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honor by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mme. Curie planned to visit New Haven this week to be present at the installaation of President Angell on June 22. She expected to sail with her daughters for France on June 25.

DR. CARL L. ALSBERG, having resigned as chief of the Bureau of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture, to accept a position as one of the three directors of the Food Research Institute established at Stanford University by the Carnegie Corporation, the bureau chiefs of the department gave him a farewell dinner at the Cosmos Club June 17. Dr. L. 0. Howard acted as toastmaster and Assistant Secretary Ball spoke informally and Dr. Alsberg replied.

At the annual commencement of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute on June 10, the class of 1871 celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its graduation, and H. P. Armsby of that class received the honorary degree of doctor of science, this being the first honorary degree ever conferred by the institute.

THE degree of doctor of science was conferred on Dr. Edward Kenneth Mees, research chemist of the Eastman laboratory, at the seventy-first commencement of the University of Rochetser.

INDIANA UNIVERSITY has conferred the degree of LL.D. on W. S. Blatchley, formerly state geologist of Indiana.

FRANKLIN COLLEGE at its commencement on June 8 conferred the honorary degree of doctor of humane letters on Dr. Albert Perry Brigham, professor of geology in Colgate University.

Miss ANNIE J. CANNON, of the Harvard College Observatory, has received from Groningen University in Holland an honorary doctor's degree in mathematics and astronomy, in acknowledgment of her work in the study of stellar spectra.

At the anniversary meeting of the Linnean Society of London on May 24 its Linnean gold medal was presented to Dr. Dukinfield H. Scott, for his services to recent and fossil botany.

PROFESSOR DWIGHT PORTER, since 1883 a member of the civil engineering department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and for twenty-five years professor of hydraulic engineering, has retired.

We learn from Nature that Dr. W. T. Calman, who has been in charge of the Crustacea at the Natural History Museum since 1904, the author of “The Life of Crustacea" and of numerous articles on this group, has been appointed deputy keeper in the department of zoology.

A NUMBER of changes have recently been made in the scientific staff of the Australian Museum, Sydney. Dr. C. Anderson, who has been mineralogist since 1901, succeeds the late R. Etheridge, Jr., as director. Mr. A. Musgrave fills the vacancy caused by the death of W. J. Rainbow, entomologist, and Messrs. J. R. Kinghorn and E. le G. Troughton, secondclass assistants, have been promoted to be first-class assistants in charge of reptiles, birds and amphibians, and mammals and skeletons, respectively.

DEAN ALBERT R. Mann, of the New York State Agricultural College at Cornell University, has declined the position of head of the New York State Agricultural Department. Reference was made in SCIENCE to “ candidates” for this position. The word was not intended to imply that the position was being sought by the scientific men in question, but that their qualifications were such as to have led to the consideration of their appointment.

Dr. T. MITCHELL PRUDDEN has been elected a member of the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation. Dr. Anthony J. Lanza, of Cleveland, has been appointed by the board to inaugurate a department of industrial hygiene in the new ministry of health in Australia,

PROFESSOR GEORGE GRANT MAOCURDY has leave of absence from Yale University for the academic year 1921–22. With Mrs. MacCurdy he sailed for Europe on June 18 to become the first director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies. The school is scheduled to open at the rock shelter of La

Quina near Villebois-Lavalette (Charente) on derbilt University as an endowment. Funds July 1.

for the erection of new buildings are available Dr. Hugh H. YOUNG, director of the James

from appropriations of $4,000,000 made by the Buchanan Brady Institute, Johns Hopkins

General Education Board in 1919. Hospital, will sail, June 25, for Europe. He New YORK UNIVERSITY has received a gift will go first to Paris to attend a medical meet- of $150,000 in memory of Dr. A. Alexander ing and later to London, returning to the Smith, from Mrs. Helen Hartley Jenkins to United States in August.

