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themselves by long processes of interplay, these are dismissed as very rare birds, notmutual adjustment and coordination, but withstanding the fact that their influence even regulation of them ab extra is exceed- on the trend of scientific research is out of ingly difficult. In this matter the experi- all proportion to their numbers. The great ence of the race in its age-long endeavors majority of investigators appear on superto regulate and organize such powerful ficial acquaintance to be such commonplace, drives as the sexual and parental instincts unassuming specimens of humanity that it should be sufficiently illuminating, and the
would seem that they and society in geninstincts of the typical inventor and discov- eral could only be greatly benefited by erer seem to be every bit as imperative. having their problems “assigned" and The impossibility of organizing even a small their investigative efforts directed, conbody of investigators can be easily tested. trolled and organized. This notion seems Such bodies exist in our large universities, to me to be due to a singularly defective very small in comparison with the total insight into the peculiar psychology of innumber of investigators in the country, but vestigators. No one who has had long and large enough, if organized, to determine intimate relations with these men can fail and control the whole policy of their re- to be impressed with the extraordinary dispective institutions. But if any investi- versity of their aptitudes, and nothing is gator attempts to organize such a body for more evident than that these aptitudes must such a purpose or for any other of mutual be permitted to express themselves not only advantage, he will at once find his efforts with the greatest freedom, but even in the frustrated or, at any rate circumvented, by most whimsically personal manner. Nor can a lot of individuals, turgid with peculiar any one who is running a laboratory fail instincts, emotions and purely personal to notice that he can secure the fullest eninterests and as blind to their collective thusiasm, devotion and team-play from all interests as an equal number of soft-shell his men only on the condition that all conclams. Furthermore, it is important to siderations are absolutely subordinated to note that the difficulties of organizing are
the ideals of research. He knows that greatly increased by the skeptical and crit- some investigators can do their work best ical attitude of mind which the investigator
with a slow, uniform and apparently neveris bound to cultivate and the defective de- tiring motion, others with a ravenous, velopment of certain dispositions in his carnivore-like onrush, accompanied by an constitution, such as the gregarious instinct expenditure of vitality so magnificent that and the instinct of self-abasement and sus- they have to loaf for a considerable period ceptibility to suggestion, propaganda and before they can store sufficient energy for leadership, which render other men another onslaught on their problem, and prone or at least so accessible to social, re- that there are many others whose investiligious and political organization.
gative activities are of an intermediate and : 2. Attempts at organizing investigators more evenly rhythmical type. Yet men of must fail because their highly specialized such diverse aptitudes and habits of work activities depend to such a great extent on can be easily induced to live in harmony their peculiar native aptitudes or capaci- and accomplish much valuable work if any ties. The organizers are willing to admit suggestion of such things as punctuality, that they are baffled by the geniuses, but punching time-clocks and other efficiency
and factory devices are most carefully pletely into consciousness or emerging avoided. So sensitive is the investigator to from some happy constellation of events. the need of giving expression to his capaci- The plant-physiologist Sachs once told me ties and of doing his work in his own way, that his best ideas suddenly entered his that any one who is enough of a martinet mind in the morning while he was lacing to insist on introducing any of the devices his shoes or brushing his teeth. I have noto which I have alluded, will at once build ticed in my own case that the few unimup a defence reaction sufficiently powerful portant ideas that strike me as unlike those to vitiate or inhibit all the research activi- , which ordinarily infest my waking conties of his laboratory. It is for this reason, sciousness emerge suddenly while I am passI believe, that even the vague, tentative ing a certain vacant lot on my morning suggestions of the organizers are already trip to my laboratory. Not improbably my creating a resentment or at any rate a re- single cup of breakfast coffee may be a sistance that would surprise no one who is stimulus so timed that the reaction coinnot bent on behaving like the proverbial cides with the vacant lot. I hasten to conbull in a china shop.
