties of stopwatch scope, pointing east, so that the image of a readings, the instability of the platform and known star passes the intersection of the the inexperience of the observer, the table incross-hairs, starting a stopwatch, stopping the dicates that under better conditions the watch by a clock, reading both ends of the method would be exact. It has the great adbubble; then pointing west and repeating. vantage that highly accurate adjustments of This gives the instants of two passages of the collimation axis, etc., are unimportant. It star across a small horizontal circle of about can be extended by observing pairs of stars to 2° or 3° radius; the mean of these is the clock give latitude as well as time. time of transit over the meridian. If there is a change in level reading, this is allowed for by the formulas for the method of equal altitudes, e.g., Comstock's "Field Astronomy," par. 64, equations (108) and (109). As but one star is used, the correction terms depending on declination vanish. Of course the best 1919, XI., 4.. y Pegasi 6.95 7.5 +0.55 results are obtained with stars which pass 1919, XI., 4 n Piscium 6.7 7.3 +0.6
1919. XI., 5. y Pegasi
6.4 8.2 +1.8 very near the zenith, they being very near the
1919, XI., 5 9 Piscium 7.0 8.2 +1.2 prime vertical. The computations are almost 1919, XI., 8
y Pegasi - 10.1 -10.7 +0.6 as simple as those with a meridian transit
1919, XI., 9..
a Pegasi +16.8 +16.1 +0.7
1919, XI., 9 g Pegasi +17.1 +16.1 +1.0 instrument. With the arrangement used, the 1919, XI., 9
+16.7 +16.1 +0.6 interval between upward and downward pas
1919, XI., 9 o Arietis +16.1 +16.1 +0.0 sages is about 16 minutes.
WILLARD J. FISHER At Manila · ten or twelve of the ten-day THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, stars in the American Ephemeris are bright MANILA, P. I. enough and culminate near enough to the zenith for this apparatus. I have made a
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NATgood many trials, of which a large number
URALISTS were unsatisfactory, the concrete sidewalk on
THE thirty-eighth annual meeting of the Ameriwhich the tripod stood, and on which I had to can Society of Naturalists was held in Ida Noyes move about from one sighting or reading Hall and Mandel Hall, University of Chicago, Deposition to another, not being stable enough. comber 30 and 31, 1920. However, a position was found where the At the business meeting the treasurer's report bubble moved from this cause only an un- was read, showing a balance of $514.09 in the certain fraction of a division, and the results
treasury. in the table were there obtained.
On recommendation of the executive committee,
the constitution was amended by adding a sentence The columns marked “corrections for star
to the end of Section 1 of Article II. This section time-time ball time” give the corrections to
now reads: be added to the time-piece reading, found as
Section 1. Membership in this society shall be above, to give the standard mean time (E. limited to persons professionally engaged in some 120°), computed from the geographical posi- branch of natural history, as, instructors in natural tion (known to 0.1 sec.), and the star tables,
history, officers of museums and other scientific
institutions, physicians, and others, who have esor the same interpolated from the noon-time sentially promoted the natural history sciences by fall of the Manila Observatory time-ball. As
original contributions of any kind. Any member
may present to the executive committee of the sois to be expected, the latter correction is gen
ciety, through the secretary, names of candidates
for membership, and those candidates who are approved by the committee may be elected to membership in the society by a majority of the members present at any meeting of the society. A nomination for membership in the society shall remain in the hands of the executive committee for at least one year before action is taken upon it. The names of candidates not elected to membership within three years of the date of consideration shall be removed from the list of nominees unless renominated.
Professor H. H. Bartlett, University of Michigan, was elected to represent the society on the board of control of Botanical Abstracts, to succceed Professor E. M. East. Dr. J. Arthur Harris is the other representative of the society on the board of control.
Professor Leon J. Cole was elected to membership for a term of five years, in the advisory committee of the society, related to the committee on cooperation and coordination of the Division of Biology and Agriculture of the National Research Council, to succeed Dr. A. G. Mayor. The other members of this advisory committee are Bradley M. Davis (4 years, chairman), Ross G. Harrison (3 years), George H. Shull (2 years), and H, S. Jennings (1 year).
The report of the committee on genetical form and nomenclature, authorized at the 1919 meeting of the society, was read, in the absence of the chairman, Dr. C. C. Little, by Dr. Sewall Wright. The society voted to continue the committee and to request it to publish the report in SCIENCE, but deferred discussion of and action upon the report to a later meeting.