complete the endowment of the department of THE Oxford University expedition to Spitz

medicine, for which Mrs. Jenkins had prebergen is not only biological, as was stated in

viously given the sum of $100,000. a note of our issue of May 13, nor mainly orni- Dr. C. H. CLAPP, president of the Montana thological. It will include three zoologists, State School of Mines at Butte, has been three ornithologists, a botanist, a geologist, a elected president of the State University of glaciologist, a geographer, a mineralogist, and Montana, to succeed Dr. E. O. Sisson, who rea meteorologist, who, together with Dr. T. G. cently resigned. Longstaff will constitute an inland sledging

At the annual meeting of the university party to explore and map an untouched area of

senate and board of trustees of Syracuse UniNew Friesland. Mr. Seton Gordon is accom

versity there was established a research propanying the expedition as photographer. Mr.

fessorship in zoology, and Professor Charles Julian S. Huxley is organizing the scientific

W. Hargitt, since 1891 head of the department work apart from the ornithology, which is

of zoology, was made its first incumbent. At under the direction of the Rev. Francis C. R.

his own request Professor Hargitt is relieved Jourdain.

from active direction of departmental routine A CONFERÈNCE on conservation of resources and Professor W. M. Smallwood becomes diof interior waters, called by the Secretary of rector. Commerce, met at Fairport, Iowa, June 8 to

DR. JOHN W. M. BUNKER, formerly instruc10. The chairman was Professor Stephen A.

tor in the department of sanitary engineering Forbes, of the Illinois State University and

at Harvard University and for the last six State Natural History Survey. Vice chair

years director of the biological laboratories of were Professor Herbert Osborn, Ohio

the Digestive Ferments Company, has been State University; Carlos Avery, Minnesota

appointed assistant professor of biochemistry State Fish and Game Commission; Professor

at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. H. C. Cowles, University of Chicago; J. E.

DR. CHRISTIAN A. RUCKMICK, of the UniKrouse, Davenport, Iowa; and Dr. A. T.

versity of Illinois, has accepted an appointRasmussen, La Crosse, Wis.

ment as associate professor of psychology in A GRANT of $450 has been made by the Com

Wellesley College. mittee on Scientific Research of the American

DR. E. V. COWDRY, since July 1, 1917, proMedical Association to Dr. Herbert M. Evans of the University of California for the con

fessor of anatomy at the Peking Union Medtinuance of his researches on the relations be

ical College, Peking, China, has resigned that tween ovulation and the endocrine glands.

position to accept an appointment as associate member of the Rockefeller Institute for Med

ical Research. Dr. Davidson Black, formerly UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

associate professor of embryology and neuNOTES

rology of the Peking College, has been apThe Carnegie Corporation and the General pointed professor and head of the department Education Board have each given half of of anatomy at the Peking College, succeeding $3,000,000 to the medical department of Van- Dr. Cowdry.


DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE for April 8, 1921, in which he stated that a NEWTON'S CORPUSCULAR THEORY OF LIGHT publisher in Leipzig had informed him that

TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: For more than he had “ abolished all foreign surtaxes on half a century various text-books on physics journals published by his firm," and that the and other publications dealing with the phe publisher stated further that it was a matter nomena of light, contain assertions to the ef

of regret to him that he is not (yet?) at fect that Newton's corpuscular theory of light liberty, owing to the binding regulations of the received a knock-out blow when it was demon- Börsenverein, to do the same with his own trated that light required a longer time to pass books." through water than through air.

I at once wrote to the publisher, Wilhelm Quoting, for example, from the last (11th)

Englemann, stating that I had read Mr. Senedition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.

stius's letter in SCIENCE, and inquired whether XVI., page 618, we read:

the journal-Botanische Jahrbücher-was inIn the earlier part of the 19th century, the cluded in his list of exempt publications, and corpuscular theory broke down under the weight what the subscription rate of the periodical of experimental evidence, and it received the final

would be to us. I give below a close English blow when J. B. L. Foucault proved by direct

translation of Mr. Engelmann's reply under experiment that the velocity of light in water is

date of May 2, 1921: not greater than that in air, as it should be according to formula (1), but less than it, as is required by the wave theory.