fess, however, that the outline of this paper 3. Whatever may be the value of re- was not picked up in a vacant lot, as its search to the individual investigator, it is miscellaneous contents might lead you to certain that its only social value lies in the
suppose, but came to me, probably after discoveries and inventions to which it may prolonged subconscious incubation, while I lead. The investigative genius may be de- was wondering how much coal I could save fined as one who is in a chronic state of by using as an “Ersatz” the literature rediscovery or invention, whereas the ordi- ceived during the past three years from nary investigator approximates genius more that noble superorganization of superorpor less closely according to the frequency ganizers, the National Research Council. of his creative achievements. Now such 4. I have dwelt on the amateurs, because essential achievements, both chronic and they seem to me to form another insuperoccasional, can not be included in any able obstacle to the organization of research, scheme of organization for they usually lie at least in the biological field, where they outside the purview of the investigator constitute a very large and important himself or depend on situations over which “bloc" of investigators. While one might he has no control. Discovery and inven- be pardoned for supposing that some of the ition are in this sense fortuitous or acci- house-broken or domesticated investigadental and also involve a time factor which
tors, who indulge in what is called “instiis equally unpredictable and unorganiz- tutional” or “industrial” research might able. The investigator, if you will pardon be organized after a fashion, it would be my emphatic language, can only do his unpardonable to suppose that the wild, undamnedest and hope that the new truth will tamable amateurs would ever submit to deign to ascend from the subconscious or
such an indignity. These seem to be dedescend from the lap of the gods. After scribed as "solitary workers” in some of long and tedious observation or experiment the literature I have received—why, I can and many disappointments he may or he
not say. The amateur, as the word implies, may not find the discovery or invention is a lover, and all the world loves a lover, flashing suddenly and more or less com- no matter how wild, or just because he is
wild. Certainly the many members of our great amateur entomologists, Réaumur and numerous natural history, ornithological, Fabre, might be recommended for those entomological, malacological, botanical and whose minds are in such a ligneous, arenacemycological clubs, who hold monthly meet- ous or argillaceous condition ings and contribute modestly but effectively The suggestion that scientific research to the sum of our knowledge, regard them- may be advantageously organized naturally selves as anything but "solitary” workers. leads one to consider those other great huThat designation would seem to be more man activities, religion and art, which are applicable to some of the professionals in also bound up with powerful instincts, emoour universities and research institutions. tions and interests. Certainly religion,
Of course, the organizer who has been especially in the form of dogma and ritual, stung by the efficiency bug, is troubled by has been so superbly organized semper all this diffuse and elusive activity and ubique et omnibus, since it first arose in the counters with the assertion that organiza- totemism, taboo and magic of our savage tion would save duplication of effort and ancestors, that it would seem to constitute direct it to problems of fundamental im- a wonderful field for the study of both the portance. This takes for granted a knowl. blessings and curses of organization. It is, edge of the fundamental problems on the in fact, a field in which organization could part of the organizer and a most enviable be readily introduced and maintained intuition of the means adapted to their so- owing to the proneness of so many human lution, or, at any rate, seems to imply that beings to suggestibility, credulity, the greworking on fundamental problems means garious instinct, the instincts of self-abaseeo ipso making important discoveries and ment and fear, and the sentiments of awe
inventions. The contention that we must and reverence—all of which, be it noted, I avoid duplication of effort must have had are singularly feeble or defective in the
its origin in a machine shop or a canning investigator. The same conclusion would plant, for it certainly never originated in seem to follow from the very different view the brain of any investigator worthy of the
of some of the Freudians who state that all name. That the establishment of the religions are permeated by a subterranean simplest item of our knowledge not only feeling of guilt and that “this absolutely requires duplication, but reduplication and unfailing presence of the feeling of guilt re-reduplication of effort, is too obvious to shows us that the whole structure of relirequire discussion, as is also the fact that gion is erected on a foundation of represwe always regard the agreement in the re- sion of instinct."'11 That the perfection of sults of two or more investigators working organization so characteristic of religion independently as presumptive evidence of may have been beneficent in other times truth. I would similarly pass over the
may be admitted, but the more nearly perfurther implication in the arguments of the
fect an organization, the less it is able to organizers, that the only value of an in- adapt itself to changing conditions, and the vestigator's work lies in the scientific data
World War has disclosed to all thinking and conclusions which it contains, and that
men the same kind of hopeless, resourceless we are not concerned with its unconscious
11 Cf. O. Rank and H. Sachs, “The Significance
of Psycho-analysis for the Mental Sciences." revelations of habits of thought, personal
Transl. by C. R. Payne. Nervous and Mental Digity, etc. The perusal of the works of the ease Monographs, No. 23. N. Y., 1916, p. 71.
overspecialization in our ecclesiastical or- ists and actors—and especially of a lot of ganizations as that with which the biologist actresses or prime donne-if some National is so familiar in archaic, moribund and Art Council had the temerity to suggest actually extinct species. At the present
that their work could be greatly improved time the Church seems to be about as well by organization. adapted to piloting the great forces which The history of science and philosophy is are impelling society as is a two-toed sloth not without significance in connection with to piloting an airplane or a manatee the the attempts of modern organizers. It is Twentieth Century Limited. Like the well known that both, after their twin-birth Edentate and the Sirenian the Church ex- and brilliant childhood among the Greeks, hibits such feebleness of volition and mus- lived through a kind of stupid Babylonian cular tonus and such a low ebb of creative captivity as hand-maidens to the Medieval energy, that one is inclined to find a modi- Church, which had been so successful in orcum of truth in the aphorism which H. G. ganizing itself that it naturally tried to Wells saw posted by the bolsheviki on one organize everything else. But science of the houses in Moscow: "Religion is the turned out to be such an obstreperous and opium of the people."
