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teeth, were exhibited, together with a photo- At the recent commencement of New York graph of the metamorphosis into the elver. University, the degree of Doctor of Laws was The accompanying models illustrated the conferred on Dr. George David Stewart, prochanges from the yellow eel with its thick fessor of surgery at the university. lips, small eye, and compact pectoral fin, into

The honorary degree of Doctor of Science the thin-lipped, large-eyed silver eel with

was conferred upon C. L. Marlatt, assistant pointed pectoral fin, the latter form of eel

chief of the Federal Bureau of Entomology, being that which migrates to the ocean to be- and chairman of the Federal Horticultural come mature. Dr. John Rennie demonstrated

Board, by the Kansas State Agricultural Colthe mite, now named Tarsonemus woodi, lege at its fifty-eighth commencement on June which has been claimed by Bruce White to be 2,"in recognition of his contributions to our the causal agent of Isle of Wight disease in knowledge of insects and his efficient services bees. White showed that the mites perforate in initiating the policies and directing the the tracheæ, and by their numbers obstruct the work of the Federal Horticultural Board." spiracles and thus deprive the bees of the

THE degree of doctor of engineering will be power of flight. Mr. J. E. Barnard gave a

conferred by the Stevens Institute of Techdemonstration of the microscopic appearances

nology on Dr. Sven Wingquist, the Swedish of sections by ultra-violet light. Certain

engineer, who comes to the United States by structures, owing to their differences in chem

invitation of the institute on the occasion of ical composition, give different fluorescent

the celebration of its fiftieth anniversary. tints, and the images obtained are often dissimilar to those obtained by ordinary staining

Dr. Wm. Curtis FARABEE, president of the methods. The light filter used was a glass American Anthropological Association, has made by Chance, which is transparent to the been elected a corresponding member of the ultra-violet radiations, and the quartz sub- National Academy of History, Ecuador. stage condenser was of the “dark-ground"

THE Adams prize of the University of Camtype. A most interesting and instructive as

bridge has been awarded to Dr. W. M. Hicks, tronomical model designed for educational

St. John's College. purposes was exhibited by Dr. William Wilson. This model, which has received great praise

THE friends and former students of Profrom leading astronomers and teachers, not

fessor A. Swaen are planning to place a tablet only demonstrates the more familiar motions in his honor in the Institute of Anatomy at of the sun, earth, and moon, and the various the University of Liége where he has taught phenomena resulting therefrom, but is capable for thirty years. of simple analyses of each particular motion.

DR. T. W. Fulton, scientific superintendent The apparatus is most ingenious.

of the Fishery Board for Scotland, has retired

after a service of thirty-four years. SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS

MR. BRADLEY STOUGHTON has resigned the DR. GEORGE E. DE SCHWEINITZ, professor of secretaryship of the American Institute of ophthalmology at the University of Pennsyl- Mining Engineers, which he has held since vania, was elected president of the American 1913. Mr. Stoughton's resignation is in acMedical Association at the meeting held last cordance with his personal belief that the week in Boston. Other officers were elected office of secretary of the institute should not as follows: Frank B. Wynn, of Indianapolis, be permanent, since too long a tenure of office vice-president; Dr. Alexander R. Craig, of is likely to create relations that can not be Chicago, and Dr. William Allen Pusey, of terminated agreeably. During Mr. StoughChicago, were reelected secretary and treas- ton's tenure the membership of the institute urer, respectively.

has increased from 3,500 to over 9,000.

nomena.

The National Academy of Sciences has ap- Shuler, W. E. Wrather, J. G. Bartram and propriated from the J. Lawrence Smith Fund R. T. Hill. Sections of the seciety are now $300 for the preparation of manuscripts by established at Austin, Texas; Ardmore, OklaMabel Weil on the work of the late Professor homa; Dallas, Texas; Lawton, Oklahoma; C. C. Trowbridge accomplished under a pre- Okmulgee, Oklahoma; and Shreveport, Louisivious grant, on meteor trains and aurora phe- ana. The next general meeting will be held

in the spring of 1922. THE Committee on Scientific Research of DR. COLIN G. FINK, of South Yonkers, who the American Medical Association has granted organized and for the past four years directed Professor Frank P. Underhill, of Yale Uni- the research laboratories of the Chile Exploraversity, the sum of $300 for expenses in con- tion Co., has resigned. Dr. Fink has been nection with an investigation on the metab- editor of the “ Electrochemistry” section of olism of inorganic salts, and $400 to Dr. Wm. Chemical Abstracts since 1907. H. Welker, of the University of Illinois, Col

David B. REGER, assistant geologist of the lege of Medicine, for assistance in an inves

West Virginia Geological Survey, will spend tigation on the fractionation of bacterial pro

the present field season in Grant and Mineral teins.