The following persons, recommended to the society by the executive committee for election to membership, were duly elected: William H. F. Addison, Roy E. Clausen, Theodore D. A. Cockerell, Frederick V. Coville, George W. Crile, John W. Gowen, A. L. Hagedoorn, Duncan Starr Johnson, William Allen Orton, Charles Vancouver Piper, Harold H. Plough, Brayton Howard Ransom, Mary B. Stark, George L. Streeter, Walter T. Swingle.
The nominating committee presented candidates for vacancies in the offices of president, vice-president and treasurer, who were unanimously elected by the society. Accordingly, the officers for the year 1921 are as follows:
President: Professor Bradley M. Davis, University of Michigan.
Vice-president: Professor Henry E. Crampton, Columbia University.
Secretary: Professor A. Franklin Shull, University of Michigan,
Treasurer: Dr. J. Arthur Harris, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
Additional members of executive committee by virtue of previous office: Professor W. E. Castle, Harvard University; Professor E. M. East, Har. vard University; Dr. Jacques Loeb, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
The annual dinner of the society was held at the Hotel Sherman, at 7 o'clock, December 30, with one hundred and thirty-nine in attendance. In the absence of the president, Dr. Jacques Loeb, the after-dinner addresses were made by two charter members, Professors William North Rice and J. Sterling Kingsley, who narrated the story of the foundation and early days of the society.
The program of papers, which occupied Thursday and Friday, December 30 and 31, was as follows:
Thursday morning: The analysis of a continuously varying character
in the wasp Hadrobracon: P. W. WAITING. Fluctuations of sampling in a population showing
linkage: J. A. DETLEFSEN. Linkage between flower color and stem color in
Enothera: GEORGE H. SHULL. (Read by title.) The inheritance and linkage relation of shrunken
endosperm in maize: C. B. HUTCHISON (intro
duced by R. A. Emerson). Relative frequency of crossing-over in microspore
and megaspore development in maize: R. A.
EMERSON AND C. B. HUTCHISON. Types of mutation and their possible significance
in evolution: A. F. BLAKESLEE. Linkage of tunicate ear and sugary endosperm and
their genetic relations to other maize characters:
W. H. EYSTER (introduced by R. A. Emerson)." A case of maternal inheritance in maize : E. G.
ANDERSON AND L. F. RANDOLPH (introduced by
Thursday afternoon: Symposium on General
to light: SELIG HECHT. The influence of internal secretion on the develop
ment and growth of amphibians : E. UHLENHUTH. The role of the hydrogen ion concentration in life
phenomena: WM. MANSFIELD CLARK. The mechanism of injury and recovery of the cell:
W. J. V. OSTERHOUT. Enzyme action as exemplified by pepsin digestion:
John H. NORTHROP.
The equilibrium functions of the internal ear: 8.
Friday morning: Differential survival of male and female dove em
bryos in increased and decreased pressures of oxygen: a test of the metabolic theory of sex:
OSCAR RIDDLE. A decrease in sexual dimorphism during the course
of selection with inbreeding : CHARLES ZELENEY. A dominant color mutation of the guinea-pig:
SEWALL WRIGHT. Some conclusions regarding the influence of the
endocrine glands upon amphibian development:
BENNET M, ALLEN. Chromosomes and the life cycle of Hydatina senta:
A, FRANKLIN SHULL. Inheritance of eye-defects induced in rabbits: M.
F. GUYER AND E. A. SMITH. The bearing of Mendelism and mutation on the
theory of natural selection: C. C. NUTTING. The inheritance of size in rats: HEMAN L. IBSEN. Inheritance of a secondary sexual character and
the effects of lethal facto in Colias philodice:
JOHN H. GEROULD. (Read by title.) A recessive mutation in haemolymph pigment in
Colias philodice: John H. GEROULD. (Read by
title.) Duplicate factors for cotyledon color in soy beans :
C. M. WOODWORTH (introduced by J. A. Detlef
sen). Some variation in color pattern of mammals : LEON
J. COLE AND JESSIE MEGEATH. Inheritance of checks and bars in pigeons: SARAH
V. H. JONES (introduced by Leon J. Cole).
Friday afternoon: Selective fertilization and the rate of pollen tube
growth: D. F. JONES. Genetic studies in Crepis; E. B. BABCOCK. A quantitative study of mutation in the second
chromosome of Drosophila: H. J. MULLER. A genetic analysis of " low crossover stock” pro
duced by selection: ELMER ROBERTS (intro
duced by J. A. Detlefsen). The inheritance of small deviations from bilateral
symmetry: F. B. SUMNER. (Read by title.) Relation between chaff color and pubescence in a
cross between wheat and emmer: H. H. LOVE.
(Read by title.) The mutant type "crossveinless" in Drosophila
virilis and D. melanogaster: ALEXANDER WEINSTEIN AND C. B. BRIDGES.