incorrigible tomboy that she long since reWhat a different picture is presented by gained her freedom, and philosophy, though that other great field of human activity, in she had been treated with more considerawhich the instinct of workmanship and the tion, and may still occasionally flirt, no creative imagination attain their finest and longer, outside of our Jesuit colleges at most unrestrained expression—the field of least, sits down to spoon with theology as art! Its very life seems to depend on free- she did in the days of St. Thomas of Aquin. dom from all imposed organization. Times have changed so greatly that at Hence its plasticity and adaptability in all present we even have eminent amateurs, ages and places, its resilience and prompt like the Rev. Erich Wasmann, S.J., who resurgence after periods of conventionali- vie with Haeckel in the boldness of their zation, or overspecialization. Unlike the evolutionary speculations. Scientific rereligious person who seems always to be search is no longer concerned with the mistrusting his instincts, or the scientific Church but with the two great forces investigator who is so sophisticated that he which are contending for the mastery of ignores them, the artist takes them to his
the modern world, labor and capital. The bosom, so to speak, and in all his works
present plight of the Russian investigators tries to persuade the rest of the world to do shows us, perhaps, what we may expect the same. He thus becomes the ally of when certain communistic ideals of labor creative Nature herself and while himself
are put into practise, and Veblen's account capable of such control and restraint as are of the evolution by atrophy of the creative demanded in the harmonious execution of artisan of former centuries into the modern his work, quickly resents the slightest sug- factory operative, whose life has been regestion of restraint or control from the duced by capital, machinery and efficiency outside. This is so well known that one experts to one long hideous routine in some would find it more entertaining than in- overspecialized task, shows us, perhaps, forming to hear the comments of a lot of what we may expect when nothing but painters, sculptors, composers, poets, novel
Even if the investigator could hold aloof men may, therefore, be expected to favor and adopt a policy of watchful waiting, till invention and to take little interest in disthe world is controlled by either labor or covery, except when it relates to natural capital or, as seems more probable, by some resources capable of exploitation. compromise between them, he would still be These considerations lead me to the in an unfortunate position. Since both opinion that so long as our present society labor and capital are primarily concerned endures adequate financial and other supwith production, we should expect both to port for research in its most comprehensive center their interests on applied research, form will be forthcoming only after the or invention and to neglect research which general community has thoroughly grasped is fundamentally concerned with discovery. the fact that of the four great fields of huThis would be unfortunate, because the two man endeavor, science, art, religion and kinds of research can be most fruitful only philosophy, science is of the most overin symbiosis, for the neglect of discoverywhelming social value in the sense that the must lead to impoverishment of the theo- welfare of every individual, physically, retical resources of the inventor, and mentally and morally, absolutely depends purely theoretical research strongly tends on its developments, or in other words, on to become socially ineffective. We have as scientific research. To saturate the general yet, I believe, no concise information in re- public with this conviction is a formidable gard to labor's attitude to so-called pure task and one that can be accomplished only research. The attitude of the capitalist, or by a slow process of education. business man seems to be much more defi- There is also another aspect of the subnite. His activities, like those of the in- ject which I can best make clear by returnvestigator, are bound up with certain ing to that form of organization which we powerful, highly conditioned instincts, emo- observe inhering in individual animals and tions and interests, some of which have plants and in the societies of the former. been elucidated by Taussig. 12 He believes Occasionally we find such organisms so that the business man is driven mainly by highly integrated, differentiated or specialthe acquisitive instinct, centered of course ized as seriously to impair their powers of on pecuniary profits, the instinct of domi- adaptation. When such a condition is nation or predation, the instinct of emula- reached, the organism either persists withtion, in the special form of social emula- out phylogenetic change, if its environment tion, and the instinct of devotion or remains stable, or soon becomes extinct, if altruism. Undoubtedly we must recognize its environment changes. Most organisms, also the importance of the instinct of however, retain a lot of relatively unorganworkship as a powerful drive in many emi- ized, or more or less generalized structures nent business men, but both it and the and functions as reserves for prospective instinct of devotion are, of course, apt to adjustments to the changing environment. be directed to practical matters or to those Our own bodies still contain many such which yield immediate returns, such as primitive elements, like the white blood corphilanthropy, charity, medicine, etc. Apart puscles, the undifferentiated connective from certain notable exceptions, business tissue, dermal and glandular cells, and in 12"Inventors and Money-Makers,” N. Y., Mac
larval insects we find even undifferenmillan Co., 1915.
tiated nerve cells. And we all carry with