Counties, making researches for a complete OFFICERS for 1921-1922 of the Boston So- geological report on the area mentioned. Temciety of Natural History have been elected as porary headquarters will be at Piedmont. follows: President, W. Cameron Forbes; Vice

THE government of Panama has purchased presidents, Nathaniel T. Kidder, William M.

a bronze bust of the late General William C. Wheeler, Theodore Lyman; Secretary, Glover

Gorgas, which will be placed at the entrance of M. Allen; Treasurer, William A. Jeffries;

the Santo Tomás Hospital at Panama. The Councilors for three years, Reginald A. Daly, Journal of the American Medical Association Merritt L. Fernald, William L. W. Field, states that President Porras of Panama, in George H. Parker, John C. Phillips, Charles writing to the English sculptor in charge of H. Taylor, Jr., Edward Wigglesworth, Miss the work, P. Bryant Baker, has stated, “ We M. A. Willcox.

appreciate very deeply the sanitary work acAt the annual meeting in April of the

complished by Dr. Gorgas in Panama and feel California Botanical Society the following offi

this is one of the most appropriate ways of cers were elected: President, Dr. W. L. Jep

showing our gratitude." son, professor of botany in the University of WILLIAM Brown COGSWELL, the mining engiCalifornia; First Vice-president, Dr. L. R. neer, founder of the Solvay Process, died on Abrams, associate professor of botany in Stan- June 7, aged eighty-seven years. ford University; Second Vice-president, Mr.

Two fellowship have been established by the W. W. Mackie, assistant professor of agron

honorary scientific society, Sigma Xi, which omy in the University of California; Secre

will pay a maximum of $1,800 each for the tary, Mr. H. E. McMinn, professor of botany

academic year, beginning in the fall of 1921. in Mills College; Treasurer, Mrs. Adeline

The funds for these fellowships have been conFrederick, Berkeley, California.

tributed by the voluntary offerings of the OFFICERS of the Southwestern Geological members of the Sigma Xi scattered throughSociety elected at the March meeting of the out the country, many of whom have agreed to society at Tulsa, Oklahoma, were as follows: contribute $2 a year for the purpose of enE. H. Sellards, president; C. Max Bauer, vice- couraging graduate students to engage in scipresident; H. P. Bybee, secretary; R. B. entific investigation. The fellowships are inWhitehead, treasurer. Members of the coun- tended for those who have already received a cil are: J. A. Udden, C. A. Hammill, E. W. doctor's degree. Applicants should present

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their qualifications to Dean Edward Ellery, riculture and Engineering; and in botany by Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., before Professors Frank C. Gates, Kansas State AgAugust 1.

ricultural College; George E. Nichols, Yale At the annual meeting of the American As

University, and John H. Ehlers, University of sociation of Pathologists and Bacteriologists,

Michigan. Mrs. Lois S. Ehlers, of Ann Arheld in Cleveland on March 24, it was voted to

bor, is to be dean of women. Mr. Harry C. hold the next meeting in connection with the

Fortner, University of Tennessee; Dr. Minna Triennial Congress of American Physicians

E. Jewell, Milwaukee-Downer College; and and Surgeons in Washington, during May,

Miss Alice E. Keener will serve as assistants. 1922. The officers elected for the year were:

Under certain conditions, properly qualified President, Harry T. Marshall; Vice-president, graduate students may complete the requirePaul A. Lewis; Secretary, Howard T. Karsner;

ments for the M.A. or M.S. degree by workTreasurer, Frank B. Mallory. Other members

ing at the station through three or four sumof the Council are: Dr. Eugene L. Opie, Dr.

mer sessions. Inquiries should be addressed Oskar Klotz, Dr. James Ewing, Dr. H. E.

to Professor George R. La Rue, director, UniRobertson.

versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. THE Journal of the American Medical As