In answer to your very valued letter of April 12,

1921, may I reply that Mr. Senstius in his article The object of this note is to show that the

in SCIENCE of April 8 emphasizes that all the observed data are just as favorable for New

journals which appeared from my press after ton's theory as they are for the wave theory of

January 1, 1921, would be supplied without the light.

exchange tax (Valuta Aufschlag)! Compared with Newton's corpuscle, the hy- On all journals and sets (Sammelwerke) apdrogen unit of chemistry must evidently be pearing before the end of 1920 there is a pubregarded as a very large mass.

lisher's additional charge (surtax, VerlegerIn passing between the molecular masses teuerungszuschlag) of 200 per cent. plus, at the (HO) of which the water is composed, the time only, 100 per cent. exchange tax exempt! path of the corpuscle would be much longer In accordance with the enclosed circular this pubthan the path in air between the widely sepa

lisher's surtax was increased from May 1, 1921, rated N,, 0,, H,0 and other masses. Conse

to 300 per cent. of which you will please take

note! quently, if the ratio of the actual length of the path in water to the actual length of the

With reference to Series I., Botan. Jahrbücher,

this 300 per cent, is charged, plus the Valuta adpath in air is greater than the ratio of the

ditional! velocity in water to the velocity in air, the time required for the corpuscle to pass through

On the back of Engelmann's letter were the water with the greater velocity, will be

two notices rubber-stamped, the first stating longer than that required to pass through the

that his firm would supply all periodicals isair.


sued after January 1, 1921, without the Valuta ANN ARBOR,

charged, but the second rubber-stamped notice May 31, 1921

stated that on account of the unusually strin

gent conditions, there would be added a 300 GERMAN SURTAXES ON SCIENTIFIC PUBLI. per cent. publishers' excess charge on all of CATIONS

his publications which appeared previous to TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: I read with in- the close of 1920, as stated in the letter just terest the letter of M. W. Senstius in SCIENCE quoted. The enclosed circular, to which his



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letter referred, contained the same statement, tion of and passing on new remedies, together indicating in addition that the 300 per cent. with the limitation of the sale of nostrums, additional charge would become effective on both those of French and those of foreign oriand after May 1, 1921.

gin. While the present academy still holds

C. STUART GAGER the latter function, its work, to a large degree, BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN

is hampered by the administration of French

law, as was pointed out in a former editorial. QUOTATIONS

The Bulletin of the Academy for Dec. 20CENTENARY OF THE FRENCH ACADEMY OF 22, 1920, is devoted to a review of the history MEDICINE

and labors of the society since its foundation. OUR Paris correspondent has told of the It records a century's achievement by men celebration, beginning Dec. 20, 1920, of the

whose names re known the world over: Pimost important anniversary connected with nel, Laënnec and Broussais in the early days; French medicine—the centenary of the Acad- Trousseau in the thirties; Villemin and Pasemy of Medicine, which has the same pre

teur, and on down through the list of those eminence in medicine that the general French who have added to the sum of certain knowlAcademy bears in relation to the more liberal edge which has lifted medicine from scientific arts. Its roster bears only the names of those guesswork to the dignity of a precise science.who have by years of achievement won recog

Journal of the American Medical Association. nition in the profession, and there are few below middle life who have been accorded the

SPECIAL ARTICLES honor of election. Trousseau, who received


WHEAT the academy prize in 1837 for his classical treatise on laryngeal phthisis, was considered A CYTOLOGICAL study of Puccinia graminis unusually fortunate in that he gained admis- tritici on Kanred wheat, conducted by the Of. sion in his thirty-sixth year. The academy fice of Cereal Investigations in cooperation was founded in 1820 by royal edict of Louis with the California Agricultural Experiment XVIII., although its name appeared as early Station, has yielded several facts of interest. as 1804 as an entirely ephemeral institution, The strain of stem rust under observation the chief interest attaching to it being that Dr. and herein reported was obtained from the Guillotin was one of its presidents. The Berkeley breeding plats. Seedlings of suscepFrench Revolution, with its ruthless sub