A. FRANKLIN SHULL,
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOL
OGISTS THE American Society of Zoologists held its eighteenth annual meeting at the University of Chicago in conjunction with Section F of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and in association with other biological 80cieties on December 28, 29 and 30, 1920.
Due the absence of the secretary, H. V. Neal was elected secretary pro tem.
The Constitution was amended by adding a new type of membership as follows:
Foreign zoologist not members of this Society, may be elected Honorary Fellows upon unanimous recommendation of the Executive Committee by a majority vote of the members present at any meeting of the Society. Honorary Fellows shall not be required to pay dues.
The By-Law providing for affiliation with the American Society of Naturalists was amended to eliminate this affiliation.
The following were elected to membership in the Society: Royal N. Chapman, University of Minnesota; James Arthur Dawson, Dalhousie University; Leslie Clarence Dunn, Connecticut Agricultural Station; Ernest Melville DuPorte, MacDonald College; Charles McLean Fraser, University of British Columbia; William Marion Goldsmith, Southwestern College; Norman McDowell Grier, Washington and Jefferson College; Selig Hecht, Creighton Medical College; Walter N. Hess, DePauw University; Minna E. Jewell, MilwaukeeDowner College; Thestle T. Job, Loyola University School of Medicine; Rokusaburo Kudo, University of Illinois; Ralph S. Lillie, Department of Pure Science, Nela Research Laboratories; William A. Lippincott, Kansas State Agricultural College; Henry G. May, Rhode Island State College and Agricultural Experiment Station; Irene McCul. lough, Sophie Newcomb College; Richard Anthony Muttkowski, University of Idaho; J. M. D. Olmstead, Toronto University; Thomas Elliott Snyder, Bureau of Entomology U. S. Department of Agriculture; Wilbur Willis Swingle, Yale University; Charles Vincent Taylor University of California; Clarence Lester Turner, Beloit College; Asa Orrin Weese, University of New Mexico.
Among other items the secretary reported the death of two members, E. L. Michael and George D. Allen. The membership roll before the election of new members contained 305 names of members in good standing. The American Association for the Advancement of Science had recognized election to membership in the society as a certification of eligibility for Fellowship in the association.
The report of the treasurer showed a probable tive committee of the American Society of Zoolbalance for January 1, 1921, of $890.30, a net in- ogists shall direct. crease for the year of $80.71.
CONCERNING THE PRESERVATION OF WILD LIFE
WHEREAS: The Ecological Society of America The officers elected for 1921 are: President, C.
is engaged in attempting to secure the reservation A. Kofoid; Vice-president, A. L. Treadwell; Mem- of natural areas, ie., reserves including the original ber of the Exeoutive Committee to serve five years,
flora and fauna in an undisturbed state, for reGilman A. Drew; Member of Division of Biology
search present and future. A standing committee
has been listing and describing such areas desir. and Agriculture, National Research Council, to able for reservation, during several years past. serve three years, William Patten; Members of the The society is now entering on a plan to unite the Council of the American Association for the Ad
various groups interested in primeval areas, vancement of Science, C. C. Nutting and W. C.
1. Investigators in biology, geography, history Allee; Members of the Advisory Board to serve and art, four years, C. A. Kofoid and D. H, Tennent.
2. Sportsmen through their interest in gamo Professor R. A. Budington appealed for support
3. Ornithologists through their interest in bird for Professor Van der Stricht and his Archiv de
refuges. Biologie which can be given by the purchase of a 4. Wild flower lovers through their interest in set of lantern slides made from Van der Stricht's primeval areas as seeding centers and preserves.
The purpose of such union of interest will be to preparations showing fertilization in Nereis.
secure the preservation of natural areas in state RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED REGARDING DUTY FREE IMPOR
parks, forest preserves, etc., and to secure the
creation of more such parks and forest preserves. PORTATION OF SCIENTIFIO MATERIALS
WHEREAS: The number of primeval preserves The American Society of Zoologists represent- especially in the eastern states is wholly inadoing the zoological interests of the country, espe- quate for either present or future research pur. cially from the standpoint of research and instruc- poses and areas from which such preserves may be tion in our American colleges and universities, created are rapidly being destroyed. views with much concern the proposals made in the Be it resolved: That the American Society of bill H. R. 7785 which provides for an increase of Zoologists indorses the efforts of the Ecological 20 per cent, in the duty on scientific instruments Society of America to secure reserves for research and an increase of 30 per cent. on scientific glass- purposes and directs its secretary to forward a ware and in addition repeals section 573 of the copy of this resolution to the division of Biology tariff act of October 3, 1913, which allows for the and Agriculture of the National Research Council. duty free importation of such materials by edu- And further resowed: That the president of the cational institutions.