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL sociation states that an organization has been formed, the Notgemeinschaft for German sci

NOTES ence, which has been discussing ways and

A GIFT of $300,000 has been made by the means to promote scientific research in Ger

General Education Board to the million-dollar many. The Medizinische Klinik quotes from

endowment fund of the University of the the proceedings that, of the total 3,000 Ger

South. man scientific periodicals, 400 are to be con- Dr. Phillip B. WOODWORTH, formerly dean tinued with the aid of the organization. To

of the engineering faculty at Lewis Institute make up for the lack of foreign publications

and recently in charge of the educational during the war, a large sum will be appro- work of the government as director of the priated to insure that all the important foreign Central District, has been elected president of, journals will be represented in Germany at the Rose Polytechnic Institute. least by one or two copies of those published

PROFESSOR HENRY P. TALBOT, professor of during the last few years, while the current numbers will be obtained by exchange. A

analytical chemistry and chairman of the facpurchasing and loan center for scientific ma

ulty, has been appointed acting dean of the terial and instruments is to be installed at

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. some central point to maintain the experi- As one step in the reconstruction plans of mental research of the country on a higher Yale University the subjects of pharmacology limit. It is also planned to supply animals and experimental medicine have been comfor experiments in medical and biologic re- bined as a university department with the title search.

of department of pharmacology and toxicolThe University of Michigan Biological Sta

ogy, the chairman of which is Dr. Frank P. tion will hold its thirteenth session for in

Underhill. The functions of the new departstruction and research on the shores of Doug

ment are three-fold: teaching, research and las Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, from

service to the community and state. Special July 5 to August 26. Instruction in zoology

attention will be devoted to the training of will be given by Professors George R. La Rue

future investigators and teachers, and to the and Paul S. Welch, University of Michigan;

chemistry and physiology of the action of Frank Smith, University of Illinois; Zeno P.

drugs and poisons. Metcalf, North Carolina State College of Ag- Ar the University of Pennsylvania, the following promotions have been made: Dr. O. luteum and Nuphar pumilum, found disB. Bazzoni to be professor of physics, Dr. tributed from the Black Forest and the George Gailey Chambers and Dr. Howard Vosges northward into Russia and Lapland. Hawks Mitchell to be professors of mathe- In the southern part of its range, the hybrid matics and Dr. Karl Greenwood Miller to be is rarer and less fertile than it is further assistant professor of psychology.

north. It is capable of extending its latitude

northward of the range of both the parent DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE

species. Parallel cases are supplied by hyTHE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF

brids of Epilobium, Brunella, Primula, LiHYBRIDS

naria, Rumex, Micomeria, Pulsatilla, etc. It is often assumed by systematic botanists in this country that natural hybrids between

In these various genera Kerner describes hy

brids between wild species which often occur species can only exist within the common range of the parent species. This opinion has been

beyond the range of one or both of the parent

species. Since the data supplied by Kerner emphasized in a caustic criticism of Brainerd and Peitersen's recent article entitled “Black

on this subject can scarcely be questioned, it berries of New England-their classifica

would appear that the absence of one or both tion.1 In the article cited, the following

of the parent species of a supposed hybrid in expression appears:

a given region is no valid argument against

the hybrid origin of such an intermediate ... no one, not specially forewarned or gifted

form. We have apparently still much to learn with remarkable intuition, finding Rubus frondisentis (R. pergratus x setosus"') superabundant

from our European colleagues both as regards in Coos County, New Hampshire, R. glandicaulis

accuracy and breadth of view in the matter (R, allegheniensis x sentosus'') in the thickets

of geographical distribution of hybrids. In of Prince Edward Island, where R. setosus is un

the light of the above it does not appear necesknown, or R. arenicola (R. Baileyanus x fron- sary that the statements of Brainerd in redosus') dominant on dry barrens of Nova Scotia gard to probable natural hybrids of Rubus where R. Baileyanus is unknown and where R. should be accorded less credence and respect frondosus is represented only by R. recurvans, can

than have been given to his classic results in guess in which key to trace his species.

the case of natural hybrids in the genus Viola. A number of similar quotations might be cited

E. C. JEFFREY from the same source all involving the nega- HARVARD UNIVERSITY tion of the possibility of the occurrence of a

1 hybrid beyond the range of the parent species.