tible varieties of wheat grown in the greenmergence of all that pertained to the old order house produced abundant pustules but, in reof things, dissolved all medical associations, peated trials with Kanred, the fungus failed and among these the Academy of Surgery and even to produce flecks. the Royal Society of Medicine, which after It was found that the urediniospores germinearly a century of existence disappeared, to nate readily on Kanred leaves and that the come to life again in the founding of the germ tubes make their way directly to the present Academy of Medicine. The initial stomata. On reaching a stoma, the tip of the concept of the academy was the formation of germ tube swells to form an appressorium and a body which, by its scientific labors and practically all of the protoplasm flows into it, achievements, should be an asset to the state leaving the germ tube empty. Under favorin matters of public health. The decree which able conditions for germination these appresconstituted it lays down certain functions soria develop promptly and in great numbers. which it was to carry on. Among them were Often one may observe two, three, and even improvements in the method of vaccination four spores, with their appressoria, crowded against smallpox, the measures for the control together at a single stoma. of epidemic diseases, regulations as to and con- In spite of this, relatively few appressoria cerning legal jurisprudence, and the examina- enter the stomatal slit in Kanred to form my

[blocks in formation]

Under the conditions of this experiment, only about ten per cent. of the young rust fungi enter. The other ninety per cent. remain outside the stomata until they dry and fall off. By the twelfth day, under greenhouse conditions, practically all the appressoria are withered and collapsed.

Tangential sections of Kanred and Mindum leaves were examined. In these the stomatal slit was measured in length, in width at center and at its widest point, which is near the end, and averages taken. The same was done with Mindum, a durum variety somewhat resistant to this strain of rust. The stomatal aperture in Kanred is extremely long and narrow, while that of Mindum, a less resistant variety, is short, and very variable in width, the average width being about twice that of Kanred. In Mindum, the rust sporeling enters freely, while in Kanred nine tenths of them are excluded. It is possible that the naturally small stomatal opening of Kanred is still further narrowed by the action of the guard cells when an appressorium comes in contact with the stoma. A more comprehensive and fully illustrated account, including similar observations on other varieties of wheat, and reporting resistance phenomena which follow actual infection, is now in preparation.






H, N. Holmes, chairman

S. E. Sheppard, secretary

Symposium on Contact Catalysis Platinum black and carbon monoxide. Esteri. fication by silica gel: C. H. MILLIGAN and E. EMMET REID. A mixture of equivalent amounts of acetic acid and ethyl alcohol has been passed over silica gel at 150°, 250°, 350° C. It has been found that silica gel is a very active catalyst, more than twice as active as titania, the best catalyst previously known for this reaction. When the mixture is passed rather slowly at 150° the percentage of esterification is 75 to 80, which is much beyond 67 per cent., the accepted limit for this reaction.

Adsorption by oxide catalysts and the mechanism of oxidation processes: A. F. BENTON.

Dissociation of some mixed oxides : J. C. FRAZER.

The adsorption of gases by metallic catalysts : H. S. TAYLOR and R. M. BURNS. The adsorptions of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and ethylene by finely divided nickel, cobalt, iron, copper, palladium and platinum has been found to be of a specific character quite different in nature from adsorption by porous inert adsorbents of the charcoal type. The extent of adsorption was shown to be a function of the mode of preparation and to be especially less pronounced the higher the temperature at which the metal was prepared. The analogy of this fact with the corresponding facts of catalytic behavior has been noted. Adsorption isotherms at 25° C. of hydrogen with nickel, and of carbon monoxide with copper have shown that adsorption increases rapidly with increasing partial pressures below 300 mm. and becomes practically independent of pressure above this pres


The action of nickel on diethyl ether: A study in contact catalysis. Preliminary report: FRANCIS L. SIMONS. A report is given of preliminary work in the study of the catalytic decomposition of ether by nickel. The study was undertaken in the hope of throwing light on the mechanism of the action of nickel on alcohol and the simpler esters. The apparatus used is described in detail and the general procedure given. From the results so far, it appears that ether is decomposed into H.,, C,H, and CH,CHO, as Bancroft suggests. The compo


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