society be directed to appoint a delegate to the In view of the fact that the great mass of re
Parks Conference to be held in Des Moines, Iowa, search in pure science is still carried on by men
January 10, 11 and 12, 1921, said delegate to repin our colleges and universities, an increase in the resent the society in the interest of reserves of cost of scientific apparatus and equipment is espe- primeval conditions for zoological research. cially to be deplored since even under the present A more complete report of the business tranarrangement of low duties and duty free import
sacted together with titles and abstracts of the privileges, the funds at the disposal of our educa. tional institutions are inadequate to provide for
papers presented and a revised list of members of the most efficient teaching equipment or to allow the society will be found in the Anatomical Record for the most effective prosecution of research. for January, 1921.
W. C. ALLEE, Therefore be it resolved: That the American
Secretary-Treasurer Society of Zoologists, assembled in annual session, call the attention of Congress to the burden imposed upon the prosecution of educational and research work by the proposed repeal of the privilege of duty free importation of scientific apparatus, chemicals and glassware by educational institutions A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of and respectfully request the continuance of this
Science, publishing the official notices and proprivilege in proposed tariff legislation. The American Society of Zoologists also requests
ceedings of the American Association for the restoration of the privilege of the duty free im
the Advancement of Science portation of single copies of scientific books in the
Published every Friday by English language by members of recognized oducational and scientific institutions.
That copies of these resolutions be forwarded to THE SCIENCE PRESS the Congressional Committees concerned, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research LANCASTER, PA.
GARRISON, N. Y. Council and to the executive committee of the
NEW YORK, N. Y. American Association for the Advancement of Science and given other proper publicity as the execu- Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa.. u second clan matter
School of Medicine
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REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION Candidates for entrance are required to have completed at least two full years of college work which must include Englisb French or German, and instruction with laboratory work in Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
INSTRUCTION Instruction begins on the last Thursday in September ano ends on the second Thursday in June. Clinical instruction is given in the Barnes Hospital and the St. Louis Children's Hop pital, afiliated with the medical school, the st. Louis City Hos pital, and in the Washington University Dispensary. COURSES LEADING TO ACADEMIC
DEGREES Students who have taken their premedical work in Wash ington University, are eligible for the degree of B.8. upon the completion of the first two years of medical work.
Students in Washington University may, pursue study in the fundamental medical sciences leading to the degree of .n and Ph.D.
TUITION The tuition fee for undergraduate medical students la $200 per annum. Women are admitted.
The catalogue of the Medical School and other information may be obtained by application to the Dean.
For Information Address
477 FIRST AVENUE
NEW YORK, N. Y.
Euclid Avenue and Kingshighway St. Louis
Johns Hopkins University Tulane University of
SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges or scientific schools with at least two year's instruction, including laboratory work, in Chemistry, and one year each in
(Established in 1834) physics and biology, together with evidence of a reading knowl- ADMISSION: All students entering the Freshman edge of French and German.
Each class is limited to 90 students, men and women being Class will be required to present credits for two admitted on the same terms. Except in unusual circumstances, years of college work, which must include applications for admission will not be considered after July 18h If vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring
Chemistry General and Organic), Physics and advanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year Biology, with their laboratories, and at least provided they fulall all of our requirements and present ez
one year in English and one year in a modern ceptional qualifications.
foreign language. INSTRUCTION
COMBINED COURSES: Premedical course of two The academic year begins the Tuesday nearest October 1 and closes the third Tuesday in June. Tho course of instructon,
years is offered in the College of Arts and cocaples four year and especial emphasis is laid upon praca
Sciences, which provides for systematic work Ncal work in the laboratories, in the wards of the Hospital and in the Dispensary.
leading to the B.S. degree at the end of the TUITION
second year in the medical course. The charge for tuition is $250 per annum, payable in three instalmente. Tbere are no extra fees except for rental of microscope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.
School of Pharmacy, School of Dentistry and The annual announcement and application blanks may bo Graduate School of Medicine also. obtained by addressing the Dean of the Johns Hopkia. Medica School
Women admitted to all Schools of the Washington and Monument Sts. BALTIMORE, MD
College of Medicine
For bulletins and all other information, address Beginning Tuesday, June 6th, and ending Thursday, July 16th, a course in medical diagnosis, including laboratory exer
Tulane College of Medicine cises in clinical pathology and demonstrations in pathological anatomy, will be offered. The course will be limited to twenty
P. O. Box 770 students, fee $100. Applications should be made to the Dean's
New Orleans, Le. Ofice.