STAR DIAMETERS It would seem reasonable to appeal to the TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Referring to better known floras of Europe in a case of this the communication of Professor Fessenden kind, and no one can perhaps be quoted with concerning star diameters (SCIENCE, March more effect on this important subject than An

25, 1921, page 287–8), allow me to say that it ton Kerner von Marilaun. In the second vol

does not seem possible that the measured ume of his classic “ Pflanzenleben,” as well as diameter of Betelgeuse is affected by a graviin the “ Osterreichische botanische Zeits- tational displacement. In the first place, there chrift” (Vol. 21 (1871)), this distinguished are stars, of solar type for example, in author has cited a large number of cases of connection with which the conditions would natural hybrids.

seem to be far more favorable for such a disPerhaps the most interesting example in placement and yet these objects show no apthis connection is the hybrid Nuphar inter- preciable disk. Further, we know that light medium which is a cross between Nuphar reacts to a gravitational field in such a man

1 Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station, ner that there is no permanent acceleration Bulletin 217, Burlington, Vermont.

in the direction of propagation. This fact re2 Rhodora, Vol. 22, pp. 185–191.

duces the possibility of a displacement to a rotation of the plane of the wave front, which statistics and general data and appeal for opwould not increase the apparent diameter of a portunity to do this work in order to assist in star.

supporting themselves. Any communications In the case of either an orbital displacement which it may be desired to make to this comor a rotation of the wave front, the observed mittee should be addressed to Dr. A. Wagner, deflection decreases with the distance and Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie, Hohe Warte would be inappreciable at stellar distances. It 38, Vienna XIX. can be shown that the sun at the distance of

VERNON KELLOGG the nearest star would show a displacement at NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL the limb, on the Einstein hypothesis, amount- May 27, 1921 ing to less than one millionth of a second of arc, if the deflected beam originated in a neigh

SPECIAL ARTICLES boring companion.

A CONVENIENT CULTURE MEDIUM POR

DAPHNIDS
KEIVIN BURNS
ALLEGHENY OBSERVATORY

Daphnia and other Cladocera may be fed

upon certain unicellular green algæ, a mixRUSSIAN SCIENTIFIC MEN

ture of various protozoa and protophyta obTO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Attention has tained from the sediment of ponds in which been called in SCIENCE to the British “ap- there is a considerable quantity of organic pointments committee for Russian scientific matter, or upon bacteria. and literary men," under the chairmanship of For more than five years the writer sucSir Arthur Schuster. Many Russians dis- cessfully utilized material from ponds in obtinguished in various branches of learning are taining food for Cladocera cultures repreat present scattered over European countries, senting several species. The somewhat dissome of whom are destitute, while others are colored water was dipped up in such a manearning a precarious livelihood by work in

ner as to obtain considerable amounts of the which they have no opportunity of exercising loose fluffy sediment lightly resting upon the their particular capabilities, the world at large bottom. In the strainings which followed thus losing the benefit of their knowledge and (through silk bolting-cloth, to prevent conaptitude.

tamination of the laboratory stock) much of The object of the committee is to bring the this sediment was rubbed through the strainnames and qualifications of some of these ing cloth and distributed with the water to men to the notice of universities and other the culture bottles (about 100 c.c. in quantity institutions outside of Russia which may be in ordinary wide mouthed 200 c.c. bottles). able to offer them suitable employment. Lists This method of obtaining culture water conof these names have been sent by the com- taining the proper food organisms has cermittee to various universities and organiza- tain limitations. The water and sediment tions and the National Research Council has from most ponds do not constitute a proper just arranged to send similar lists to the presi- culture medium; a pond from which a good dents of about two hundred colleges and culture medium may be obtained is hard to universities in this country.

find. Further from month to month and seaThe council has also received a circular let- son to season such a pond undergoes wide ter from a committee of meteorologists and fluctuation in its usefulness as a source of geophysicists of Vienna which asks if cer- daphnid food; it may even dry up and one's tain kinds of statistical and preparative work Cladocera material be imperilled or lost. needed by meteorologists and geophysicists of Some workers using algæ have cultivated this country can not be done, for pay, in them in jars of water; others on agar plates. Vienna. These meteorologists and geophysi- The necessity for obtaining just the proper cists have access to many valuable sources of sorts of algae and the requisite skill in their

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